Hydro power presentation


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hydro power presentation

  1. 1. Submitted by :- Ashish Porwal Anuj Saini Nitin Jain Shubhra Bhugra Sonali Gambhir4/15/2013
  2. 2. Introduction Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environment friendly source of energy. Oldest energy technique known to mankind for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. Contributes around 22% of the world electricity supply generated. Maximum benefits in minimum time. Offers the most fastest economical means to enhance power supply, improve living standards, stimulate industrial growth and enhance agriculture with the least environmental impact and without heavy transmission losses . 4/15/2013 Due to less transmission losses there is a reduction in
  3. 3. HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882. In India, Jamshed ji Tata built the first hydroelectric power dam in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra in the early 1900s to supply power to Bombay’s Cotton and Textile Mills. He took the British Government’s permission to build dams, namely the Andhra, Sirowata, Valvan and Mulshi hydel dams in the Western Ghats to generate electricity using high rainfalls in the hills as storage. 4/15/2013
  4. 4. Hydropower In India With the liberalization of the economy, the Government of India has been encouraging and invited private sector for investment in the power sector. A conducive policy environment has been created by modifying the Electricity Act. The new Electricity Act-2003 deals with the laws relating to generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity. The Act has specific provisions for the promotion of renewable energy including hydropower and cogeneration. It has been made mandatory that every state regulatory commission would specify a percentage of electricity to be purchased from renewable by a distribution license 4/15/2013
  5. 5. HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES 1) Enhancing the level of energy consumption, particularly inless developed and developing countries, is a global challenge.(20% of world population living in industrialized countriesconsume 60% of energy and remaining 80% of population haveto manage within 40% of total energy. Result  wide disparities between the standard of livingand quality of life of high energy consuming countries on theone hand and those who do not have the opportunities ofadequate access to energy on the other.Decision Should be taken development of different sourcesof energy and increase in its consumption has become a priorityagenda of all the developing countries. 4/15/2013
  6. 6. 2) Various countries have adopted their own strategies to provide energy to their people during last 30 years . Hydroelectric power generation  reduced from 21% in 1973to less than 17% in 2000. Coal based generation increased from 38% to 39% Gas increased substantially from 12% to 17.4% Nuclear  rise from 3.3% to 16.9Conclusion Special efforts are required to developHydroelectric capacities 4/15/2013
  7. 7. 3)Low Exploitation of Hydro PotentialInspite of hydroelectric power requiring a clean energygeneration process, exploitation of Hydroelectricpotential in various countries has been rather on alower side. (MW) COUNTRY POTENTIAL INSTALLED PERCENTAGE Norway 47,000 27,360 58 Canada 160,000 65,378 48 Brazil 170,000 52,427 31 China 310,000 56,000 18 India 150,000 27,000 18 4/15/2013
  8. 8. 4)Declining proportion of Hydro CapacityIn the last 30 years, the proportion of hydroelectric capacityin the Indian power system has considerably reduced.Dropped from46% in 1970 to 40% in 1980, 29% in 1990and now 25% in 2003.Reasons:- Indian power supply industry has always experienced the situation of shortages both in energy and peaking requirements. To tide over the shortage in shortest possible time, more dependence was placed on sources of power generation with shorter gestation period. 4/15/2013
  9. 9. 5)Thrust on Hydro PowerIn the recent years, the Govt. of India decided to support in thefinancial allocation and helps that the Hydroelectric projects not onlyget right priorities but also contribute in an increased way to thefuture capacity addition programs of the country. The thrust on hydroelectric development is based on the followingconsiderations:a) Hydroelectric involves a clean process of power generation.b) Since it does not suffer from the limitation of inflation on account of fuel consumption, in the long run, it is the most cost-effective option for power supply. 4/15/2013
  10. 10.  Indian power supply system has a peculiar limitation of huge variation between peak and off peak requirements. Management of peak load in an effective manner could be conveniently handled through availability of hydroelectric support. The system at present does suffer from large frequency variations. Better hydro support could address this problem better. Locations of Hydroelectric projects in India are also in areas which need substantial support for their economic development. In an integrated Hydroelectric project – there are many such projects – the schemes involve not only supply of electricity but also provision of drinking water and irrigation. Hydroelectric projects, in many cases, do have the ability to mitigate these problems. Flood control is also an issue and quite often a challenge. Integrated hydroelectric projects could adequately address this concern. 4/15/2013
  11. 11. Govt. of India Initiative on Hydro Power Development Additional budgetary financial support for ongoing and new hydro projects under Central Public Sector Undertakings. Advance action for capacity addition – 10 year ahead of execution Emphasis on quality of survey & investigations Resolution of inter-state issues on sharing of water and power. Renovation, Modernization & Uprating of existing hydro stations Promoting small and mini hydel projects – 25 MW and below now fall into category of “non-conventional” qualifying for benefits. 4/15/2013
  12. 12.  Realistic estimates of completion cost considering new development on geological front during execution. Promoting hydel projects in joint venture Govt. support for land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation, catchment area development, etc. The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission has approved 5% hydro development surcharge on annual fixed charges for central hydro power generation. Simplified procedures for clearances by Central Electricity Authority; Electricity Act 2003 further liberalizes this. 4/15/2013
  13. 13. National policy on Hydropower in India Aim  To accelerate the development of Hydropower Introduced In 1998 Introduced by  Ministry of Power (MoP) and Government of India (GoI) With Central, State and Private hydropower projects contributing 3455 MW, 5810 and 550 MW respectively, the GoI aims to reach the total capacity of 9815 MW during the ninth plan. (The XIth Plan aims capacity addition of 18781 MW in the hydropower sector) 4/15/2013
  14. 14. Aim of Government of India :-Aims to realize 100% hydropower potential of the country by year 2025-26.These objectives have been developed in response to the followingconstraints: Technical, including difficult investigation, inadequacies in tunneling methods) Financial (deficiencies in providing long term finance) Tariff related issues Managerial weakness (poor contract management) Geological surprises (especially in the Himalayan region where underground tunneling is required) Inaccessibility of the area Problems due to delay in land acquisition and resettlement of project affected families 4/15/2013 Law and order problem in militant infested areas.
  15. 15. Current issues with Hydropowerin India 1)Technical issues:  To expedite early execution of hydro projects, bankable Detailed Project Report (DPR) based on detailed survey should be prepared to avoid geological uncertainties.  Survey & investigation and analysis of geological, geo- morphological, geo-electrical, hydrological data etc. should be done at the time of preparation of a DPR itself in order to minimize the impact of risks.  The quality of DPRs should be of high standard which should infuse confidence in the national/international developers to take up the execution of projects without loosing time in rechecks etc.  At the same time, contract monitoring as distinct from project monitoring should be emphasized and land acquisition and infrastructure development be settled and completed before the start of the project. 4/15/2013
  16. 16. 2)Infrastructural issues There is a need to setup single window clearance for hydro projects so that a project is cleared without many hassles. Various authorities such as the Central Electricity Authority (CEA), the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environment and Forests, etc. are involved in the appraisal of a hydro power project before it is certified for development. So it will be desirable to have a single window dispensation/authority . The hydro projects which involve lesser risk element and entail lesser capital investment can be considered for development in the Private Sector. Public Sector can take up (a) Multi purpose Projects (b) Projects Involving inter-State issues and in inter-State river systems, (c) Projects involving cooperation with neighboring countries and (d) Projects for complementary peaking with regional benefits (e) Projects in the North-Eastern Region etc. 4/15/2013
  17. 17. 3)Financial issues There is also a need to off-load indirect cost components on hydro project. Many hydro projects are located in troubled areas and infested by militancy and terrorist activities. There is an urgent need to amend the present policy of the Government in regard to charging the entire security expenditure from concept and until commissioning - on the project cost. The cost of access roads should not be included in the project cost, as development of hydro projects triggers economic and commercial activities around the project site and results in economic benefit to 4/15/2013 the State.
  18. 18. Major responses Impact on Environment: Hydroelectric projects do create environmental issues emanating from sub-emergence of large areas also involving forest. Rehabilitation & Resettlement (R&R) of Project Affected People (PAP) is another major issue affecting the smooth execution of Hydroelectric projects particularly where in submergence areas, the number of project affected people are large. Safety of dams Construction time is another area of concern, which needs to be compressed. Large projects have taken inordinately long time. 4/15/2013
  19. 19.  Complexity in development of Hydroelectric projects, particularly large ones, emanating from dam height, submergence, ramification of submergence, dam safety, drinking water schemes, irrigation, infrastructure etc., the process of clearances obviously gets linked with multiple agencies and authorities. Short cuts could create problems. Communication with press, media and people at large to reduce the communication gaps on merits of hydro-projects and migration of people is another area of challenge which is being addressed. 4/15/2013
  20. 20. CONCLUSION In order to achieve a growth rate of 7-8 % as envisaged in National policy of India ,it is also required to tap all the small Hydro Power potential of the country. Hydro Power Project sector, especially in view of the fact that Large Hydro power projects involve huge capital investment and long gestation period which private partners do not afford to bear. The utilization of small Hydro Power Potential is especially required in all states where the utilized potential is very low like in MP and therefore optimum utilization of the same may set up an stepping up stone for achieving self sufficiency in power sector in country. 4/15/2013
  21. 21. Recommendations Energy Policy Framework: Governments setting national policy and guidelines for all generation options. Decision-making Process: Agencies establishing equitable, credible and effective guidelines for environmental assessment rules and process. Comparison of Hydropower Project Alternatives: Developers applying guidelines for project selection, design and operation. Improving Environmental Management of Hydropower Plants: Operators ensuring proper social and environmental management practice. Sharing Benefits with Local Communities: Owners providing equitable transfers across project life cycle. 4/15/2013
  22. 22. 4/15/2013