Restoration  of  Fluvial Mine Tailing Deposits The Use of 5 Woody Riparian Species Natasha Davis Colorado State University...
Thank You <ul><li>Dr. Joe Brummer  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil & Crop Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Paul Meiman </li>...
Outline <ul><li>Introduction of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse experiment at CSU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective...
Leadville Fort Collins
 
 
Restoration of Deposits <ul><li>Herbaceous vegetation returns after amending.  </li></ul><ul><li>Willows are often used fo...
Objectives <ul><li>Identify other riparian shrub species to use for  in situ  restoration of tailings deposits. </li></ul>...
FF QO & QN
Tailings Collection & Amendment <ul><li>227L of tailings collected from each site </li></ul><ul><li>Amended with lime to r...
Shrub Species Selection <ul><li>Geyer willow ( Salix geyeriana  Andersson) is our representative willow species. </li></ul...
 
Shrub Species Selection <ul><li>Comparison Riparian Shrub Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinleaf alder  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Proportional Growth Aboveground Belowground Aboveground Belowground
Experimental Design <ul><li>18 individuals of each of the 5 species for each of the 3 deposits  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>270 ...
Experimental Design <ul><li>Bare root shrubs were planted in 656ml plastic pot </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs were grown for 62 ...
Survival
Total Growth Increase in Growth (%) Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
Above & Belowground Growth a a a a b y x yz z x
Metal Concentration a ab b a b w wx z y xy Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
Metal Concentration b a d c a y z z z z Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
Metal Concentration b d e c a w y wx z xy Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
Possible Zn or Cd Effects? Birch leaf necroses Willow chlorosis Dogwood P deficiency?
Conclusions <ul><li>All five shrub species can survive on these amended tailing deposits.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be...
Conclusions <ul><li>Metal concentrations were greater belowground than aboveground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal   incorpor...
Thank You Rocky Mountain Native Plants Company Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station
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High Altitude Revegetation Workshop

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Fluvial deposition of mine tailings has caused extensive damage to riparian ecosystems throughout the West. Willows are often used for revegetation of fluvial mine tailing deposits but some species accumulate toxic concentrations of metals in leaves and stems. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the value of thinleaf alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench spp. tinuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung], water birch (Betula occidentalis Hook.), red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L. spp. sericea), and shrubby cinquefoil [Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rybd.] compared to Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana Andersson) for revegetation of fluvial tailing deposits along the Upper Arkansas River. Bare root shrubs were grown in tailings amended with lime and composted biosolids. Tailings collected from three acidic and metal contaminated deposits along the Arkansas River south of Leadville, Colorado. All shrubs survived the two month experiment. Averaged across source deposits, total biomass during the experiment increased for alder, birch, dogwood, cinquefoil, and willow by 831, 689, 579, 525, and 683%, respectively. All species concentrated Pb and Zn belowground. Dogwood assimilated little Zn (44.0 mg kg-1) into its leaves and stems, but showed signs of nutrient deficiency which could have been induced by metal stress. Alder and cinquefoil partitioned Pb aboveground, 30.3 and 26.1 mg kg-1, respectively, which is unusual, but concentrations were below toxicity thresholds for humans and animals. No shrub species evaluated in this experiment exhibited superior growth or metal uptake when compared to Geyer willow, all five species could be used for in situ field restoration of fluvial mine tailing deposits.

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High Altitude Revegetation Workshop

  1. 1. Restoration of Fluvial Mine Tailing Deposits The Use of 5 Woody Riparian Species Natasha Davis Colorado State University Forest, Rangeland & Watershed Stewardship
  2. 2. Thank You <ul><li>Dr. Joe Brummer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil & Crop Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Paul Meiman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest, Rangeland & Watershed Stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jim Ippolito </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Research Service </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse experiment at CSU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailings collection and amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrub species selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant metal concentrations </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Leadville Fort Collins
  5. 7. Restoration of Deposits <ul><li>Herbaceous vegetation returns after amending. </li></ul><ul><li>Willows are often used for revegetation of fluvial mine tailing deposits but some native species accumulate toxic concentrations of metals in leaves and stems. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Objectives <ul><li>Identify other riparian shrub species to use for in situ restoration of tailings deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the potential value of alder, birch, dogwood, and cinquefoil compared to Geyer willow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal Concentrations (Cd, Pb, Zn) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. FF QO & QN
  8. 10. Tailings Collection & Amendment <ul><li>227L of tailings collected from each site </li></ul><ul><li>Amended with lime to reach a target pH of 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Amended with 224 Mg ha -1 composted biosolids </li></ul>
  9. 11. Shrub Species Selection <ul><li>Geyer willow ( Salix geyeriana Andersson) is our representative willow species. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria for other species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various species represented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetland or facultative wetland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance of low pH (4-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native to Leadville area </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Shrub Species Selection <ul><li>Comparison Riparian Shrub Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinleaf alder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alnus incana (L.) Moench spp. tinuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water birch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Betula occidentalis Hook. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red osier dogwood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cornus sericea L. spp. sericea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shrubby cinquefoil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rybd. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Proportional Growth Aboveground Belowground Aboveground Belowground
  12. 15. Experimental Design <ul><li>18 individuals of each of the 5 species for each of the 3 deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>270 Total </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Experimental Design <ul><li>Bare root shrubs were planted in 656ml plastic pot </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs were grown for 62 days </li></ul><ul><li>New growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aboveground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belowground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations </li></ul>
  14. 17. Survival
  15. 18. Total Growth Increase in Growth (%) Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
  16. 19. Above & Belowground Growth a a a a b y x yz z x
  17. 20. Metal Concentration a ab b a b w wx z y xy Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
  18. 21. Metal Concentration b a d c a y z z z z Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
  19. 22. Metal Concentration b d e c a w y wx z xy Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow
  20. 23. Possible Zn or Cd Effects? Birch leaf necroses Willow chlorosis Dogwood P deficiency?
  21. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>All five shrub species can survive on these amended tailing deposits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able grow enough to potentially stabilize the deposits if used for revegetation. </li></ul></ul>a a a a b y x yz z x
  22. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>Metal concentrations were greater belowground than aboveground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal incorporation in roots should reduce leaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metal concentrations in leaves may pose a risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers ought to consider metal partitioning as it relates to restoration goals. </li></ul>Alder Birch Dogwood Cinquefoil Willow mg Zn kg -1 plant material Cadmium a ab b a b w wx z y xy b a d c a y z z z z b d e c a w y wx z xy
  23. 26. Thank You Rocky Mountain Native Plants Company Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station

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