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Secretions of the Oral Cavity: Saliva

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Saliva

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Secretions of the Oral Cavity: Saliva

  1. 1. SALIVA > lubricates & protects the structure of the mouth. > influences the nature of oral flora & chemical composition of teeth.
  2. 2. > it plays a major role in the maintenance of health & in the production of disease by permitting or inhibiting the formation of: - plaque - calculus - proliferation of selected microorganisms.
  3. 3. > It contains: a. Immunoglobulins b. WBC c. Lipids d. Electrolytes e. Protein
  4. 4. Major Salivary Glands: - produces 95% of the total salivary flow 1. Parotid 2. Submandibular 3. Sublingual
  5. 5. 1. Parotid Gland - biggest, pyramidal in shape - literally next or anterior to the ear - opens to the STENSEN’S duct ( opposite the maxillary 2nd molar) - produces 60-65% of the total salivary flow
  6. 6. 2. Submandibular Gland - irregular, walnut in shape - lies posteriorly to the floor of the mouth or at the angle of the mandible - opens to the WHARTON’S duct (summit of the sublingual papilla at the side of the frenulum of the tongue) - produces 20-30% of the total salivary flow
  7. 7. 3. Sublingual Gland - smallest, almond in shape - lies immediately beneath the oral mucosal lining on the anterior portion of the floor of the mouth - opens to the BARTHOLIN’S duct (surface of the sublingual fold on either side of the tongue) - produces 2-5% of the total salivary flow
  8. 8. Minor Salivary Glands: - produces 5% of the total salivary flow 1. Minor sublingual 2. Labial 3. Buccal 4. Glossopalatine 5. Palatine 6. Lingual
  9. 9. > Secretion is primarily by unconditioned reflex associated with eating & masticatory proprioceptors of the periodontal ligament & muscles of mastication. > 1,000-1,500 ml is the total salivary fluid produced during a 24-hour period. (1 cc/min)
  10. 10. Factors Affecting Salivary Secretion: 1. Pharmacologic agents 2. Psychological 3. Size of gland 4. Interference with taste perception 5. Age changes 6. Systemic diseases 7. Disease of the salivary gland 8. Irradiation of glands.
  11. 11. Most important attribute of salivary secretions: Protective in nature – helps maintain integrity of teeth, tongue & mucous membrane of oral and pharyngeal areas.
  12. 12. Role in Oral Health: 1. Lubrication & Protection - glycoproteins & mucoids produced by the salivary glands forms a protective covering for the mucous membrane against irritants.
  13. 13. 2. Buffering action - because of its bicarbonate, phosphate & amphoteric proteins. - bacteria require specific pH condition.
  14. 14. 3. Maintenance of tooth integrity because it: a. Provides minerals for posteruptive maturation. b. Provides ions to counteract tooth dissolution. c. Forms a film of glycoprotein that may act as a diffusion barrier, to prevent loss of tooth mineral.
  15. 15. 4. Antibacterial activity against bacteria & viral invasion. - Lysozyme, IgA, Sialoperoxidase thiocynate & Lactoferin
  16. 16. > Saliva plays a role in the formation of plaque & calculus and is therefore intimately related to caries and periodontal disease.
  17. 17. > Salivary glycoprotein + precipitation + pellicle + microorganisms overgrow + plaque + mineralization + calculus.
  18. 18. Functions of Saliva: (Lavelle) 1. Digestive Function - amylase as main digestive enzyme 2. Excretory Function - saliva provides as important excretory route for blood components
  19. 19. 3. Solvent Function - by facilitating digestion - dissolution of foodstuff (one of the major salivary function) 4. Protective Function - protects oral tissues from dehydration - mechanical food & microbial debris lavage
  20. 20. Process of Secretion: (Ferguson) > Stimuli to Digestive Organ has three phases: 1. Cephalic – conditioned stimuli: a. Psychological Phase b. Visual Phase c. Olfactory Phase
  21. 21. a. Psychological phase > “the thought of food b. Visual phase > ”the sight of food” c. Olfactory phase > “the smell of food”
  22. 22. 2. Intraorgan – within organ stimuli (most important for salivary secretion) a. Mechanical stimuli – touch & pressure on oral structures and movements of masticatory muscles and mandible
  23. 23. b. Chemical stimuli – substances that stimulate taste receptors 3. Interorgan – stimulatory effect on secretion from irritation to the esophagus e.g. vomiting reflex
  24. 24. Role in Oral Health: 1. Pellicle & plaque deposition 2. Plaque mineralization & calculus formation 3. Dental caries
  25. 25. PELLICLE - thin, cellular & essentially bacteria free covering of the tooth which consist of various glycoprotein derived from the mucous salivary gland.
  26. 26. - thin deposit may form shortly after eruption on the exposed surface of the teeth. - reformed within minutes after exposure of pumice-polished teeth to saliva. - due to rapid formation, it precedes the first stage in plaque formation.
  27. 27. PLAQUE - localized concentration of microorganism on the tooth surface. - accretion of necrotic debris, foodstuff substances & salivary glycoproteins.
  28. 28. - contains mono & oligosaccharides that serve as substrates for microbial growth. - Streptococcus mutans is the predominant organism that enzymatically degrade plaque.
  29. 29. CALCULAR DEPOSIT - grainy in nature & act as mechanical irritant. - by product of calcification of organic products & microorganisms.
  30. 30. - calcified bacterial plaque - organic components consist mainly of Calcium & Phosphate.
  31. 31. - Types of Calculus: a. Supragingival - creamy white or yellowish in color - hard in consistency - most abundantly seen opposite the opening of the major salivary glands
  32. 32. b. Subgingival - dark brown to black due to blood pigments - hard to very hard in consistency - found in the periodontal pockets of any tooth.
  33. 33. DENTAL CARIES - is a microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth, characterized by demineralization of the inorganic portion & destruction of the organic substance of the tooth.
  34. 34. - Five general ways by which saliva can affect caries: a. to mechanically cleanse & thus lessen plaque accumulation. b. to reduce enamel solubility by plaque modification through calcium, phosphate & fluoride.
  35. 35. c. buffer & neutralize the acids either produce cariogen or introduced directly through diet. d. direct anti-bacterial activity. e. by aggregation or clumping bacteria & reducing adherence to teeth surfaces.
  36. 36. GINGIVAL FLUIDS - Sulcular fluid - fluid found in the gingival sulcus which seeps through the thin sulcular epithelium.
  37. 37. Have a blessed day!!!

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