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  1. 1. Essay  An organized piece of writing that focuses on a single topic  Introductory Paragraph → beginning → introduction  Body → supporting ideas  Concluding Paragraph → ending  Organized around a THESIS ↓  develops from all the main ideas in the supportive BODY paragraphs  What we are writing about
  2. 2. Thesis Statement  A sentence that states the thesis in the introductory paragraph  In between general and specific  At least three main ideas to discuss and develop giving structure and organization  A precise thesis statement is the key to develop and effective essay
  3. 3. Introductory Paragraph  Introductory Paragraph → First part → reader’s first contact with the topic from the writer’s perspective  Influence the audience to keep reading → first evaluation  Interesting general background on the topic  Thought provoking quotation → a question, a supportive fact or puzzling statement  Bridge that connects the attention getty sentence to the thesis statement  Last sentence in the paragraph is more important idea of the essay → the thesis statement
  4. 4. Body  Set of paragraphs that develop the idea expressed in the thesis statement with major details  List of supportive ideas, arranged in logical order, with major details to develop in each paragraph  Its numbers depends on the topic complexity and purpose  Short essays contain between three to five  Each paragraph should be unique and include different facts and opinions, but all unified around a main idea and arranged coherently  Provide the content of the essay  Use signal vocabulary for transitions between sentences and paragraphs
  5. 5. Concluding Paragraph  Purpose → to leave the reader with a positive impression and sense of completeness and inclination to think about the topic  Short and single paragraph  Without extra information on the topic  Should follow logically from the body of the essay  Restatement of the thesis in different words → clarification  Use signal words : In conclusion, In summary, In closing  Some thought provoking comment about the topic with the writers opinion, judgment or recommendation
  6. 6. Signal Vocabulary  For Examples: for example, for instance, to illustrate  For Chronological Order: the three steps are, first, secondly, next, finally  Additional Points: Furthermore, In addition, Also, Moreover  Opposing Ideas: On the other hand, In contrast, Although, however  For Similar Ideas: likewise, similarly, in comparison  For Exception: However, nevertheless, but, yet, still  For Emphasis: above all, finally, more importantly  For Understanding: in other words, in essence, briefly  For Summarizing: In conclusion, to sum up, for these reasons, in a nutshell  For Exams: Remember this, this is important, this could be on the test
  7. 7. Revision and Editing Process  Reviewing and rewriting to make ideas more logical, understandable and interesting  Leave material behind, add information or rearrange  Through reading and collaboration, reading to keep in mind the purpose audience, careful read multiple times  Through collaboration to check what the reader thinks→ find problems , suggestions , improvement to the organization, clarification of ideas, grammar, punctuation, spelling and usage  The final draft should be as neat and as correct as possible
  8. 8. Types of Essays
  9. 9. Analysis Essay  Describes HOW and WHY its elements function  Is NOT just summarizing (the what)  Think about how each part of something contributes to the whole
  10. 10. Argumentative Essay  Suggests specific ways of doing something  Presents a well-reasoned argument o a debatable topic  Tells others how you think things should be  Cite experts who agree with you to support your position  Provide facts, evidence, statistics to support your position  Argument and refute the opposite side
  11. 11. Persuasive Essay  Use evidence and good reasons to convince others to agree with your point of view or oppinion  Research on the topic to obtain facts and evidence to support ideas  The thesis statement should contain 3 elements:  What the essay will be about  Where the author stands on the issue  Briefly explain why
  12. 12. Cause and Effect Essay  Cause → what happened? What are the reasons  Effects → What is the result? What are the consequences?  A scenario in which one action or event caused certain effects to occur  Identifies and explains why things turned out the way they did
  13. 13. Comparison and Contrast Essay  Comparison → consider similarities  Contrast → consider differences  Makes connections and/or expresses differences between two things  Tell something the reader do not know. Avoid writing about obvious differences and similarities  Ways of organizing the paper:  Chunking: placing all the information for each subject in one place and then using similarities as transitions  Piecing: give information for each subject in each paragraph
  14. 14. Definition Essay  Defines a word that has a complex meaning and that is disputable, or that means different thing to people
  15. 15. Narrative Essay  Relates an event that happened  Tells a story in a way that the audience learns a lesson or gains insight  Use concrete details so that the reader visualizes that is happening  Elements: - Characters - Conflict - Events - Resolution - Setting - Theme
  16. 16. Descriptive Essay  Describes person, objects, events so vividly that the reader feels that he could reach out and touch it  Use all 5 senses to describe the setting, characters and plot of a story
  17. 17. Division and Classification Essay  Division Essay:  Develops a topic that might tend to be underestimate or oversimplify, or that people might not know much about it.  Classification Essay:  Develops a topic that has been misplaced  An analysis to classify , organize or support information into appropiat categories