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Role of Water Reuse in Conservation and Water Supply

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Role of Water Reuse in Conservation and Water Supply

  1. 1. Role of Water Reuse in Conservation and Water Supply CentralTexasWater Conservation Symposium – February 2, 2016 Bob Johnson, P.E., Immediate Past President WateReuse, Principal McManus & Johnson
  2. 2. •!Water Supply Challenges – Reuse Drivers •!Types ofWater Reuse •!Direct Potable Reuse – Shortage Response •!Direct Potable Reuse –Trends – After the Drought •!Funding Reuse Projects vs.Water Supply Projects •!Conservation Benefits ofWater Reuse Presentation Outline 2
  3. 3. Water Supply Challenges - Droughts 3 Traditional Water Supplies Can be Unreliable
  4. 4. Water Supply Challenges - Droughts 4 Droughts are Not Over for Everyone & Will Return for Many
  5. 5. Texas Population Growth – Water Required 5
  6. 6. Texas Water Needs 6
  7. 7. Water Supply Strategies in Texas 7
  8. 8. Water Reuse as a Supply – 2012 Texas Water Plan 8
  9. 9. Across the US, the conversation has focused on water reuse as a critical and more frequently referenced water supply option. Key Drivers: •!Drought •!Population growth •!Increased municipal, industrial, and agricultural demand •!Dependence on single source of supply •!Environmental impacts of traditional source water use Popularity of Water Reuse is Surging 9
  10. 10. •!Non-Potable Reuse – Called Many Names •!Indirect Reuse •!Non-Potable RecycledWater •!Direct Non-Potable Reuse •!Purple Pipe Reuse •!Potable Reuse –Also Called Many Names •!Direct Reuse •!Direct Potable Reuse •!Indirect Potable Reuse •!Water Reuse – Many Uses Types of Reuse 10
  11. 11. Water Reuse for Agriculture
  12. 12. •!Irrigation quality reuse is the most common and acceptable use with the majority of water being used for common space, park and public property irrigation. •!There is a strong foundation of health risk-related research to support this practice. •!Agricultural reuse for food crops is growing as a traditional water supply alternative. •!This practice is common in California, occurs in Florida and is the topic of rule making in Colorado and Hawaii to name a few. •!Additional monitoring, mainly for pathogens, is generally required. Agricultural Use
  13. 13. Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control District- Agricultural Reuse •!World's largest water recycling facility designed for raw food crop irrigation – 30MGD with tertiary treatment •!Originally designed as a salt water intrusion barrier, this agency supplies reuse for 12,000 acres of prime farm land. •!Products from these farms include the largest artichoke supplier in the world, as well as many other vegetables and fruits. 13 vegetables and fruits.
  14. 14. Eastern Municipal Water District •!EMWD has four facilities that create a total of 45MGD of tertiary treated recycled water •!Additional water quality treatment is conducted through created wetland habitat •!The largest use of this water is agricultural irrigation, including fruits, vegetables and fodder for cattle and dairy. •!Other uses include non crop irrigation and industrial. 14
  15. 15. Water Reuse for Business and Industry
  16. 16. •!8 million gallons per day of purified water •!Uses Microfiltration, Reverse Osmosis & Ultraviolet Light Disinfection •!Water is currently used for manufacturing and irrigation •!The agency is planning a Potable Reuse Facility. Santa Clara Valley Water District Constructed a New Recycled Water Purification Facility 16 New Recycled Water Purification Facility
  17. 17. •! Local sustainable water source ready to be “tapped” Local Recycled Water – Four County Producers 17 Facility Wastewater Treated (AF) CY 2013 Recycled Water Used (AF) San Jose/Santa Clara Regional Wastewater Facility 110,000 15,295 South County Regional Wastewater Authority 8,000 2,039 Sunnyvale Water Pollution Control Plant 19,000 658 Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant 30,000 2,523 TOTAL 167,000 20,515
  18. 18. West Basin Municipal Water District 18 •!35MGD of tertiary with additional treatment at decentralized facilities. •!Water is used for irrigation, groundwater recharge, and industrial applications.
  19. 19. Tertiary Water RO: Double Pass Reverse Osmosis: Single Pass Nitrified Water Reverse Osmosis: Barrier Water West Basin’s Designer Waters Landscape Irrigation Cooling tower High Pressure Boiler feed Low Pressure Boiler feed Barrier Water 5 4 3 2 1
  20. 20. Water Reuse for the Community
  21. 21. •!DenverWater produces 30 MGD (capacity is 45MGD) for irrigation, energy cooling towers, and the Zoo. •!Denver Zoo received 2 million gallons of tertiary recycled water from Denver Water’s distribution system annually. •!Future plans to expand use by 75% of it’s total water consumption.This will represent over 134 million gallons of recycled water per year. Denver Water – Denver Zoo Partnership 21 Denver Water – Denver Zoo Partnership
  22. 22. Denver Water 22
  23. 23. East Bay Public Plaza Reclaimed Water Wading Stream •! Interactive water feature designed to mimic a natural stream from waterfall to Bay including “groundwater seeps” •! ClassA ReclaimedWater (100MGD for facility) •! Attracts hundreds of families and visitors during the summer. 23 Oregon’s Lott Clean Water Alliance
  24. 24. City of Albany – Talking Water Gardens 24 •! 12.3MGD of secondary-treated effluent •! 37-acre integrated wetland treatment system that enhances wildlife habitat while reducing the temperature,TDS, and nutrients in recycled water. •! Coupled with upland restoration project that uses reuse effluent or irrigation to support more diverse habitat. •! The system is the first in the nation designed to treat a unique combination of municipal and industrialWWTP effluents.
  25. 25. Water Reuse for Drinking
  26. 26. De facto Water Reuse Consumer Discharge DrinkingWater Treatment Conventional WastewaterTreatment
  27. 27. 27 Indirect Potable Reuse DrinkingWater Treatment Conventional WastewaterTreatment Advanced WastewaterTreatment Consumer Environmental Buffer
  28. 28. 28 Direct Potable Reuse Concept DrinkingWater Treatment Conventional WastewaterTreatment Advanced WastewaterTreatment Consumer
  29. 29. •! Manage local groundwater basin •! Groundwater = 70% local supply for 2.4 million residents •! 14”/yr. rainfall (semi-arid) •! Seawater intrusion threatensWQ •! Must balance basin pumping and replenishment over long-term •! Potable reuse is a critical component of basin replenishment •!Excellent water quality via high-level purification/treatment •!Reliable •!Cost-effective Orange County Water District (OCWD) – Groundwater Replenishment 29
  30. 30. Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) Partnership 30 OCSD OCWD !"#$%"&'' (")%*$)+*' ,)-.+/%"&'' (")%*$)+*' Sewage ,.0"-)' 1.+*".2' Microfiltration (MF) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Ultraviolet Light (UV) with Hydrogen Peroxide Seawater Barrier Injection Wells Groundwater Recharge Basins 70* MGD *Expansion to 100 MGD to be complete by early 2015
  31. 31. •! Severe drought inTexas accelerated need for water supply •! Potable reuse viewed as an available supply •! Texas did not have regulations (still not) •! Areas facing most imminent problem acted first •!Big Spring (CRMWD) •!Wichita Falls •!Brownwood Direct Potable Reuse – Drought Response 31
  32. 32. •!Facility mixes treated sewage water with water from lakes to produce a high-quality drinking water. •!Facility received advanced secondary reuse and treats approximately 16 million gallons per day with microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection. •!This is blended with 21 million gallons per day filtered from traditional sources. Big Spring Water Supply Augmentation 32
  33. 33. CRMWD Raw Water Production Facility 33 Big Spring Wastewater Treatment Plant CRMWD Raw Water Production Facility E.V. Spence Reservoir Lake J.B. Thomas Beals Creek Red Draw Reservoir RO Concentrate Big Spring To Odessa, Midland & Stanton Blended into Raw Water Transmission System 1.0 mile 0.40 mile 0.25 mile To Snyder Big Spring Water Treatment Plant
  34. 34. CRMWD at Big Spring Treatment Process 34
  35. 35. •! Population ~ 104,000 •! Existing Supplies •!Lake Kickapoo •!LakeArrowhead •!Lake Kemp (highTDS) •! Two water treatment plants •!Jasper- 24 MGD (1.05 m3/s) •!Cypress- 52 MGD (2.28 m3/s) •!42 MGD conventional (1.84 m3/s) •!10 MGD MF/RO (0.44 m3/s) (for Lake Kemp water) City of Wichita Falls 35
  36. 36. •! Use existing MF/RO facility to treat effluent fromWWTP •! RO permeate blended 50/50 with raw water from lakes •! Blended water treated at conventionalWTP •! Pipeline fromWWTP toWTP laid above ground Wichita Falls Emergency DPR Project 36 Source:'s
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. •! Many facilities are turning to Potable Reuse for extension of water supplies •!Tarrant RegionalWater District – Manmade wetlands – Richland Chambers Reservoir •!TRWD plans for 100,000AF/Y in Potable Supply •!TRWD Similar project planned for Cedar Creek Lake –Additional 100,000AF/Y Reuse Trends: Not Just for Droughts 38
  39. 39. •! NorthTexas MunicipalWater District – Manmade wetlands – Lake Lavon •! Up to 100,000AF/YWater Supply •! Public Education Center Potable Reuse – Not Just for Droughts 39
  40. 40. •! 130 miles of pipeline delivers 29 mgd of recycled water to: •!– Golf courses •!– Parks •!– Commercial •!– Industrial •! Also remaining recycle flows provide baseflows for Upper San Antonio River (famed RiverWalk) and Salado Creek San Antonio, TX Water Recycling 40
  41. 41. •! El Paso has led in innovative water supply development •!Largest inland desalination – Kay Bailey Hutchison Plant - 27.5 MGD •!10s of miles of purple pipe recycled water for customers •!Potable water quality fromWater Reclamation Plant •! Potable Reuse Project •!Pilot facility operational •!Augment treatment to produce potable water •!Blend treated water into distribution system El Paso Direct Potable Recycle Project 41
  42. 42. Funding for Water Reuse
  43. 43. •!Conveyance costs •!From treatment to point(s) of use •!Additional treatment costs •!Direct non-potable:Type 1 orType 2 •!DPR •!Industrial pretreatment program •!Seasonal demand and storage Evaluate Cost of Source Development
  44. 44. •!DPR vs. direct nonpotable •!Balancing treatment against dual conveyance systems •!Cost of reuse projects should be compared with new water supply costs Cost of Source Development 44 Direct Non-potable Reuse •! Less treatment •! Dual conveyance •! Drought proof revenue Direct Potable Reuse •! Higher Levels ofTreatment •! Existing Distribution System •! Drought Restrictions Apply
  45. 45. •!Grants, Matching Funds, & Low Interest Loans •!Federal and State sources •!Highly competitive •!Environmental review Water Reuse Funding 45
  46. 46. •!What funding sources are available? •!What strings are attached? •!How to compete effectively? Water Reuse Funding 46
  47. 47. •!Revenue Bonds •!General Obligation Bonds •!Certificates of Obligation •!Grants & Low Interest Loans •!Federal •!State Water Reuse Funding – Traditional Funding 47
  48. 48. •!Bureau of Reclamation •!WaterSMART:Title XVI •!TexasWater Development Board •!Regional Facility Planning Grants •!CleanWater State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) •!DrinkingWater State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) •!StateWater Implementation Fund forTexas (SWIFT) Planning, Design, & Construction 48
  49. 49. •!Involves 17 western states •!Up to 50% matching funds •!New sources of water supplies using water recycling and reuse technologies. •!Up to $150,000 for feasibility studies completed in 18 months. •!Up to $450,000 for feasibility studies completed in 36 months. •!Focus on municipal water reclamation and reuse, industrial, domestic or agricultural wastewater, and naturally impaired groundwater and/or surface waters WaterSMART: Title XVI Funding 49
  50. 50. •!Maximum of $4 million per applicant with 5 to 10 awards (subject to annual appropriation). •!25% of project cost, not to exceed $20 million. •!Planning, design, and construction. •!Requirements: •!Determination by Reclamation that feasibility study meetsTitle XVI. •!Compliance with NEPA. •!Local share. •!Congressional authorization. Water Reclamation and Reuse Program 50
  51. 51. •!RegionalWater Supply andWastewater Facilities Planning Program •!Studies to evaluate alternatives •!Regional water supply and wastewater facility needs •!Solutions consistent with regional & statewide plans •!Matching funds Texas Water Development Board Funding 51
  52. 52. •!CleanWater State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) •!Special consideration for Reuse Projects •!DrinkingWater State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) •!Low interest loans for water projects •!State Revolving Funds (SRF) •!Rate Subsidy – 120-125 Basis Points •!20-30 year payment schedule •!Limited loan forgiveness for Green Reserve Projects •!Reuse qualifies as a “Green Reserve Project” •!SWIFT Funding •!20% reserved for conservation including reuse Other Funding Alternatives 52
  53. 53. Conservation Benefits of Reuse
  54. 54. Water Reuse Conserves Potable Supply
  55. 55. •!All water is reused – no new water •!Each gallon of water reuse preserves a gallon somewhere •!Water used for reuse would previously have been from traditional sources •!Water that traditionally flowed downstream now has value •!Using the right water for the right use conserves our supplies Reuse Water is Water 55
  56. 56. •!Reuse supplies are often closer than other new supplies •!Conserves power usage through pumping shorter distances •!Water reuse reduces per capita consumption assisting communities with complying with state consumption targets •!Water reuse is a valuable part of a conservation program to preserve our resources & environment •!BOTTOM LINE –Water reuse can conserve money!!! Other Benefits of Water Reuse 56
  57. 57. Water Reuse: Too Good Not to Use Again 57 Approximately 7% of Effluent is Reused in the United States
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Thank you! Bob Johnson Past President, WateReuse Principal, McManus & Johnson 59