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STOMATOGNATHIC
SYSTEM
 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
 PHYSIOLOGY – is the science which
deals with the study of normal
tissue functions of a normal liv...
 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY – deals
with the study of basic activities of
living organisms as a whole,
emphasizing on function an...
 ORAL PHYSIOLOGY – a branch of Gen.
Physiology which focuses on the
functions of the different parts in the
oral cavity a...
 STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM – is a
system that comprises of a highly
coordinated structure comprising
the human masticatory ap...
STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM – is a
system composed of several parts
capable of acting as a single unit
for the processes of:
○1....
 Group of structures that comprises
the Stomatognathic System:
 1. Dental Group
 2. Osseous Group
 3. Receptor Group
...
 DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORAL
CAVITY:
>ORAL STOMODEUM is the primitive
oral cavity that begins to develop at 3 ½
weeks of feta...
ORAL STOMODEUM
(3 ½ WEEKS Human Embryo)
 >At about 27 days this membrane
raptures and the stomodeum
establishes a connection with the
foregut (future digestive t...
> The oral ectoderm will give rise to the
oral epithelium that runs along the
outline of the future dental arches,
which i...
> Simultaneous with the differentiation
of the dental lamina, there arises
round or ovoid swellings at 10
different points...
 Dental Lamina
 Tooth bud
 Enamel Organ - enamel
 Dental Papilla - dentin & pulp
 Dental Sac - cementum, periodontal ...
 ORAL CAVITY – is the
first portion of the
alimentary canal or
digestive tract.
 Boundaries:
 1. Anteriorly – Lips
 2....
Divisions of the Oral Cavity:
A. Vestibule – smaller,
outer portion
Boundaries:
○ 1. Antero-laterally –
lips & cheeks
○ 2....
B. Oral Cavity Proper –
larger, inner
portion
Boundaries:
○ 1. Antero-laterally –
alveolar arches
with their teeth
○ 2. Su...
 PARTS OF THE ORAL CAVITY:
 A. Lips
 B. Cheeks
 C. Palate
 D. Floor of the mouth
 E. Tongue
 A. LIPS
 > Two mobile folds that
encircle the rima oris.
*Rima/ Orbicularis oris -
sphincter muscle of the mouth.
 > C...
> Parts:
 1. Angle of the mouth
– points where the
upper & lower lips
meet at the sides.
 2. Naso-labial groove
– from t...
3. Mento-labial groove
– between the chin
& lower lip.
4. Philtrum
– from the inferior
border of the nose
to the upper lip.
 5. Frenulum of the
upper & lower lips
– vertical mucous
folds found on the
internal surface of
the lips connecting
them ...
> Composed of the following layers:
1. Skin
2. Superficial Fascia
3. Orbicularis oris Muscle
4. Submucous Layer
5. Mucous ...
> Supplied by the following:
Nerve:
1. Infra-orbital Nerve – from the maxillary
nerve & supplies the upper lip
2. Mental N...
Blood:
1. Superior Labial Artery
2. Inferior Labial Artery
 B. CHEEKS
> Forms the lateral
boundary of the vestibule
of the mouth.
> Buccinator muscle is
the major muscle that
makes...
> Composed of the following:
1. Skin
2. Superficial Fascia
3. Buccopharyngeal Fascia
4. Buccinator Muscle
5. Submucous Lay...
 C. PALATE
 > Forms the roof of
the mouth separating
the nasal cavity & the
nasopharynx from the
buccal cavity.
 > Divided into 2
parts:
1. Hard palate –
larger, anterior
2/3
2. Soft Palate –
smaller,
posterior 1/3
 1. HARD PALATE
 > Formed by the
palatine processes
of the maxilla & the
horizontal plates of
the palatine bones.
 > The surface is covered by the
mucous membrane & periosteum.
 > The inferior surface is thicker & its
posterior part c...
 > Presents the
following:
 1. Median Raphe –
longitudinal ridge
extending from the
uvula to the
incisive papilla.
 2. Incisive Papilla –
small projection of
the mucous
membrane which
lies behind the
central incisor
indicating the
locat...
- It forms the anterior
limit of the median
raphe.
(Clinical significance:
site of puncture for
nasopalatine block
injecti...
 3. Transverse
Palatine Ridges or
Rugae – is about 3 to
4 distinct elevations
crossing the
anterior part of
the palate.
 4. Fovea Palatinae –
constant pits found
on the posterior
end of the palate,
near the midline,
that are formed by
a coal...
 (Clinical significance: These pits are
close to the vibrating line which
makes them an ideal guide for the
location of t...
 2. SOFT PALATE
 > A soft, flexible mass
attached to the
posterior end of the
hard palate.
 > Composed of folds
of muco...
 > Presents the
following:
 1. Uvula – a conical
process on the
midline of the
posterior border
of the soft palate.
 2. Palatine Arches
or Velum – free
margin of the
soft palate
extending laterally
from the uvula
that splits as they
appr...
 3. Palatoglossal
Arch – anterior
pillar of the fauces
or anterior
palatine arch,
encloses the
palatoglossal
muscle
 4.Palatopharyngeal
Arch – larger,
posterior pillar of
the fauces or
posterior palatine
arch, encloses the
palato-pharyng...
 5. Isthmus of the
Fauces or
Tonsillar Sinus –
an interval
between
the anterior &
posterior pillars.
It is triangular in
...
 6. Isthmus of the
Pharynx – interval
between the free
margin of the soft
palate & the
posterior
pharyngeal wall
separati...
 > Consists of the following:
 1. Palatal Aponeurosis
 2. Mucous glands
 3. Muscles
 A. Levator Palati Muscle
 B. Te...
> Supplied by the following:
Nerve:
1. Vagus Nerve
2. Accessory Nerve
3. Mandibular Nerve
4. Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Blood:...
 D. FLOOR OF THE
MOUTH
 > Formed chiefly by
the mylohyoid muscle
& other structures
which lie beneath the 2
halves of th...
 > Presents the
following:
 1. Frenulum
Linguae or Lingual
Frenum – median
fold of mucous
membrane
extending from
the fl...
 2. Sublingual Fold
– seen on the
side of the tongue
where the ducts of
the sublingual
salivary gland is
located.
 3. Sublingual
Papilla – slight
elevation on the
anterior end of
the sublingual
fold indicating the
opening of the
subman...
 4. Fimbriated Fold
– fold of mucous
membrane lying
lateral to the
frenulum.
 E. TONGUE
 > A movable mass of
muscle covered with
mucous membrane lying
on the floor of the mouth
& associated with th...
> Parts:
 1. Root – lower,
posterior portion
through which the
extrinsic muscles,
blood vessels &
nerves are
connected wi...
 2. Body – anterior,
larger portion
made up of
interlacing
skeletal muscles.
 3. Margins – lateral
sides of the organ,
free & blunt in
relation to the
gums & teeth.
 4. Tip/Apex – pointed
& free anterior
end, directed
anteriorly against
the incisor teeth. It
is blunt & rounded
when the...
 5. Dorsum Linguae
– slightly convex
anteroposteriorly.
It is divided by a
V-shaped groove
called Sulcus
Terminalis into;...
 > Lingual papillae –
consists of 3 kinds:
 A. Vallate/Circumvallate
papilla – 10 to 12 per
human tongue
 B. Fungiform ...
 > Muscles of the tongue:
 A. Extrinsic Muscles – originate from
the outside of the tongue. These
functions to change th...
 Nerve supply:
 1. Hypoglossal Nerve
 2. Spinal Accessory Nerve
 B. Intrinsic Muscles – are confined
within the substance of the tongue
& capable only of changing the
shape.
 1. Inferi...
 Nerve supply:
 1. Hypoglossal Nerve
 2. Lingual Nerve
 3. Glossopharyngeal
 4. Chorda Tympani
 Blood supply:
 1. L...
Stomatognathic System
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Stomatognathic System

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a system that compromises of a highly coordinated structure comprising the human masticatory apparatus.

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Stomatognathic System

  1. 1. STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM
  2. 2.  DEFINITION OF TERMS:  PHYSIOLOGY – is the science which deals with the study of normal tissue functions of a normal living body.
  3. 3.  GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY – deals with the study of basic activities of living organisms as a whole, emphasizing on function and dynamic changes occurring within cells, tissues and blood vessels.
  4. 4.  ORAL PHYSIOLOGY – a branch of Gen. Physiology which focuses on the functions of the different parts in the oral cavity as well as its associated structures. It deals with the Masticatory Apparatus (All structures & organs involved in mastication.)
  5. 5.  STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM – is a system that comprises of a highly coordinated structure comprising the human masticatory apparatus.
  6. 6. STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM – is a system composed of several parts capable of acting as a single unit for the processes of: ○1. mastication ○2. deglutition ○3. phonation ○4. respiration ○5. other behavioral characteristics or activities
  7. 7.  Group of structures that comprises the Stomatognathic System:  1. Dental Group  2. Osseous Group  3. Receptor Group  4. Muscular Group  5. Salivary Glands  6. Organs of the Digestive System  7. Organs of the Respiratory System
  8. 8.  DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORAL CAVITY: >ORAL STOMODEUM is the primitive oral cavity that begins to develop at 3 ½ weeks of fetal life. >It is lined with an ectoderm and unites with the endoderm to form the buccopharyngeal membrane.
  9. 9. ORAL STOMODEUM (3 ½ WEEKS Human Embryo)
  10. 10.  >At about 27 days this membrane raptures and the stomodeum establishes a connection with the foregut (future digestive tract).  >At 6 weeks old, the first sign of tooth development is seen.
  11. 11. > The oral ectoderm will give rise to the oral epithelium that runs along the outline of the future dental arches, which is called the DENTAL LAMINA (invagination that forms 2 thicker bands; vestibular lamina & dental lamina).
  12. 12. > Simultaneous with the differentiation of the dental lamina, there arises round or ovoid swellings at 10 different points in each jaw, corresponding to the future position of the deciduous dentition (TOOTH BUDS) .
  13. 13.  Dental Lamina  Tooth bud  Enamel Organ - enamel  Dental Papilla - dentin & pulp  Dental Sac - cementum, periodontal ligament & alveolar bone
  14. 14.  ORAL CAVITY – is the first portion of the alimentary canal or digestive tract.  Boundaries:  1. Anteriorly – Lips  2. Laterally – Cheeks  3. Superiorly – Hard & Soft Palate  4. Inferiorly – Floor of the Mouth & Tongue
  15. 15. Divisions of the Oral Cavity: A. Vestibule – smaller, outer portion Boundaries: ○ 1. Antero-laterally – lips & cheeks ○ 2. Postero-medially – gums & teeth ○ 3. Superior & Inferiorly – mucous membrane from the lips & cheeks to the gums
  16. 16. B. Oral Cavity Proper – larger, inner portion Boundaries: ○ 1. Antero-laterally – alveolar arches with their teeth ○ 2. Superiorly – hard & soft palate ○ 3. Inferiorly – tongue & mucous membrane from the side of the tongue to the gums
  17. 17.  PARTS OF THE ORAL CAVITY:  A. Lips  B. Cheeks  C. Palate  D. Floor of the mouth  E. Tongue
  18. 18.  A. LIPS  > Two mobile folds that encircle the rima oris. *Rima/ Orbicularis oris - sphincter muscle of the mouth.  > Covered by skin on its external surface & mucous membrane on its internal surface.
  19. 19. > Parts:  1. Angle of the mouth – points where the upper & lower lips meet at the sides.  2. Naso-labial groove – from the side of the nose to the angle of the mouth.
  20. 20. 3. Mento-labial groove – between the chin & lower lip. 4. Philtrum – from the inferior border of the nose to the upper lip.
  21. 21.  5. Frenulum of the upper & lower lips – vertical mucous folds found on the internal surface of the lips connecting them to the gums.
  22. 22. > Composed of the following layers: 1. Skin 2. Superficial Fascia 3. Orbicularis oris Muscle 4. Submucous Layer 5. Mucous Membrane
  23. 23. > Supplied by the following: Nerve: 1. Infra-orbital Nerve – from the maxillary nerve & supplies the upper lip 2. Mental Nerve – from the mandibular nerve & supplies the lower lip
  24. 24. Blood: 1. Superior Labial Artery 2. Inferior Labial Artery
  25. 25.  B. CHEEKS > Forms the lateral boundary of the vestibule of the mouth. > Buccinator muscle is the major muscle that makes up the cheeks.
  26. 26. > Composed of the following: 1. Skin 2. Superficial Fascia 3. Buccopharyngeal Fascia 4. Buccinator Muscle 5. Submucous Layer 6. Mucous Membrane
  27. 27.  C. PALATE  > Forms the roof of the mouth separating the nasal cavity & the nasopharynx from the buccal cavity.
  28. 28.  > Divided into 2 parts: 1. Hard palate – larger, anterior 2/3 2. Soft Palate – smaller, posterior 1/3
  29. 29.  1. HARD PALATE  > Formed by the palatine processes of the maxilla & the horizontal plates of the palatine bones.
  30. 30.  > The surface is covered by the mucous membrane & periosteum.  > The inferior surface is thicker & its posterior part contain the blood vessels, nerves & mucous glands.
  31. 31.  > Presents the following:  1. Median Raphe – longitudinal ridge extending from the uvula to the incisive papilla.
  32. 32.  2. Incisive Papilla – small projection of the mucous membrane which lies behind the central incisor indicating the location of the opening of the incisive foramen.
  33. 33. - It forms the anterior limit of the median raphe. (Clinical significance: site of puncture for nasopalatine block injection)
  34. 34.  3. Transverse Palatine Ridges or Rugae – is about 3 to 4 distinct elevations crossing the anterior part of the palate.
  35. 35.  4. Fovea Palatinae – constant pits found on the posterior end of the palate, near the midline, that are formed by a coalescence of several mucous gland ducts.
  36. 36.  (Clinical significance: These pits are close to the vibrating line which makes them an ideal guide for the location of the posterior border of the denture.)
  37. 37.  2. SOFT PALATE  > A soft, flexible mass attached to the posterior end of the hard palate.  > Composed of folds of mucous membrane.
  38. 38.  > Presents the following:  1. Uvula – a conical process on the midline of the posterior border of the soft palate.
  39. 39.  2. Palatine Arches or Velum – free margin of the soft palate extending laterally from the uvula that splits as they approach the lateral walls. The split portion forms the pillars of the soft palate.
  40. 40.  3. Palatoglossal Arch – anterior pillar of the fauces or anterior palatine arch, encloses the palatoglossal muscle
  41. 41.  4.Palatopharyngeal Arch – larger, posterior pillar of the fauces or posterior palatine arch, encloses the palato-pharyngeal muscle.
  42. 42.  5. Isthmus of the Fauces or Tonsillar Sinus – an interval between the anterior & posterior pillars. It is triangular in shape & encloses the palatine tonsils.
  43. 43.  6. Isthmus of the Pharynx – interval between the free margin of the soft palate & the posterior pharyngeal wall separating the nasopharynx from the lower pharynx.
  44. 44.  > Consists of the following:  1. Palatal Aponeurosis  2. Mucous glands  3. Muscles  A. Levator Palati Muscle  B. Tensor Palati Muscle  C. Palatoglossus Muscle  D. Palatopharyngeal Muscle  E. Uvulae Muscle
  45. 45. > Supplied by the following: Nerve: 1. Vagus Nerve 2. Accessory Nerve 3. Mandibular Nerve 4. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Blood: 1. Greater Palatine Artery 2. Lesser Palatine Artery
  46. 46.  D. FLOOR OF THE MOUTH  > Formed chiefly by the mylohyoid muscle & other structures which lie beneath the 2 halves of the body of the mandible.
  47. 47.  > Presents the following:  1. Frenulum Linguae or Lingual Frenum – median fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the inferior surface or the tongue.
  48. 48.  2. Sublingual Fold – seen on the side of the tongue where the ducts of the sublingual salivary gland is located.
  49. 49.  3. Sublingual Papilla – slight elevation on the anterior end of the sublingual fold indicating the opening of the submandibular ducts.
  50. 50.  4. Fimbriated Fold – fold of mucous membrane lying lateral to the frenulum.
  51. 51.  E. TONGUE  > A movable mass of muscle covered with mucous membrane lying on the floor of the mouth & associated with the functions of taste, chewing, swallowing & speaking.
  52. 52. > Parts:  1. Root – lower, posterior portion through which the extrinsic muscles, blood vessels & nerves are connected with the organ.
  53. 53.  2. Body – anterior, larger portion made up of interlacing skeletal muscles.
  54. 54.  3. Margins – lateral sides of the organ, free & blunt in relation to the gums & teeth.
  55. 55.  4. Tip/Apex – pointed & free anterior end, directed anteriorly against the incisor teeth. It is blunt & rounded when the tongue is at rest.
  56. 56.  5. Dorsum Linguae – slightly convex anteroposteriorly. It is divided by a V-shaped groove called Sulcus Terminalis into;  A. Anterior 2/3 – where lingual papilla are found.  B. Posterior 1/3 – where lingual tonsils are located.
  57. 57.  > Lingual papillae – consists of 3 kinds:  A. Vallate/Circumvallate papilla – 10 to 12 per human tongue  B. Fungiform papilla – scattered in between filiform papilla  C. Filiform papilla – most numerous & distributed in rows
  58. 58.  > Muscles of the tongue:  A. Extrinsic Muscles – originate from the outside of the tongue. These functions to change the position as well as the shape of the tongue.  1. Genioglossus  2. Hyoglossus  3. Styloglossus  4. Palatoglossus  5. Chondroglossus
  59. 59.  Nerve supply:  1. Hypoglossal Nerve  2. Spinal Accessory Nerve
  60. 60.  B. Intrinsic Muscles – are confined within the substance of the tongue & capable only of changing the shape.  1. Inferior Longitudinal  2. Superior Longitudinal  3. Transverse  4. Vertical
  61. 61.  Nerve supply:  1. Hypoglossal Nerve  2. Lingual Nerve  3. Glossopharyngeal  4. Chorda Tympani  Blood supply:  1. Lingual Artery  2. Tonsillar Artery

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