Lit Review Apa Style 1202666316841695 4

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Lit Review Apa Style 1202666316841695 4

  1. 1. The Literature Review APA Style
  2. 2. How to approach the Lit Review <ul><li>Look at a multiple studies dealing with a topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MBM and psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addiction and childhood trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPD and neurological trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faithfulness as a function of age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organize your paper into segments that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address significant findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences and similarities in multiple studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance in the general population </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How to approach the Lit Review <ul><li>Or figure out a specific theme for your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paper needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe what the topic of interest is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate the body of evidence you have collected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This would be a typical report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to process the information, compare it other information, and communicate the points of a theory </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Evaluation <ul><li>Identify relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Look at future steps needed to further or improve </li></ul>
  5. 5. What’s the difference University of Washington <ul><li>Research article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing a specific or set of studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus on methods and results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intro is like a condensed Lit Review providing rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey research in an area or domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main emphasis in threading the various studies and theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at the big picture </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Understanding your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of writing is to communicate w/ readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to clearly communicate knowledge to your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the intended audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes in an academic setting, it is the professor or mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering the need of one’s audience will help your writing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the background of your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs, interests, education, and expectations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Understanding voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In academia, voice expresses the writer’s attitude toward the topic and audience, which is grounded in one’s use of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice can breathe energy and vitality into a written work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can motivate the audience to read further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The voice is likened to one’s speaking voice and is reflective of one’s personality and identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think as if you will be engaged in a formal discussion about the topic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Techniques for cultivating your voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate and use phrases that come in early stages of writing (such as with notes, annotated bibliographies and drafts), those words that best capture your initial attitude about the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use phrases and sentence structure that reflects your chosen speaking voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about how your speech dialogue may translate into the written word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay connected to the original goals that the authors of your articles were trying to convey without losing your authenticity. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Writing in Third Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the third person, the writer avoids pronouns like I, we, my, and our </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd person allows for writing to appear more objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking the individual out of the writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with facts and not opinions drive the tone of the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps author to come across as unbiased and more informed </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Writing in Third Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: I believe that it is very important for the person writing the argument to have an actual opinion about the subject matter. In my opinion, I would not trust someone who does not have an opinion about such a controversial matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Writers with opinions about their subject matter tend to present the issues more poignantly because they appear well informed and more involved in the subject matter </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Writing in Third Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must always correlate all pronouns with the 3rd person to ensure appropriate pronoun antecedent agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another writer must have his or her turn to speak now. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either of the writers is allowed to submit his or her article </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neither of the writer is allowed to submit his or her article </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When revising your drafts, go through it with a fine tooth comb for first person pronouns and then change them </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule One: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction connecting two main clauses. Coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so , thus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Bob arrived early at school, and he was greeted by the teacher and her staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule Two: Use commas to set off introductory elements, such as long prepositional phrases, participial phrases, or subordinate clauses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: In front of the classroom and behind the lectern, the professor began his lecture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the mail arrives early, please send it to me at once. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhausted, the swimmer climbed out of the pool as the winner. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule three: Use commas to divide items in a series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I like astronomy, physics, and biology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I like jogging at the track at noon; watching surfers cascading on the diamond capped waves of Malibu; and sitting at the university park, watching the cars drive on PCH as the sun sets on a summer evening. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule four: Use commas to set off non-restrictive appositives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The White House, the residence of the US President, sits in the middle of Washington, DC. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule five: Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The artist, for example, was represented by her publicist. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Crafting the Research Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correlational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Study </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Connections to the Thesis Statement Throughout Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be located in the first paragraph or paragraphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to establish a specific, focused response to the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to establish a clear and brief preview of all main points in the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be updated to reflect a summary of the main points in a text </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>Connections to the Thesis Statement Throughout Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The topic sentence for each paragraph should connect to the writer’s purpose and thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each paragraph in the body of the text is meant to support the writer’s thesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each topic sentence needs to make clear connections to the claims made in the writer’s thesis statement. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>The word choices should connect to the writer’s purpose and thesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word choice is crucial to defining the writer’s attitude toward the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choose words that connect the purpose and the thesis statement. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Solid Foundation <ul><li>The summaries, paraphrases, and quotes should connect to the writer’s purpose and thesis </li></ul><ul><li>The evidence should connect to the writer’s purpose and thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis and evaluation should connect to the writer’s purpose and thesis. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Annotated Bibliography <ul><li>Rather than just highlighting passages, annotating requires the writer to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actively read the text, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to think about what has been said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyze what has been said, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to make specific annotations in regards to the content of the paper or article </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Analyzing the argument <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition asks the writer to describe the nature of the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are many ways to define a topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may use a reference source definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may choose to define a topic by what that topic is not. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Analyzing the argument <ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison and Contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reveal more about the topic by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determining how the topic is similar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or different from something else </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is known and unknown to the writer about the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: the brain is like a computer </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Analyzing the argument <ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what consequences the topic had or might have in the future, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and to predict an outcome or behavior based on patterns that have already occurred. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example: If the new safety measures in prescribing SSRI’s to children under 18 are not in place, the future of prescription privileges for psychologist in New Mexico will be in danger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence requires the writer to elaborate upon the origins, development, and eventual outcome of a consequence from beginning to end. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Analyzing the argument <ul><li>Testimony : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called Support from Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to use external sources of argumentation to support arguments and claims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(expert opinions, factual data, statistics, and laws) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability and authority of external sources may be called into question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>questioning the credibility of testimonials can be a good place for the writer’s own line of argument to begin. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Writing the paper <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number or article needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most instructors require 5- 15 articles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You must be discriminate in choosing your articles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 8 - 20 pages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Writing the paper <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may have known what you were looking for in terms of themes for your lit review when researching articles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may have discovered a theme or two while reading your articles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most reviews are different and have their own character but have a general format such as </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Writing the paper <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most reviews are different and have their own character but have a general format such as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An introduction of the research topic, question, or area of interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it worth examining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the relevance to your field </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow topic further in relation to specific articles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly outline the organization of paper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe studies in detail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and evaluate studies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss implications of studies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Writing the paper <ul><li>Writing as a sport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s like skiing or surfing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to take it in stride and approach areas with discernment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cascade from a large topic field to a narrow topic field without gently guiding the audience through the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example: We want to discuss how resting membrane potential is significantly reduced in certain areas of the limbic system. The anterior portion of the amygdala near the hypothalamus is effected, and lack of potentiation and neurotransmission in this area may be a key to Sx of BPD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot go to this without the audience having some knowledge about the basis of this research, and what it proposes to find…what is BPD and NT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea is to explore from larger to smaller with transitional steps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Writing the paper <ul><li>Review each article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of the key elements of each article is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All studies have strengths & weaknesses, just like every writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your job is to evaluate and compare these differences in areas or domains such as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research assumptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research theories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variables and designs used to analyze those variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of results </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology of analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher speculation about future studies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Writing the paper <ul><li>The writing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on your readings and your assumptions and comparisons about the articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your assertions must be supported by evidence and documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have problems with this, you may have not read the articles thoroughly or lack a sturdy foundation in understanding the nature of your chosen article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the conclusion section, speak on how your work might be added to the work in that area of research. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Citation <ul><li>In text citation should have the author’s last name and the year it was published </li></ul><ul><li>Cite multiple studies in alphabetical order (Abel, 1989; Banks & Jenkins, 1979; Cain, 1994) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Citation <ul><li>Quotations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use them sparingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only when you have to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cite the page number along with the author’s name and year like this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our difficulty in regard to sexual selection lies in understanding how it is that males who conquer other males, or those considered more attractive to the females, leave a greater number of offspring to inherit their superiority than their beaten and less attractive rivals ( Darwin, 1874, p.209) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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