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Farees Mufti EB presentation


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salam, its Environmental Biotechnology presentation in a class.

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Farees Mufti EB presentation

  1. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Title Of Stage: Wastewater Treatment System & Measurement Of Treatment Efficiency Speaker: Farees Ud Din Mufti & Ijlal Hussain
  2. 3. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The main objectives include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Water Treatment Legal and Institutional Framework. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the existing wastewater treatment initiatives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review of suitable wastewater treatment solutions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing an overall roadmap to address the issues of wastewater treatment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Water is life and without water there is death. <ul><li>Properties of water </li></ul><ul><li>Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in nature in three forms of matter i.e. Liquid, gas & solid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increases significantly with addition of NaCl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boiling point of water is 100 °C and freezing point is 0 C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a tasteless, odorless liquid at standard temperature and pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a dipolar molecule. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Wastewater </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by contaminant influences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage is wastewater that is contaminated with faeces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sewerrage is the physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage for disposal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Where does it all go! Where does the water from the washer go? By gravity flow, the waste is on its way to your local wastewater treatment plant! When you flush the toilet where does the contents go?
  6. 7. Why treat wastewater? <ul><li>Causes a demand for dissolved oxygen (lower DO levels of streams) </li></ul><ul><li>Adds nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) to cause excessive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Increases suspended solids or sediments in streams (turbidity increase) </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>WASTEWATER TREATMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a process used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use mostly using drinking water, industrial, medical and other uses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>There exist a variety of processes that can be used to clean up waste waters depending on the type and extent of contamination. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most wastewater is treated in industrial-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Modern Wastewater Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>As we know the main goal is to remove contaminants from water and make it available for drinking and successive use. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern way of waste water treatment includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary treatment i.e. a physical process that involves the separaration of large debris followed by sedimentation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary i.e. a biological oxidation process carried out by micro-organisms, mostly dead microbes i.e. Sludge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary i.e. usually a psychological process that removes turbidity caused by the presence of nutrients e.g. nitrogen dissolved organic matter, metals or pathogens. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Agricultural wastewater treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is mainly concerned with the Agriculture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture is a highly intensified industry in many parts of the world, producing a range of wastewaters requiring a variety of treatment technologies and management practices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It includes: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment runoff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient runoff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piggery wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables washing water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>1. Sediment runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the world. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess sediment causes high levels of turbidity in water bodies, which can inhibit growth of aquatic plants, clog fish gills and smoother animal larvae. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common techniques include the contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation and planting perennial crops. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>2. Nutrient runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen a nd phosphorus are key pollutants found in runoff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are applied to farmland in several ways as commercial fertilizer, animal manure and by municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These chemicals may also enter runoff from crop residue, irrigation of water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to mitigate impacts on water quality: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map and document fields, crop types, soil types, water bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop realistic crop yeild projections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct soil tests and nutrient analyses of manures and/or sludges applied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply fertilizers, manures, and/or sludges based on realistic yield goals and using precision agriculture techniques. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>3. Animal wastes </li></ul><ul><li>The constituents of animal wastewater typically contain, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong organic content — much stronger than human sewage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often high concentrations of parasites and their eggs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores of Cryptospordium (a protozoan) resistant to drinking water treatment processes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella and Salmonella. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal wastes from cattle can be produced as solid or semisolid manure or as a liquid slurry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The production of slurry is especially common in housed dairy cattle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The recovered soil can be returned to the land. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Industrial wastewater treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most industries produce some wet waste although recent trends in the developed world have been to minimize such production or recycle such waste within the production process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by contaminated industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of Industrial Wastewater Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron and steel industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mines and quarries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex organic chemicals industry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of contamination of wastewater require a variety of strategies to remove the contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Solids removal </li></ul><ul><li>Most solids can be removed using simple sedimentation techniques with the solids recovered as slurry or sludge. </li></ul><ul><li>Very fine solids and solids with densities close to the density of water pose special problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In such case filtration or ultrafiltration may be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Although,flocculation may be used, using alum salts or the addition of polyelectrolytes. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>2. Removal of biodegradable organics </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable organic material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat using extended conventional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems can arise if the wastewater is excessively diluted with washing water or is highly concentrated such as neat blood or milk. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of cleaning agents, disinfectants, pesticides, or antibiotics can have detrimental impacts on treatment processes. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>3. Treatment of Industrial toxic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic materials including many organic materials, metals (such as zinc, silver cadmium, thallium etc) acids, alkalis, non-metallic elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to biological processes unless very dilute. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals can often be precipitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Many, however, are resistant to treatment or mitigation and may require concentration followed by landfilling or recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved organics can be incinerated within the wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Basic Principles of Water Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Most devices measure flow indirectly. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow measuring devices are commonly classified into those that sense or measure velocity and those that measure pressure or head. </li></ul><ul><li>The head or velocity is measured, and then charts, tables, or equations are used to obtain the discharge. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Types of Measuring Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation system operators commonly use many types of standard water measurement devices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orifices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venturi meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current meters Submerged orifices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic flowmeters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other open-channel devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other closed conduit devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runup measurement on a flat &quot;weir stick&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>In collecting the words together, this study provides not only annotation of water from wastewater, but also provides brief details of its uses preferentially on commercial scale. </li></ul><ul><li>This study provides important information for insights into functions purifying the wastewater and making it able to reuse it. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus one may contribute in taking care of and making the wastewater to be treated in different areas of life successively. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Thank you