24 lessons in fasting 1 08-2011

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Simple 24 lesson in fasting

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24 lessons in fasting 1 08-2011

  1. 1. FASTINGOsaid Al-Houtary
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  3. 3. ............................................................................... 6 Fasting of the Predecessors ...................................... 6 ............................................................................... 7 Definition of Fasting.................................................. 7LESSON 3............................................................................... 8 The Elements of the Fasting ..................................... 8LESSON 4............................................................................. 10 The Various Kinds of Fasts .................................... 10LESSON 5............................................................................. 12 The Importance of Fasting in Isl m ...................... 12LESSON 6............................................................................ 13 When Do Muslims Fast?......................................... 13LESSON 7............................................................................. 15 Merits of the Month of Ramadan .......................... 15LESSON 8............................................................................. 17 Ramadan Checklist ................................................. 17LESSON 9............................................................................. 19 How to Spend Ramadan ......................................... 19LESSON 10........................................................................... 21 Who Must Fast and Who is Exempt From Fasting? ................................................................................... 21LESSON 11........................................................................... 23 Things Which Do Not Invalidate the Fast ............ 23LESSON 12........................................................................... 25 Things Which Invalidate the Fast.......................... 25LESSON 13.......................................................................... 28 Acts Rendering the Fast Makrooh ......................... 28LESSON 14........................................................................... 29 When Breaking of the Fast is Obligatory ............. 29LESSON 15.......................................................................... 30 Why Do Muslims Fast In Ramadan? .................... 30LESSON 16.......................................................................... 33 What to do in Ramadan Eve .................................. 33LESSON 17........................................................................... 34
  4. 4. Tar w h Prayer ........................................................ 34LESSON 18.......................................................................... 36 Etiquette of Breaking the Fast ............................... 36LESSON: 19 ......................................................................... 38 Night of Power ......................................................... 38LESSON 20........................................................................... 39 Retreat (I‘tik f)........................................................ 39LESSON 21.......................................................................... 41 Special Prayers in Ramadan .................................. 41LESSON 22.......................................................................... 47 Zak t al-Fitr ............................................................ 47LESSON 23.......................................................................... 49 The Night of Eid ...................................................... 49LESSON 24.......................................................................... 52 The Prayer of Fast-Breaking Feast ....................... 52 (‘ d al-Fitr) ............................................................. 52
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  6. 6. Fasting of the Predecessors O’ you who believe! Observing As-Sawm [the fasting] isprescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you... ( Qur’an 2:183)This verse shows that fasting was observed by the nations hadcome to the scene before Muslim Ummah. No one knowsexactly when fasting started but it is clear that fasting is thepractice of all the Prophets of Allah and their followers: 1. The Prophet ( ) told us that D w d ( ) used to fast for half of the year. 2. M s ( ) observed fast for 40 days (Exodus 24:18). 3. ‘ s (Jesus) ( ) was said to have fasted for 40 days before he was called to prophethood (Matthew 4: 2) And this is what the Christians termed “the Lent”. That was the Way of Allah in the case of those who passedaway of old, and you will not find any change in the Way ofAllah. (Qur’an33:62)Thus, fasting should be considered as a propagation of thetradition approved by Allah ( ) for all those who submit toHim.
  7. 7. Definition of Fasting1. Literally:The Arabic word for "fasting" (sawm) is derived from the roots ma literally means “to restrain” or “to refrain”, so ‘fasting’is refraining from normal things, such as eating, drinking,talking. If any one refrain from these thing, he is considereds ’im which means the observer of fast.2. Religiously:Fasting means to refrain from things that invalidate (break)the fasting from Morning Prayer time (break dawn), withintention to please Allah ( ), till Sunset Prayer time.
  8. 8. LESSON 3 The Elements of the Fasting1. Having the IntentionIt is obligatory for the fasting person to confirm his/herintension before Morning Prayer (Sal t al-Fajr) time. TheProphet ( ) said: “He who does not intend during the night tofast, then there is no fast for him” Narrated by An-Nasa’ i.However, most of ‘Ulama’ affirm that one can confirm onesintention once at the beginning of the month of Ramadan, andthis will be sufficient to fast all the days of this holy month.The heart is the place of intension and to utter it verbally isnot established from the Prophet ( ) or the Companions ( ).Thus one can make in ones heart intension before going tosleep.2. Refraining from the followinga. Food and Drinkb. Sexual intercoursec. Masturbation (most scholars say this not allowed even when not fasting).However, Ramadan is much more than just not eating, notdrinking, and abstaining from other physical needs, it is also:d. Refraining of the heart and the mind from evil, thoughts.e. Refraining of the tongue from evil words.f. Refraining of other body parts from evil and actions.
  9. 9. As result, every part of the body must be restrained. Thetongue must be restrained from gossip, backbiting, insultingand swearing. The eyes must restrain themselves from lookingat unlawful things. The hand must not do any forbiddenthings. The ears must refrain from listening to idle talk orobscene words. The feet must refrain from going to sinfulplaces. In such a way, every part of the body observes the fast.Therefore, fasting is the total commitment of the person sbody and soul to the spirit of the fast. Ramadan is a time topractice self-restraint.The Prophet ( ) said, “Whoever does not give up forgedspeech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving hisfood and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)”Narrated by Bukh r . 3.1273. Keeping the whole duration of SawmFasting starts everyday in Ramadan from the dim beginningof dawn: Morning Prayer (Sal t al-Fajr) time till sunset:Sunset Prayer (Sal t al-maghrib) time. Muslim must holdtight to this duration, if not his fast will be invalidated.
  10. 10. LESSON 4 The Various Kinds of FastsThe jurisprudents of various schools classify fasts into fourcategories:1. Prescribed fast (far )2. Prohibited fast. ( ar m)3. Supererogatory fast. (sunnah)4. Disapproved fast. (makr1. Prescribed FastThe prescribed fasts are: a. Fast of the month of Ramadan. b. Fast of Qad ’: make up for the days of Ramadan on which the fast was invalidated unintentionally. c. Fast of kaff rah, the expiatory and atonement fasts, among them are fasts for involuntary homicide, fasts for atonement of : 1. A broken oath. 2. A vow. 3. Not having observed the prescribed fast of Ramadan.2. Prohibited Fastsa. First of Shaww l (‘Eid al-Fi r)b. Tenth of Zul ijjah (‘Eid al-A )c. Eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of ul ijjah.
  11. 11. On these days fasting is strictly prohibited. So the fast ofqada’ cannot be observed on these days.3. Supererogatory FastsFasting is considered recommended on all the days of the yearexcept those on which it has been prohibited. But there aredays whose fast has been specifically stressed and theyinclude:a. Three days of each month, preferably the "moonlit" days (al-ayy m al-b ), which are the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of each lunar month.b. Day of ‘Arafah (9th of Dhul ij h).c. Several days of the months of Dhu al-Qi‘dah, Dhu al- ,Rajab.d. Six days of Shaww l.e. Most of Sha‘b n.f. Mondays and Thursdays.g. The day of ‘ sh r ’ a lone or with a day after it, or with a day before it.4. Disapproved Fastsa. It is disapproved to single out Fridays and Saturdays for fasting.b. Fasting on the day ( yawm ash-shak) the day which is just before the month of Ramadan or the two days just before Ramadan.c. Fasting consecutively all days of the year.d. The three days which follow ‘Eid al-A !# "
  12. 12. LESSON 5 The Importance of Fasting in Isl m1. One of five principles of Islam.Allah Apostle ( ) said:“ Isl m is based on(the following) sfive (principles):a. To testify that there is no deity (owing the right to be worshipped) but Allah andthat Muhammad is Allah s Messenger.b. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.c. To pay Zak h (i.e. obligatory charity).d. To perform j. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca)e. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.” (Narrated by Bukh r )Fasting is one of the pillars of the Islamic faith. No proof isrequired to establish its being obligatory, and whoever deniesfasting goes out of the fold of Islam.2. Obligatory duty (far )Fasting was enjoined on Muslims in the second year of the ah. O’ you who believe! Observing As-Sawm [the fasting] is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you … (Qur’an 2: 183)
  13. 13. LESSON 6 When Do Muslims Fast?1. Which month do Muslims observe fasting? Muslims start fasting in the month of Ramadan which is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. It is the month in which Allah revealed the Holy Qur’ an as guidance for mankind. Every day during this month, Muslims around the world spend the daylight hours in a complete fast.2. When does Rama an start? Rama an starts when thirty days of the preceding month, Sha’ b n, are past or with the seeing of the new moon of Rama an. This seeing is established with the testimony of one trustworthy witness or as some ‘Ulama’ say, two.3. The ever lasting debate… There is a debate among the Muslim community on just how to calculate the beginning of any lunar month, and Rama an takes on special importance. The traditional method used by the Prophet Muhammad ( ), is to look to the sky and visibly sight the slight crescent moon (hil l) that marks the beginning of the month. At the end of the month, when the community sights the hil l again, Ramadan ends and the Festival of Fast-Breaking ($Eid al- Fi r) begins.
  14. 14. Debates have arisen around the following questions:a. What if people in one area sight the moon, but those in another area don t?b. Should we follow the moon-sighting in Saudi Arabia, or should we sight it ourselves?c. What if our location is overcast and cloudy and the moon is not visible to us?d. Why do we even bother looking for the moon, when we can astronomically calculate when the new moon is born?Do not bother yourself with these kinds of questions, simplyfollow the declaration of His Eminence the Mufti (the officialinterpreter or expounder of Islamic law) of your country forthe fact that he is specialist in this topic and he is responsiblein front of All h ( ).
  15. 15. LESSON 7 Merits of the Month of RamadanThe Prophet ( ) said: When there comes the month ofRamadan,1. The gates of mercy are opened.2. And the gates of Hell are locked.3. And the devils are chained. Narrated by Muslim Bk 6, Number 2361.4. All previous sins will be forgiven.The Prophet ( ) said: “… And whoever fasts in the month ofRamadan out of sincere faith, and hoping for a reward fromAllah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” Narrated by Bukhari 3.1255. Ramadan comprehends the Night of Power which is better than 1000 months: regarding the rewards of performing good deeds in it. ( Lesson 19)6. The Holy Qur‘an revealed in Ramadan: Quran which is true guidance for mankind should be recited a lot in Ramadan in order to keep ourselves in the straight path.7. ‘Umrah with special reward: ‘Umrah preformed in Ramadan equals, in rewards performing, pilgrimage with the prophet( ).8. Smell of musk: The smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better, in the sight of Allah, than the smell of musk.
  16. 16. 9. Jannah is decorated: In everyday of Ramadan, Allah decorates the Jannah (Paradise) and addresses it saying, “It is not too far that my righteous servants shall throw away the burdens (of the worldly life) and shall proceed towards you.”10. Amnesty: In the last night of this month, the fasting person is granted amnesty.
  17. 17. LESSON 8 Ramadan ChecklistThe following are some of the necessary items for a believer’ strip in Ramadan towards Allah.1. An attitude of anticipation and enthusiasm: Muslim is happy when the Ramadan arrives and sad when it departs.2. Well planned schedule: Ramadan requires more time than usual for worship. Believers must make sure their daily schedules allow maximum benefit of this special month.3. A Qur’an with an understood translation: A believer makes sure he has a copy of the Holy Qur’ an which is easy to read and easy to be understood. If time permits, he should also read the commentary of the Qur’ an.4. A donation to a worthwhile Charity: Ramadan is the best time to donate in the way of Allah. Feeding and giving to the needy is an act of great reward. The Prophet ( ) said: "Whoever gives food to a fasting person with which to break his fast, will have a reward equal to his, without it detracting in the slightest from the reward of the fasting person." (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, 3/171; Saheeh al-Targheeb, 1/451).
  18. 18. 5. A determination to avoid sins: Fasting is not just refraining from food, drink and sexual intercourse as we have heard many times. It is also refraining from evil thoughts, words, and actions, it is refraining from all sins.6. A Desire to help others: In his sermon at the approach of the holy month of Ramadan, the Holy Prophet ( ) said: “ Whoever lightens the work of his workers in this month, Allah will make easy his accounting on the Day of Judgment.”
  19. 19. LESSON 9 How to Spend RamadanPraying with jam ‘ahTo perform every prayer in congregation (with jam ’ ah)in a mosque.Performing at-Tar wPraying Tar w ( early Night Prayer) in congregation. Itconsists of eight rak’ t, which is performed immediatelyafter the Evening Prayer. ( Lesson 17).Performing at-TahajjudRising up a little earlier than the exact time of andpraying at-Tahajjud Prayer ( late Night Prayer). There isno prescribed number of the Tahajjud prayer.Performing the voluntary (nafl) prayers of:a. Ishr q which are two rak’ t after the sunrise.b. which are four rak’ t, it may be performed at anytime after Ishr q before noon.c. Aww b n which are six rak’ t after Sunset Prayer.The recitation of the Holy Qur’an. One should recite as much of it as he can. No specificlimit is prescribed, but it is preferred to recite one chapter( juz’ ) at least every day.%& )* &+ %) , - ( ". (( ) &+/ * & %) 0) * . %) " . ) * & & ) ) . ( ) 1 ( .( (# 2& 3 ( . 1 ( & &( &. & ( ( . 4 ( &1tasb h may be recited. Similarly, the Dhikr may
  20. 20. also be performed during other states, when walking or inbed.Prayers and supplications (du‘ ’)No particular prayer is prescribed. One can pray foreverything he needs both in this world and in theHereafter. adaqah (charity):It is not obligatory like Zak h, it is optional, one pay5 daqah in Ramadan according to his best ability. It wasnarrated that Ibn ‘Abb s said: “ The Messenger of Allah( ) was the most generous of people, and he was at hismost generous during Rama an when Jibr l met him. Hewould meet him each night and revise the Qur’ an withhim. The Messenger of Allah ( ) was more generous thanthe blowing wind. ” Narrated by al-Bukh r , 6; Muslim,2308.
  21. 21. LESSON 10 Who Must Fast and Who is Exempt From Fasting?Allah has made fasting the month of Ramadan obligatoryupon every:1. Muslim.2. Adult.3. Sane.4. Settled (i.e., not travelling)5. Muslim who is able to fast and has nothing such as ay (menstruation) or nif s (post-natal bleeding) to prevent him or her from doing so.The following are exempt from fasting:1. The insane.2. Children who are not adolescent yet. Fasting is not required of children until they reach the age of puberty. The signs of puberty are:a. the growth of pubic hair.b. the occurrence of wet dreams.c. the menstrual period ,in the case of a female,. If a person turns the age of fifteen and none of these signshave appeared, then they are considered to have reached theage of puberty.
  22. 22. 4. The elderly and chronically ill for whom fasting is unreasonably strenuous; Such persons are required to feed at least one poor person every day in Ramadan for which he or she has missed fasting.5. Pregnant women and nursing may postpone the fasting at a later time.6. The ill and the travellers can also defer their fasting.7. Women during the period of menstruation or of postchildbirth confinement. Fasting during these periods is forbidden and should be made up later, a day for a day.
  23. 23. LESSON 11 Things Which Do Not Invalidate the FastThing which do not break the fast are:1. If anyone forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks, he should complete his fast. All h Apostle ( ) said: “ If s anyone forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks he should complete his fast, for it is only Allah Who has fed him and given him drink.” Narrated by Muslim.2. Unintentional vomiting.3. Swallowing things which are not possible to avoid, such as one saliva, street dust, smoke, etc. s4. Brushing the teeth using a misw k or a brush and ears with cotton swabs.5. Injection or intra-venous which is solely medical and not nutritional.6. Having wet dreams: This happens involuntarily during sleep.7. Kissing and hugging is allowed but if such close contact causes ejaculation then this will break the fast. Swallowing saliva of some one else invalidates the fast as well.8. Using eye-drops or kohl (mascara).
  24. 24. 9. Wearing perfume or feeling it, using lipstick or chopstick.10. Taking a shower.11. Entrance of smoke or dust into the throat unintentionally.12. Bleeding from the teeth unless blood slips in to the throat.13. Delaying the ghusl of jan bah (showering after sexual intercourse) up to the sunrise.14. Applying colour to the hair.15. Use of Puffers: Puffers used for asthma do not break the fast according to a number of scholars. This is because it is considered as compressed gas that goes to the lungs, and does in no way nourish or quench the thirst.
  25. 25. LESSON 12 Things Which Invalidate the FastThe things which invalidate fast are of two kinds:A. The first one requires qa ’ (only making up missed days),B. The other requires qa ’ and kaff rah (expiation) at thesame time.A. Things that require make up (Qada) only are:1. Eating or drinking intentionally: This includes non-nourishing items taken by mouth. For example, while makingwudu, if a drop of water slips into the throat unintentionally2. Vomiting: Deliberately causing oneself to throw up.3. The beginning of menstruation or post-childbirth bleedingeven in the last moment before sunset.4. Seminal emission: Ejaculation while touching, kissing orcaressing a women for reasons other than sexual intercourse.5. The intention to discontinue the prescribed fast:Intending to break the fast before sunset even if one changeshis mind, since intention is one of the pre-requisites of thevalidity of fasting.6. Mistaken assumption: Eating, drinking or havingintercourse after dawn on the mistaken assumption that it is
  26. 26. not dawn yet. Similarly, engaging in these acts beforeMaghrib on the mistaken assumption that it is already sunset.7. Injection: Injection invalidates the prescribed fast andrequires the fast to be made up.B. Things that require making up the fast (Qada) and alsoexpiation (Kaffarah) are:a. Eating something.b. Drinking something.c. Having sexual intercourse.These three acts are liable to kaffarah when they arecommitted deliberately after one has started a fast. Kaffarhmay be given in the following three ways respectively:a. Freeing a slave.b. Fasting for two months constantly without a break.c. Giving food to sixty persons.Since slavery has come to an end in our days, only the lattertwo ways can be adopted today. But the person who hasstrength enough to fast for two month constantly has beenbound to fast. He cannot adopt the third way, i.e. giving foodto sixty persons. If he is too weak to fast for such a largenumber of days, he can give kaffarah be giving food to sixtypersons.
  27. 27. The above mentioned things do not invalidate the fast unlessthe fasting person meets the following three conditions:1. He must be aware of the ruling of what he has done.2. He must remember (i.e. forgetfulness does not invalidatethe fast)3. He must do it intentionally.
  28. 28. LESSON 13 Acts Rendering the Fast MakroohThe following acts do not invalidate the fast, but render itmakrooh (disapproved) which means they lessen the rewardof the fast. Therefore it is not advisable to indulge in any ofthe following acts when one is in the state of fast:1. Chewing or tasting something with the tongue withouteating it.2. Using toothpaste. However, cleaning teeth with a miswakor a brush without paste is allowed.3. Remaining in the state of Janabah (major impurity) for thewhole day.4. Giving blood.5. Quarrelling and abusing the others.6. Gossip, backbiting and lying.The latter three acts are absolutely forbidden even when one isnot observing fast, but they become all more forbidden whenone is on state of fasting.
  29. 29. LESSON 14 When Breaking of the Fast is Obligatory1. Where a person is attacked by a severe disease and a competent doctor opines that, if he continues with his fast, it will bring a serious danger to his life.2. A person feels such an extreme hunger or thirst that further abstinence from eating or drinking may endanger his life.3. In any situation where refraining from eating or drinking may cause a real danger to one’ s life.In theses cases kaffarah is not liable, but qada’ is, wheneverthe danger is removed.
  30. 30. LESSON 15 Why Do Muslims Fast In Ramadan?1. To obey Allah injunction s Fasting has been enjoined on us. Muslims do whatever Allahand His Messenger have told them to do. Allah says:“ O’ you who believe! Observing As-Sawm (the fasting) isprescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you” (Qur‘an 2:183)2. Fasting for Taqwa Taqwa in the heart and the soul of a fasting Muslim. Thepurpose of fasting is not to just get hungry and thirsty. And tobecome pious, Muslim must abstain from immoral behaviorand attitude, and from any thing which is haram (forbidden).The Prophet ( ) is reported to have said: “ If one does notabandon falsehood in words and deeds, Allah has no need forhis abandoning of his food and drink.” Narrated by Al-Bukhari.3. Special RewardsThe reward for fasting is immense .The Prophet ( ) said: "Hewho fasts Ramadan, due to Iman and hoping for reward (fromAllah) then his past sins are forgiven." [al-Bukhaaree,Muslim]"Every action of the son of Adam is given manifold reward,each good deed receiving then times its like, up to seven
  31. 31. hundred times. Allah the Most High said, Except for fasting,for it is for Me and I will give recompense for it… " bukhari4. A shield against the FireThe Prophet ( ) said: "Fasting is a shield with which aservant protects himself from the Fire." Narrated by Ahmad.6. Supplications will be granted The Prophet ( ) said "There are in the month of Ramadan inevery day and night those to whom Allah grants freedom fromthe Fire, and there is for every Muslim a supplication whichhe can make and will be granted." Narrated by Ahmad.7. Controlling DesiresFasting is a special worship designed to develop in Muslimthe ability to exercise self-restraint and patience. Its aim is togive Muslim the power to control his unruly desires andtendencies that make him prone to greed, revenge, anger,provocation and fear; which make him commit various sins.8. Experience of other feelings s Fasting also provides the rare opportunity to feel real hunger.Like many other people, and this will make us ready to helpthem.9. To practice the tradition of the pious people.Qur mentions that Musa( ) fasted for 40 days, and the anProphet( ) told us that Dawud ( ) used to fast on every
  32. 32. alternate day. (Jesus) ( )was also reported to have Issafasted for 40 days (this is what the Christians termed "theLent", usually observed before Easter festival. It can be seenthat Allah( )intends to draw Muslims attention to thepractice and tradition of those pious predecessors whoattained piety through fasting. O’ who believe, fasting is decreed for you as it was decreedfor those before you; perchance you will guard yourselves10. Entering ParadiseThe prophet ( ) said:“ In Paradise there is a gate which iscalled Rayyan through which only the observers of fast wouldenter on the Day on Resurrection. None else would enteralong with them. It would be proclaimed: Where are theobservers of fast that they should be admitted into it? −andwhen the last of them would enter, it would be closed and noone would enter it.” Narrated by Muslim Bk 6, Number 2570
  33. 33. LESSON 16 What to do in Ramadan Eve Tarawih PrayerA believer should perform Tarawih Prayer in congregation inRamadan eve (see lesson 12). Suhoor (pre-dawn meal)Muslim should make sure that he eats and drinks something atsuh r, and that he delay it, If possible, until just before al-FajrPrayer time. The Prophet ( ) said “ The distinction betweenour fasting and the fasting of the people of the book is thetaking of the pre -dawn meal (Suhoor)” (Muslim). TheProphet ( ) also said: “ Have suhoor, for in suhoor there isblessing (barakah).” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 4/139) The Intentiona. Its ruling: It is obligatory for the fasting person to confirm his/her intension before Morning Prayer time. The Prophet ( ) said :"He who does not intend during the night to fast, then there is no fast for him" (An-Nasa ib. The place of intension: is the heart and to utter it verbally is not established from the Prophet ( ).c. Its time: One should make in one heart intension after s suhoor or before going to sleep.
  34. 34. LESSON 17 Tar w h PrayerIts Definition:T r w h Prayer is the Night Prayer (Sal t Qiy m al-Layl)performed in congregation during the month of Ramadan.It can be performed alone at home.Its rulingThis prayer is Sunnah mu’ akkaddah (repeatedlyemphasized). The Prophet ( ) performed Tar w forseveral days, but he left performing it in congregation forthe fear it should be prescribed on Muslims .Its reward:Messenger of Allah ( ) said: “ Whoever prays at night inRamadan out of faith and in the hope of reward, hisprevious sins will be forgiven.” Bukhari, 37; Muslim, 759Its timeBetween Evening Prayer time and Morning Prayer time, itis preferred to be before Witr Prayer. Tar w will berepeated every night till the end of RamadanNumber of rak’atEight or eleven rak’ at. ‘ ’ ishah, may Allah be pleasedwith her, said:“ He (s.a.w) would not exceed eleven rak’ atin or out of Ramadan” Agreed upon. No harm inexceeding the number of rak‘at.
  35. 35. Way of performing:Two by two which means making tasleem (Words ofPeace) after every two rak‘at.
  36. 36. LESSON 18 Etiquette of Breaking the FastThe Prophetic etiquette of breaking fast are the following:1 One should hasten to break the fast. As soon as the Call ofSunset Prayer is (Athan Salat al-Maghrib) said one shouldstart to break the fast immediately. The Prophet ( ) said: “ Mynation will remain in goodness as long as they break the fastas soon as it is due.” [Muslim]2. Saying “ Bismillah” and Stating the breaking fast du‘a’ :(Allahumma laka sumtu wa ` rizqika aftartu) alaa“ O Allah! For You have I fasted and upon Your sustenancehave I broken my fast.” [Abu Dawud] / 2 ! 01 ( )* +! . ,- " # $ %& !(Dhahab az zamaa’ u wab tallatil urooqu wa thabat al-ajruInsha-Allah)“ The thirst has vanished, the veins have been wetted and thereward is established - Insha-Allah.” [Abu Dawud]3. Ask Allah ( ) anything you want because the invocation(du‘a’ ) upon breaking fast is answered.4. Break the fast by eating three rutabs (moist dates), or tamr(dry dates), or even drinking water. The Prophet ( ) said:“ Break your fast with a date, or with water because it ispure.” [Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi]
  37. 37. 5. Using the right hand while eating.6. It is offensive and unhealthy to stuff the stomach with foodafter fasting and full stomach will not help you o prayT r w h. The Prophet (s) said: “ Enough for a human being tohave luqaymat (from 3 to 9 mouthfuls) that prop up his spineand, if he must have more [in his stomach], then one third offood, one third of water, and one third of air.”7. Eating foods (such as garlic and onions)that cause badbreath, belching and gas is out of respect for the mosques andthose who attend them.8. Praying Sunset Prayer at mosque, if it is near, or incongregation at home.
  38. 38. LESSON: 19 Night of Power"Indeed We have revealed it (Qur in the night of Power. an)And what will explain to you what the night of Power is? Thenight of Power is better than a thousand months. Thereindescends the Angels and the Spirit by Allah permission, on severy errand: (they say) Peace" (continuously) till the rise ofMorning!" (Quran 97:1-5) 1. Specialty of the Night of Power Qur was revealed in Ramadan in Night of Power an, (Lailat-ut Qadr) 2. The bless of this night The deed in this night is better than the rewards of deeds of 1,000 months (about 83.3 years). 3. Its time the night is in the last ten days of Ramadan and usually in one of the odd days (i.e. 21, 23, 25, 27 and 29th). 4. What to do at this night A Muslim is expected to:a. Perform nawafil: voluntary prayers.b. Do Qur’ an recitationc. Say supplications (du’ as)d. Attending lectures on religious topics.e. Do i‘tikaf: Muslims are expected to be in seclusion (i‘tikaf)during the last 10 days of Ramadan because no one knowsprecisely which of the odd days is the night of Power, and thebest place to be in seclusion is in the mosque.
  39. 39. LESSON 20 Retreat (I‘tik f) a. Literally :to engage and to devote something either good or bad. b. Religiously: to engage in a retreat in the mosque and stay there with the intention of pleasing All h.2. : & # &3. I‘tikaf has no time limit, either short or long periods of time are acceptable. The observer of I‘tikaf must be: a. Muslim b. Adult c. Pure from jan bah (major defilment, menstruation, and post-childbirth bleeding). a. Intention b. Staying in the mosque. ! 1. Supererogatory worship 2. Prayer.
  40. 40. 3. Recitation of Qur’ an.4. Dhikr and tasb : glorifying and praising All h ( ),seeking forgiveness from Him ( ) and takb r, invoking All h blessing on the Prophet ( ). s5. Studying religious topics6. Attending lectures on religious topics held at the mosque. ! "a. He may go out to bid farewell to his family.b. Leavening the mosque to take care of his essential things: eating, drinking, going to the toilet, purifying one self from janabah, and cleaning his clothes. sc. To eat drink and sleep and to sleep in the mosque. #a. Leaving the mosque without any good reason.b. Menstruation ( ay ) and postchild bleeding (nif s)c. Ejaculation.
  41. 41. LESSON 21 Special Prayers in Ramadan1. When beginning the fast- Suhur: 1 < = 2 ;<6894: 7 345(Wa bisawmi ghadinn nawaiytu min shahri Ramadan)I intend to keep the fast for tomorrow in the month ofRamadan[abu Dawud]2. When breaking the fast- Iftar: D A 4B C @ > < 5 ? (Allahumma inni laka sumtu wa bika aamantu [wa alaykatawakkaltu] wa rizq-ika aftarthu) alaO Allah! I fasted for You and I believe in You [and I put mytrust in You] and I break my fast with Your sustenance["wa alayka tawakkaltu" is quoted in some books ofknowledge - but not all, hence it is in brackets][abu Dawud] F 01 ( )* 2 +E . ,!- " ! # $ %&
  42. 42. (dhahabadh-dhama wab-tallatil qi, wa thabatal arju u urinsha Allah)The thrist is gone, the veins are moistened and the reward isconfirmed, if Allah [Ta Wills ala][abu Dawud 2:306] J L 6J2 K! MB 0 A . J I H !I J? " 5( GAllaahumma inni as’ aluka birahmatika al-lati wasi kulli atshay’ in an taghfira liO Allah, I ask You by Your mercy which envelopes all things,that You forgive me.[a du that Abdullah ibn Amar (radiAllahu anhu) used to say awhen breaking his fast - as reported by Ibn abi Mulaykah(radiAllahu anhu)]3. When someone offers you food when you arefasting and you decline: When you are invited to eat, then reply to the invitation. ifyou are fasting, then invoke Allah blessings (on your host), sand if you are not fasting then eat[Muslim; 2:1054]4. Upon reaching month of Rajab and Sha ban:When the Prophet ( ) sighted the moon of Rajab (two monthsbefore Ramadan) he used to pray to Allah in the followingwords:
  43. 43. 1 < 1M 1.2 $ ) = >? + 1N 1 > G(Allahumma barik lana fi Rajab wa Sha wa ballighna banRamadan)O Allah! Make the months of Rajab and Sha blessed for banus, and let us reach the month of Ramadan (i.e. prolong ourlife up to Ramadan, so that we may benefit from its merits andblessings)[Narrated by at-Tabarani and Ahmad]5. When you are fasting, and someone is rude toyou: O P J?EO P J5( G 1 5 1(Inni sa iimu, inni sa iimu)I am fasting, I am fasting[Sahih al-Bukhari, Fath al-Bari of Al-Asqalani; 4:1-3,Muslim; 2:806]6. Upon Sighting of the new Moon 1 T U! VC4 E IR W< X E Q ;< 1C F% > $ B1 91 1 1 R S1 > E + F G A F T 1T E Y B >(Allahu Akbar. Allahumma ahillahu alayna bil-amni wal-imaani, was-salaamati, wal-Islami, wat-tawfeeqi lima tuhibbuRabbana wa tardha. Rabbuna wa RabbukAllahu)
  44. 44. Allah is the Greatest. O Allah bring us the new moon withsecurity and faith, with peace and in Islam, and in harmonywith what our Lord Loves and what pleases Him. Our Lordand your Lord is Allah[at-Tirmidhi 5:504, ad-Darimi 1:336]7. Upon seeing the first dates of the season: 1Z<J 1 N 1 E1 1 J 1 N 1 1 > J 1 N 1 E1 , 1 N 1 57 > > > > 37< > 5 J > G(Allahumma barik lana fi thamarina, wa barik lana fimadinatina, wa barik lana fi saa wa barik lana fi muddina) ina,O Allah! Bless us in our dates, and bless us in our town, blessus in our saa in our Mudd and(saa Mudd dry measures used for agricultural and areproduce by the Arabs in the Prophet time) s[at-Tirmidhi 5:504, ad-Darimi 1:336]8. Recited at intervals of taraweeh prayers: 0a3 + ] E^ 7 WC E W#. ^ [&1 _ ! + `. U+I 4 ] ! [&1 U+I1 Fac T W] d T E 7!EO4T E 4 3 R 913R [` ZU e f T c+ O I > 1 I E + U+ b 1 ;< !4. W> > g & 5 b !X5 EF L X5 F d M Subhana dhil Mulki wal Malakuti, Subhana dhil izzati walaDhmati wal haybati wal Qudrati, wal kibriyaawal jabaroot iSubhanal Malikil hayyil ladhi, la yunaamu wa la yam tu,Subbuhun, Quddusun, Rabbul malaa war-rooh ikatiLa ilaha illal lahu, nustugfirullahi
  45. 45. nas alukul jannati, wa na udhubika min an-naarGlorified is the Owner of the Kingdom of the earth and theheavens; Glorified is the Possessor of Honour andMagnificence and Awe, and Power and Greatness andOmnipotenceGlorified is the Sovereign, the Living, Who does neither sleepnor dieO all Glorious, All Holy one, Our lord and the Lord of theAngels, And the soul.There is no God but You, Forgive us, Grant us Paradise, andsave us from (hell) fire.9. Upon breaking the fast in someone home s ! ! C ] E * ] <h K ! 1 . A E P: ! 7 4 1 A > G!] P W i(Aftara indakumus saa imuna, wa akala ta aamakumul-abraaru, wasallat alaikumul malaikat)May those who are fasting break their fast in your home, andmay the dutiful and pious eat your food and may the angelssend prayers upon you.[abu Dawud 3:367, ibn Majah 1:556, an Nasa i]10. On Lailatul Qadr - the Night of PowerAishah (radhiya Allahu Ta anha), that she said: "O alaMessenger of Allah! What if I knew which night Lailatul-Qadr was, then what should I say in it?" He said Say
  46. 46. JZ j 1 4L T U! k! 5 > . $ B 4L E G(Allahumma innaka affuwwun tuhibbul afwa fa ) fu anniO Allah You are The One Who pardons greatly, and loves topardon, so pardon me.[at Tirmidhi]
  47. 47. LESSON 22 Zak t al-Fitr1. Meaning: Zakaah al-Fitr is often referred to as Sadaqah al-Fitr. The word Fitr means breaking a fast and it comes fromthe same root word as Futoor which means breakfast. Thus,Islamically, Zakaah al-Fitr means fast-breaking or fast-ending alms which is paid at the end of Ramadan.2. Ruling: Sadaqah al-Fitr is a duty which is obligatiry onevery Muslim, whether male or female, minor or adult as longas he/she has the means to do so. The proof that this form of charity is compulsory can befound in the Sunnah whereby Ibn ` Umar reported that theProphet ( ) made Zakaah al-Fitr compulsory on every slave,freeman, male, female, young and old among the Muslims;one Saa`of dried dates or one Saa`of barely. [collected byBukhari - Arabic/English, vol. 2, p. 339, no. 579]The head of the household may pay the required amount forthe other members. Abu Sa al-Khudree said, "On behalf eedof our young and old, free men and slaves, we used to take outduring Allah Messenger ( ) lifetime one Saa` of grain, s scheese or raisins". [collected by Muslim - English transl. vol.2, p. 469, no. 2155]3.Purpose: The main purpose of Zakaah al-Fitr is to providethose who fasted with the means of making up for their errorsduring the month of fasting. Zakaah al-Fitr also provides thepoor with a means with which they can celebrate the festivalof breaking the fast (` Eed al-Fitr) along with the rest of theMuslims.
  48. 48. Ibn Abbaas reported, "The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) made Zakaah al-Fitr compulsory so that those whofasted may be purified of their idle deeds and shameful talk(committed during Ramadaan) and so that the poor may befed. Whoever gives it before Salaah will have it accepted asZakaah, while he who gives it after the Salaah has givenSadaqah." [collected by Abu Dawood - Eng. transl. vol. 2, p.421, no. 1605 - rated Saheeh by Shaikh Naser Al-Albanee]4. Time: This form of charity becomes obligatory from sunseton the last day of fasting and remains obligatory until thebeginning of Salaah al-Eed(i.e. shortly after sunrise on thefollowing day). However, it can be paid prior to the abovementioned period, as many of Companions of the Prophet( )used to pay Sadaqah al-Fitr a couple days before the ` Eed. Ifone misses the time period without a good reason, he hassinned and can not make it up5. Rate: The amount of Zakaah is the same for everyoneregardless of their different income brackets. The minimumamount is one S `(two kilos and forty grams of good wheat )of food, grain or dried fruit for each member of the family.Abu Sa` al-Khudree ( ) said, "In the Prophet time, we eed sused to give it (Zakaah al-Fitr) as a Saa`of food, dried dates,barley, raisins or dried cheese". [collected by al-Bukhaaree -Arabic/English vol. 2, p. 340, no. 582]
  49. 49. LESSON 23 The Night of EidIt had been the practice of the Prophet Muhammad ( ), thathe would not sleep in the night preceding the day of Eid al-Fitr, the end of Ramadan. This night has been named in atradition as the Night of Reward Almighty bestows His ;rewards on those who have spent the month of Ramadanabiding by the dictates of Islamic law, and all their prayersand invocation in this night are accepted. Therefore, it isdesirable to perform voluntary prayers in this night. theProphet ( ) said: Whoever stands up - in worship - in thenights preceding the two Eids expecting rewards from hisLord, his heart will not die when the other hearts will die.To benefit from this opportunity, one should perform as muchworship in this night as one can, and should pray for all one sneeds and desires.The Prophet ( ) said: the last night of Ramadan, my Onnation is forgiven He was asked if that meant on Laylatul- .Qadr and he said, . (This merit is for the last night, the Nomerits of Laylatul-Qadr are quite apart.) truth is that full Thewages are paid to the worker when the work is over and thework is completed in the last night. Hence, they are forgiven.9. Takb$rat-ul-‘Eid:Allahu-akbar-u llahu-akbar-ullaahu-akbar ... laa-ilahaill AllahAllahu-akbar-u llahu-akbar-u wa-lillah il-hamdAllahu-akbar-u llahu-akbar-ullaahu-akbar ... laa-ilahaill Allah
  50. 50. Allahu-akbar-u llahu-akbar-u wa-lillahil-hamdAllahu akbar-u-kabira ... wal-hamdu-lillahi kathirawa-subhan Allahi wa-be-hamdi-hi bukra-tan wa-asilalaa-ilaha-illalla-hu wahdah ... sadaqa wa-adah ... wa-nasaraabdahwa-a-azza junda-hu wa-hazam al-ahzaab wahdahlaa-ilaha illAllah ... wa-la na-a-budu illaa iyyahmukh-le-scina lah uddina walaw karih al-kaafiroonAllah-umma-salli-ala sayyedinaa muhammad ... wa-ala aalisayyedinaa muhammadwa-ala as sayyedinaa muhammad ... wa-ala an habi sarisayyedinaa muhammadwa-ala azwaji sayyedinaa muhammadwa-ala-zurriyati-sayyedina muhammad-in wa-sallim taslimankathiraTranslation Of Takbeer-Ul-Eid:Allah is Great, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, There is noDeity but AllahAllah is Great, Allah is Great, and praise is due to Him.Allah is Great, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, There is noDeity but AllahAllah is Great, Allah is Great, and praise is due to Him.Allah is the Greatest, and an abundance of praise is due toHim, and glory and praise be to him morning and evening.There is no Deity but Allah, Alone, He was True to Hispromise, and He granted victory to His Worshipper, and Hesupported His troops, and He conquered the allied parties ofthe enemies all by Himself.There is no Deity but Allah, and we worship no one but Him,and we will sincerely follow the religion for Him, evenagainst the wishes of the disbelievers.May Allah pray upon Sayyidina (our master) Mohammad, andupon his Family, and upon his Companions, and upon his
  51. 51. Supporters, and upon his Wives, and upon his Descendants,and grant an abundance of peace on him.
  52. 52. LESSON 24The Prayer of Fast-Breaking Feast (‘ d al-Fitr)1. The Eid prayer is wajib (obligatory) on every male Muslim.2. The Eid prayer can be performed any time between theIshraq (sun rise) and Zawal(when the sun reaches its zenith).3. It is preferable that the prayer is performed at an open Eidfield and not in a mosque. However, if, it is difficult for anyreason to perform it in an open field, it can also be performedin a big mosque.4. It is not advisable to hold the Eid Prayer in every mosque,rather it is preferable that the people from several smallmosques get together to either perform it in an open field or,in its absence, in a big mosque which can accommodate alarge number of people.5. No voluntary prayer can be performed before the Eidprayer, neither in one home, nor at the place of prayer. s EidSimilarly, voluntary prayer cannot be performed after the Eidprayer at the same place. However, it can be performed afterone comes back to his home.6. The Eid prayer has neither Adhan (Call to Prayer) norIqamah (Second Call).On the day of Eid al-Fitr Muslim is supposed to do thefollowing Sunan (traditions of the Prophet ( )):1. To adorn oneself as permitted by Shari ah.2. To bathe perform the total ablution (ightis ".3. To clean the teeth with Miswaak.4. To wear the best and the cleanest cloths.5. To put in sweet smelling perfumes.
  53. 53. 6. To wake up early in the morning.7. To eat a few dates in odd numbers.8. To betake to the Eid prayers gathering with tranquility anddignified bearing very early.9. To give Zakat al-Fitr before going to Eid prayers gathering.10. To perfom Eid prayer in congregation.11. To go to Eid prayer from a way and to come back fromanother way.12. To go walking instead of riding.13. To recite slowly on the way to the Eid prayer and on theway back: “ Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha illallahuWallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wa lillahil Hamd."Whilst at the Eid gathering Muslim should do the following:1. Be quiet while the Imam is explaining how to perfom EidPrayer.2. Straighten lines in prayer.3. Keeping silence during the sermon (khutbah).4. Greet those whom you know and those you don after the t,Eid Prayer5. Contribute to the arrangement of the Eid prayers.
  54. 54. GLOSSARY1 Eid Al-Fitr Three day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.2 Fidya Compensation for missing or wrongly practicing necessary acts of worship Fidya usually takes the form of donating money, foodstuffs, or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara (making amends).3 Iftar Breaking of the fast immediately after sunset. Iftar takes place at Maghrib as soon as the Call to Prayer (Adhan) is called.4 Imsak ! Start of the fasting time. Imsak begins when the first light of dawn becomes visible, and ends at Fajr when the Adhan is called.5 I tikaf "#$ I refers to the religious practice tikaf of spending the a period of time in a mosque so as to devote oneself exclusively to worship.6 Kaffarah % & Kaffarah means atonement, expiation.7 Lailatul- ( Night of Power, The concealed in Qadr one of the odd nights in the last ten days of Ramadan; the night on which the Qur was first revealed. an8 )*! The ninth month of the Islamic Ramadan (luner) calendar.

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