What is meant byWhat is meant by
The word Personality is taken from a LatinThe word Personality is taken from a Latin
wordword PERSONAPERSONA which means mask.which means mask.
Personality is defined as the distinguishingPersonality is defined as the distinguishing
characteristics of an individual whichcharacteristics of an individual which
differentiate him/her from others whendifferentiate him/her from others when
displayed in a wide variety of situations anddisplayed in a wide variety of situations and
circumstances especially social one’scircumstances especially social one’s. .
In fact, the development of personality which is theIn fact, the development of personality which is the
outcome of interaction between genetic make-up ofoutcome of interaction between genetic make-up of
an individual and his environment starts parentallyan individual and his environment starts parentally
or even before conception since genetics hasor even before conception since genetics has
something to do with it.something to do with it.
Positive Personality Negative PersonalityPositive Personality Negative Personality
Introversion Personality ExtroversionIntroversion Personality Extroversion
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITYDETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
ENVIRINMENTAL FACTORSENVIRINMENTAL FACTORS
Social guidanceSocial guidance
Health conditionsHealth conditions
Parental educationParental education
Emotional statesEmotional states
Social interactionSocial interaction
TheThe IntrinsicIntrinsic FactorsFactors
Biological Drives such asBiological Drives such as
and Assimilatory drivesand Assimilatory drives
Hereditary Temperamental Differences.Hereditary Temperamental Differences.
Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality
There are a number of theories regardingThere are a number of theories regarding
development like Learning Theory, Humanisticdevelopment like Learning Theory, Humanistic
Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory ,Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory ,
Psychoanalytic Theory of personality. But thisPsychoanalytic Theory of personality. But this
presentation is mainly based on followingpresentation is mainly based on following
Development : Sigmund FreudDevelopment : Sigmund Freud
2.2. Psychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson andPsychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson and
Stack SullivanStack Sullivan
Sigmund Freud’sSigmund Freud’s
ofof Psychosexual DevelopmentPsychosexual Development
According to Freud personalityAccording to Freud personality
development takes place in fivedevelopment takes place in five
The Oral StageThe Oral Stage
The Anal StageThe Anal Stage
The Phallic StageThe Phallic Stage
The Latent PeriodThe Latent Period
Genital StageGenital Stage
Libido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra ComplexLibido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra Complex
Psychoanalytic Theory : EricPsychoanalytic Theory : Eric
Erikson and Stack SullivanErikson and Stack Sullivan
Developed form of the Freud theoryDeveloped form of the Freud theory
They have divided development ofThey have divided development of
personality into eight stages:personality into eight stages:
Infancy StageInfancy Stage
Toddler HoodToddler Hood
Preschool StagePreschool Stage
School Age StageSchool Age Stage
Adolescence StageAdolescence Stage
Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood
Middle Adulthood StageMiddle Adulthood Stage
Older Adulthood StageOlder Adulthood Stage
Development Stages and theirDevelopment Stages and their
Major CharacteristicMajor Characteristic
INFANCY STAGEINFANCY STAGE
( O to 1 Year)( O to 1 Year)
The nurturing persons mustThe nurturing persons must
limitate their behavi in addition tolimitate their behavi in addition to
fulfilling their needs such as foodfulfilling their needs such as food
and warmth..and warmth..
Infants need stimulating andInfants need stimulating and
socializing experiences forsocializing experiences for
developing into a person.developing into a person.
The sense of confidence isThe sense of confidence is
established when the infant gainsestablished when the infant gains
a feeling that caregivers have fora feeling that caregivers have for
Erikson has thought about whenErikson has thought about when
he considered trust Vs mistrust tohe considered trust Vs mistrust to
be the psychosocial crisis duringbe the psychosocial crisis during
this period of lifethis period of life
The Developmental Tasks of InfancyThe Developmental Tasks of Infancy
Learning To WalkLearning To Walk
Beginning To TalkBeginning To Talk
Communicate With OthersCommunicate With Others
Beginning To Have EmotionalBeginning To Have Emotional
Relationships CaregiversRelationships Caregivers
Learning To Eat Solid FoodsLearning To Eat Solid Foods
Developing Stable SleepDeveloping Stable Sleep
Eating PeriodsEating Periods
TODDLERS HOOD STAGETODDLERS HOOD STAGE
( 1 to 3 Year)( 1 to 3 Year)
During this stage, increased motorDuring this stage, increased motor
development permits increased physicaldevelopment permits increased physical
At this stage, the child's curiosityAt this stage, the child's curiosity
increases.They now explore new dimensionsincreases.They now explore new dimensions
of relationships with parents.of relationships with parents.
In order to maintain a satisfactory relationshipIn order to maintain a satisfactory relationship
with parents, the child has to obey rules.with parents, the child has to obey rules.
The bond between caregiver and childThe bond between caregiver and child
becomes intense and the child stronglybecomes intense and the child strongly
resists separationresists separation
The Developmental Tasks of
Tolerating Separation From
the Primary Caregiver
Using Words To Communicate With
Becoming Less Dependent On The
PRESCHOOL STAGEPRESCHOOL STAGE
( 3 to 6 Year)( 3 to 6 Year)
During this stage, there is tremendousDuring this stage, there is tremendous
growth in vocabulary and continuousgrowth in vocabulary and continuous
chatter is a characteristic.chatter is a characteristic.
In addition, persistent questioning is theIn addition, persistent questioning is the
tool by which the preschooler explores thetool by which the preschooler explores the
During this stage, a child becomes moreDuring this stage, a child becomes more
cooperative with his/her family as he/shecooperative with his/her family as he/she
becomes eager to parental demands.becomes eager to parental demands.
The child is still emotionally linked andThe child is still emotionally linked and
dependent on his/her parents.dependent on his/her parents.
The child becomes socially interacting andThe child becomes socially interacting and
The Developmental Tasks of
increasing the ability toincreasing the ability to
communicate and understandcommunicate and understand
performing self-care activities, performing self-care activities,
learning the difference betweenlearning the difference between
sexes and developing sexualsexes and developing sexual
learning right from wrong andlearning right from wrong and
good from bad and developinggood from bad and developing
family relationshipsfamily relationships
School Age StageSchool Age Stage
( 6 to 12 Year)( 6 to 12 Year)
This stage is the time for entering school.This stage is the time for entering school.
Children move out of their homes into worldsChildren move out of their homes into worlds
therefore their self concepts, value systems andtherefore their self concepts, value systems and
cognitive capacities change.cognitive capacities change.
In addition, children enter the world of peerIn addition, children enter the world of peer
groups and their behavior is influencedgroups and their behavior is influenced
Attending school implies new expectations fromAttending school implies new expectations from
a child. They now represent their families whoa child. They now represent their families who
want to be proud of their child.want to be proud of their child.
At this stage, the child starts comparing him/herAt this stage, the child starts comparing him/her
self with class mates or playmates.self with class mates or playmates.
Such circumstances stimulate the child to be asSuch circumstances stimulate the child to be as
better as possible.better as possible.
This is the time when transition fromThis is the time when transition from
ascribed to achieved status starts toascribed to achieved status starts to
take place.take place.
In school, a child is treated as a partIn school, a child is treated as a part
of a collectivity rather than asof a collectivity rather than as
individual at home.individual at home.
This requires the child to forget manyThis requires the child to forget many
desires that may not enable him to fitdesires that may not enable him to fit
into the group.into the group.
The school child's evaluation of himThe school child's evaluation of him
self starts when adults, school matesself starts when adults, school mates
and playmates evaluate him/her.and playmates evaluate him/her.
A new set of values is acquired byA new set of values is acquired by
the child and he/she starts to viewthe child and he/she starts to view
his/her society from differenthis/her society from different
At this stage, children have rigidAt this stage, children have rigid
standards of what is right and what isstandards of what is right and what is
Later part of the school age calledLater part of the school age called
The Developmental Tasks of
Developing the social and physical skillsDeveloping the social and physical skills
Needed for playing games,Needed for playing games,
Learning to get along with others,Learning to get along with others,
Learning behavioral attitudes appropriateLearning behavioral attitudes appropriate
to one's own sex,to one's own sex,
Learning basic reading, writing, and arithmeticLearning basic reading, writing, and arithmetic
Developing a conscience and morals,Developing a conscience and morals,
Developing a good feeling and attitude aboutDeveloping a good feeling and attitude about
ADOLESCENCE STAGEADOLESCENCE STAGE
(12 TO 20 YEARS)(12 TO 20 YEARS)
Adolescence is a transitional stage betweenAdolescence is a transitional stage between
childhood and adult life.childhood and adult life.
It is characterized by rapid physical growthIt is characterized by rapid physical growth
and psychological, mental and social maturity.and psychological, mental and social maturity.
This stage of development officially begins atThis stage of development officially begins at
puberty and ends with person achieving a levelpuberty and ends with person achieving a level
of maturity.of maturity.
The person is able to deal with and manageThe person is able to deal with and manage
realities of life and be able to bearrealities of life and be able to bear
responsibility his/her actions.responsibility his/her actions.
The Developmental Tasks of
Accepting changes in the body and appearance,Accepting changes in the body and appearance,
Developing appropriate relationships with males andDeveloping appropriate relationships with males and
females of the same agefemales of the same age
Developing morals, attitudes, and values needed forDeveloping morals, attitudes, and values needed for
functioning in societyfunctioning in society
Adolescence is thought to be the period of emotionalAdolescence is thought to be the period of emotional
unheard and rebellionunheard and rebellion
Sudden changes of mood, shifting ideologies andSudden changes of mood, shifting ideologies and
clashes with authorityclashes with authority
Peer (friend, equals) groups play a critical role in thePeer (friend, equals) groups play a critical role in the
process of socialization andprocess of socialization and
Adolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacksAdolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacks
the ability to direct him/her self and thethe ability to direct him/her self and the
confidence to translate his/her thoughtsconfidence to translate his/her thoughts
and ideas into a definite course of action.and ideas into a definite course of action.
Persistent arguing and pretended wisdomPersistent arguing and pretended wisdom
are characteristic features of adolescents.are characteristic features of adolescents.
Moreover, an adolescent rethinks aboutMoreover, an adolescent rethinks about
matters learnt from his/her parents earlymatters learnt from his/her parents early
in life. Therefore, the period ofin life. Therefore, the period of
Adolescence can be called the periodAdolescence can be called the period
of readjustmentof readjustment..
YOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGEYOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGE
(20 to 40 years)(20 to 40 years)
Psychological and social developmentsPsychological and social developments
continue during this stage.continue during this stage.
Marital and vocational choices represent theMarital and vocational choices represent the
determinants of one’s overall personality.determinants of one’s overall personality.
Commitment of oneself to a specific way inCommitment of oneself to a specific way in
life takes place through marriage and childrenlife takes place through marriage and children
A person has attained adult status withA person has attained adult status with
the completion of physical maturity.the completion of physical maturity.
He/she has become sufficiently wellHe/she has become sufficiently well
integrated and emotionally mature to utilizeintegrated and emotionally mature to utilize
the opportunities.the opportunities.
His/her independence from their parentalHis/her independence from their parental
families motivates them to achievefamilies motivates them to achieve
interdependence and find their places ininterdependence and find their places in
Now the life cycle rounds to the point atNow the life cycle rounds to the point at
which young adults are again confronted bywhich young adults are again confronted by
the start of life, but now as members of thethe start of life, but now as members of the
parental generation.parental generation.
They often undergo profound personalityThey often undergo profound personality
reorientations as they become involved in thereorientations as they become involved in the
unfolding of a child’s life.unfolding of a child’s life.
This stage of life ends when a person hasThis stage of life ends when a person has
achieved stable positions in society and theachieved stable positions in society and the
time when his/her children no more needtime when his/her children no more need
his/her attention.his/her attention.
Intimacy Vs isolation is the representative ofIntimacy Vs isolation is the representative of
this stage in the Psychosocial theory.this stage in the Psychosocial theory.
Developmental Tasks ofDevelopmental Tasks of
Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood
Choosing educationChoosing education
Selecting a marriage partnerSelecting a marriage partner
Learning to live with a spouseLearning to live with a spouse
or wifeor wife
Developing a happyDeveloping a happy
satisfactory marital lifesatisfactory marital life
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGEMIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGE
(40 TO 65 YEARS)(40 TO 65 YEARS)
This stage of development isThis stage of development is
more stable and comfortablemore stable and comfortable
although some peoplealthough some people
develop a "midlife crisis."develop a "midlife crisis."
The "midlife crisis" is a termThe "midlife crisis" is a term
that describes the feelingsthat describes the feelings
of distress that affect someof distress that affect some
people when they realizepeople when they realize
that they are no longerthat they are no longer
Middle crises may resultMiddle crises may result
suddenly changing jobs, orsuddenly changing jobs, or
adopting youthful fashions.adopting youthful fashions.
It is during this period ofIt is during this period of
growth and developmentgrowth and development
that life-style changes occurthat life-style changes occur
because of other changes.because of other changes.
Several physical changesSeveral physical changes
occur during this period.occur during this period.
The changes may occur veryThe changes may occur very
gradually and go unnoticed.gradually and go unnoticed.
The Developmental TasksThe Developmental Tasks
Faced in Middle AdulthoodFaced in Middle Adulthood
Adjusting to physical changeAdjusting to physical change
Having grown childrenHaving grown children
Developing leisure-time activitiesDeveloping leisure-time activities
Relating to aging parentsRelating to aging parents
OLDER ADULTHOOD STAGEOLDER ADULTHOOD STAGE
(65 YEARS AND ABOVE)(65 YEARS AND ABOVE)
Many physical, psychological, andMany physical, psychological, and
social changes occur during latersocial changes occur during later
The critical transition comes at the timeThe critical transition comes at the time
of retirement for both the husband andof retirement for both the husband and
the wife.the wife.
In old age persons are moving towardIn old age persons are moving toward
completion of their life cycles.completion of their life cycles.
Old age can be a time when a personOld age can be a time when a person
can enjoy his/her time with his/hercan enjoy his/her time with his/her
grandchildren and leisure timegrandchildren and leisure time
This stage is characterized byThis stage is characterized by
increased wisdom although many otherincreased wisdom although many other
things are lost such as health, friends,things are lost such as health, friends,
family and independence.family and independence.
The Developmental Tasks ofThe Developmental Tasks of
the Older Adultthe Older Adult
The developmental tasks of the older adultThe developmental tasks of the older adult
age are:age are:
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength andAdjusting to decreasing physical strength and
loss of healthloss of health
Adjusting to retirement and reduced incomeAdjusting to retirement and reduced income
Coping with death of a husband or wife andCoping with death of a husband or wife and
preparing for one's own deatheating periods.preparing for one's own deatheating periods.
Special ThanksSpecial Thanks
Worthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah forWorthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah for
providing me a chance to speak here.providing me a chance to speak here.
Sir Syed Salman AhmadSir Syed Salman Ahmad
Sir Mukhtar ShahSir Mukhtar Shah
Madam Shehla IlyasMadam Shehla Ilyas
for their help .for their help .
Thanks to World Wide Web (www)Thanks to World Wide Web (www)