SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 60
ANATOMY AND CLINICAL
SIGNIFICANCE OF DENTURE
BEARING AREAS
GROUP 3
DEN/2012/004……….. Chairman
DEN/2012/001……….. Secretary
DEN/2012/003
DEN/2012/024
DEN/2011/015
DEN/2012/019
OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING
AREAS
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF
DENTURE BEARING AREAS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
M.M Devan Dictum “Aim of a prosthodontist is not only the
meticulous replacement of what is missing, but also perpetual
preservation of what is present”
A prosthesis must function in harmony with the tissues that
support them and those that surround them.
Hence the dentist must understand the macroscopic as well
as microscopic anatomy of the supporting and limiting
structures of the denture.
ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING
AREAS
The anatomy of edentulous ridges in the maxilla and
mandible is very important for the design of the complete
denture.
The total area of support from the mandible is significantly
less than from the maxilla.
The average available denture bearing area for an
edentulous mandible is 14cm2,whereas for edentulous
maxilla it is 24cm2. Therefore the mandible is less capable of
resisting occlusal forces than the maxilla.
THE ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE
Serves as a cushion between the denture base and the
supporting bone.
Mucous membrane is composed of mucosa and sub mucosa.
Sub-mucosa is formed by connective tissue that varies from
dense to loose areolar tissue.
Mucosa covering the hard palate and the crest of the ridge is
classified as MASTICATORY MUCOSA.
The mucosa is characterized by its well defined
KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM.
ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE
ANATOMY OF DENTURE
BEARING AREA - MAXILLA
The ultimate support for the maxillary denture are the bones
of the two maxilla and the palatine bone.
The anatomical land marks in the maxilla are
LIMITING STRUCTURES
SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
RELIEF AREAS
LIMITING STRUCTURES OF THE
MAXILLA
 Limiting structures are sites that will guide us in having an
optimum extension of denture so as to engage maximum
surface area without encroaching upon the muscle action.
 These are structures that limit the extent of the denture:
1. Labial frenum
2. Labial vestibule
3. Buccal frenum
4. Buccal vestibule
5. Hamular notch
6. Posterior palatal seal
7. Fovea palatinae
LABIAL FRENUM
 Single or double fibrous band covered
by mucous membrane which extends
from labial aspect of residual alveolar
ridge to the lip.
 Absence of muscle fibers.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Limits labial flange of denture.
 It has to be relieved while making
impression in other to prevent
dislodgement of the denture and to
prevent ulceration. It is seen as a V-
shaped notch in the impression.
LABIAL VESTIBULE
 It extends from buccal frenum on one side to
the other, being divided into right and left by
labial frenum.
 Anteriorly: orbicularis oris muscle
 Posteriorly: labial aspect of alveolar ridge.
It has a thin mucosa and thick submucosa
with large amount of loose areolar tissue and
elastic fibers.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The labial flange of the denture will be in
complete contact with labial vestibule to
provide a peripheral seal in the denture.
BUCCAL FRENUM
 Band of fibrous tissue overlying the levator
anguli oris, that divides labial vestibule from
buccal vestibule.
 The orbicularis oris pulls frenum forward and the
buccinator pulls it backward.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Since it has muscular attachments, adequate
relief must be provided to prevent the
dislodgment of denture.(that is, it can move
posteriorly as a result of the buccinator muscle
and anteriorly as a result of the orbicularis oris.)
 It requires more clearance for its action than
labial frenum because it moves mesially,
buccally and vertically by orbicularis oris,
buccinator and levator anguli oris respectively.
BUCCAL VESTIBULE
 Buccal vestibule extends from the buccal
frenum to the hamular notch.
 Bounded externally by cheeks and internally by
residual alveolar ridge.
 The size of the vestibule varies with the
contraction of the buccinator muscle.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The patient’s mouth must be half open during
impression taking, because opening of mouth
during final impression causes the coronoid
process to move anteriorly narrowing the
buccal vestibule.
 Compared to labial flange, buccal flange has
less interference and so provides maximum
retention.
HAMULAR NOTCH
 Hamular notch forms the distal limit of the
buccal vestibule, located between the tuberosity
and the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.
 Pterygomandibular raphe is attached to the
hamular notch.
 It has thick submucosa made up of loose areolar
tissue.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 If denture border is short of the hamular notch
The denture will not have a posterior seal
resulting in loss of retention of the denture.
 If denture extend beyond hamular notch The
pterygomandibular raphe is pulled forward when
patient opens mouth causing dislodgement of
denture.
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
 Also known as post dam.
 “The soft tissues at or along the
junction of the hard and soft
palate on which pressure along
the physiological limits of the
tissues can be applied by the
the denture to aid in the
retention of the denture.”-GPT
(GLOSSARY OF
PROSTHODONTICS TERM)
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
PARTS
 postpalatal seal
 pterygomaxillary seal
EXTENSIONS
 anteriorly- anterior vibrating line
 posteriorly- posterior vibrating line
 laterally- 3-4mm anterior-lateral to hamular notch
Pterygomaxillary seal Postpalatal seal
DIFFERENCES
 It is the part of the
posterior palatal seal that
extends across the
hamular notch and
extends 3 to 4 mm
anterolaterally to end in
the mucogingival junction
on the posterior part of the
maxillary ridge.
 It is the part of the
posterior palatal seal area
that extends between the
two maxillary tuberosities.
Pterygomaxillary seal Postpalatal seal
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
VIBRATING LINE
 “The imaginary line across the posterior part of the palate marking
the division between the movable and immovable tissues of the
soft palate which can be identified when the movable tissue is
moving’’-GPT
 Denture should extend 1-2mm posterior to this vibrating lines.
Types:
 Anterior vibrating line
 Posterior vibrating line
ANTERIOR VIBRATING LINE
 It is an imaginary line lying at the
junction between the immovable
tissue over the hard palate and
the slightly movable tissues of
the soft palate.
 It is cupid bow shaped(because
of the shape of the underlying
bone).
 Valsalva maneuver: The patient
is asked to close his nostrils
firmly and gently blow through his
nose, to locate the anterior
vibrating line.
Arrow showing the bone that gives
bow shape to anterior vibrating line
in edentulous patients.
POSTERIOR VIBRATING LINE
 It is an imaginary line located at the junction of the soft palate that
shows limited movement and the soft palate that shows marked
movement.
 This line is usually straight.
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL CONTD
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
 It maintains contact with the anterior portion of the soft palate during
functional movements of the stomatognatic system (i.e mastication,
deglutition and phonation). Therefore, the primary purpose of the
posterior palatal seal is the retention of maxillary denture.
 Reduces the tendency for gag reflex as it prevents the formation of the
gap between the denture base and the soft palate during functional
movements.
 Prevents food accumulation between the posterior border of the denture
and the soft palate.
FOVEA PALATINAE
 These are the depresssions or indentations situated on
the soft palate on the either side of the midline.
 It is formed by coalescence of the duct of several
mucous glands.
 The position of the fovea palatinae also influences the
posterior border of the denture.
 The secretion of the fovea spreads as a thin film on the
denture therefore aiding in retention.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 In patients with thick ropy saliva, the fovea palatinae
should be left uncovered or else the thick saliva flowing
between the tissue and the denture can increase the
hydrostatic pressure and displace the denture.
SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF
MAXILLA
PRIMARY STRESS BEARING
 HARD PALATE
 POSTERO-LATERAL SLOPES OF THE RESIDUAL
ALVEOLAR RIDGE
SECONDARY STRESS BEARING AREA
 RUGAE
 MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY
 ALVEOLAR TUBERCLE
HARD PALATE
 It is formed by palatine shelves of
the maxillary bone and the
premaxilla.
 Lined by keratinised epithelium.
 The horizontal of the hard palate
provides the PRIMARY STRESS-
BEARING AREA.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The trabecular pattern in the bone is
perpendicular to the direction of
force, making it capable of
withstanding any amount of force
without marked resorption.
POSTERO-LATERAL SLOPES OF
THE RESIDUAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE
 “The portion of the alveolar ridge and its soft
tissue covering which remains following removal
of the teeth.”-GPT
 Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium.
 Even though the sub-mucosa is thin it sufficiently
provide adequate resiliency to support the
denture.
 It resorbs rapidly following extractions and
continues throughout life at a reduced rate.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The vertical forces during physiological activities
like mastication falls on denture and is
transmitted posteriorly. The postero-lateral
slopes of the ridge bears the force and hence is
the primary supporting structure.
RUGAE
 These are the mucosal folds located in the anterior
region of the palatal mucosa.
 In the area of rugae, the palate is set at an angle to the
residual alveolar ridge and is thinly covered by soft
tissue which contributes to the secondary stress
bearing area.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 It is associated with the sensation of taste and the
function of speech.
 They assist the tongue to absorb via its papillae.
 They also enable the tongue to form a perfect seal
when it is pressed against the palate in making linguo-
palatal constant stops of speech.
 Rugae should not be displaced, otherwise the
rebounding may dislodge the denture.
 They provide antero-posterior resistance to movement
of the denture and increased surface surface area
helps in retention.
MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY
 It is the bulbous extension of the
residual alveolar ridge in the 2nd
and 3rd molar region, terminating in
the hamular notch.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The area is less likely to resorb.
 Artficial teeth are not set on
tuberosity region.
 The tuberosities sometimes
exhibit buccal undercuts, if it is
unilateral it can be utilized for the
retention.
NOTE
 Residual ridge was first considered to be a primary stress bearing
area but it is now considered a secondary stress bearing area
because of the fact that bone is subjected to continuous resorption
though it decreases as the span of edentulism increases.
RELIEF AREAS
These are areas in the denture bearing areas which should be
relived during construction of dentures.
Incisive papillae
Mid-palatine raphe
Fovea palatine
Palatine torus
Rugae
INCISIVE PAPPILAE
 It is the midline structure situated behind the
central incisors.
 Incisive foramen lies immediately beneath
the papillae.
 As resorption progresses, it comes to lie
nearer to the crest of the ridge.
 The naso-palatine nerves and vessels pass
through it.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 While making final impression pressure
should not be applied on this region.
MID-PALATINE RAPHE
 This is the median suture area covered
by a thin sub-mucosa, so the mucosa
layer is in close contact with the
underlying bone
 For this region, the soft tissue covering
the median palatal tissue is non-
resilient in nature and may need to be
relieved.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 If pressure is applied during
impression making,the denture base
will cause soreness over the
midpalatine raphe area.
FOVEA PALATINE
 Bilateral indentations near the midline of
palate. Posterior to junction of hard and soft
palate
 These are a pair of mucous gland duct
orifice near the midline at the junction of the
hard and the soft palate
 Formed by coalescence of several mucous
gland duct
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Aids in determining vibrating line
 These landmarks provide a guide to the
position of the posterior palatal border of a
denture
PALATINE TORUS
 A developmental bony prominence
sometimes seen in the centre of the
palate. This structure is often covered
by relatively incompressible
mucoperiosteum
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 If it is small, the denture is relieved
 A mucosally supported denture may
need to be relieved over the torus to
prevent the denture rocking and flexing
about the mid line.
RUGAE
 Irregular shaped ridges of the
connective tissue covered by
mucous membrane in the anterior
third of the hard palate
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Should not be disturbed by
impression for maximum comfort
ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING
AREAS- MANDIBLE
 These are areas in mandible that are closely related to the base of
the mandibular complete denture. They are covered with mucosa
and sub mucosa of varying degree of thickness and compressiblity.
 The anatomical landmarks in the mandible are ;
LIMITING STRUCTURES
SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
RELIEF AREAS
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF
EDENTULOUS MANDIBLE
LIMITING STRUCTURES OF THE
MANDIBLE
LABIAL FRENUM
LABIAL VESTIBULE
BUCCAL FRENUM
BUCCAL VESTIBULE
LINGUAL FRENUM
ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS
RETROMOLAR PAD
PTERYGOMANDIBULAR RAPHE
LABIAL FRENUM
 It is a fold of mucous membrane at the
median line. It divides the labial vestibule into
left and right labial vestibule.
 It consist of band of fibrous connective tissue
and helps to attach orbicularis oris muscle.
 It is shorter and wider than the maxillary labial
frenum.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 During final impression, making sufficient
relief must be given without compromising
the peripheral seal.
 The frenum is quite sensitive and active,
and the denture must be fitted carefully
around it to maintain a seal without causing
soreness.
LABIAL VESTIBULE
 It runs from the buccal frenum to buccal
frenum. It is divided into left and right by
labial frenum.
 Fibers of orbicularis oris,incisivus and
mentalis are inserted near the crest of
the ridge. Mentalis muscle is an active
muscle.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Extent of the denture flange in this region is
often limited because of muscle that are
inserted close to the crest of the ridge.
 Thick denture flanges may cause
dislodgement of dentures when patient
opens the mouth wide open.
BUCCAL FRENUM
 The buccal frenum forms the dividing
line between the labial and buccal
vestibule.
 May be single or double, broad U
shaped or sharp V shaped.
 It overlies depressor anguli oris
muscle.
 Fibres of the buccinator muscle
attach to the frenum.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Relief for buccal frenum is given in
denture to avoid displacement of
the denture.
BUCCAL VESTIBULE
 Extends from buccal frenum to retromolar pad.
 It is nearly at right angles to biting forces.
 Extent of the buccal vestibule is influenced by
buccinators muscle,which extends from modiolous
anteriorly to pterygomandibular raphe.
 The masseter muscle contracts under heavy closing
force and pushes inward against the buccinators
muscle to produce a massetric notch in the distobuccal
border of the lower denture.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The distobuccal border of the lower denture should
accommodate the contracting masseter muscle so that
the denture does not dislodge during heavy closing
force.
LINGUAL FRENUM
 It is a fold of mucous membrane existing when
the tip of the tongue is elevated.
 It overlies the genioglossus muscle which takes
origin from the superior genial tubercle.
 The anterior region of the lingual flange is
called sub-lingual crescent area.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The relief for the lingual frenum should be
registered during function.
 A short frenum is called tongue tie. It should be
corrected if it affects the stability of the denture.
ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS
 It is the space between residual ridge and tongue.
 Extends from lingual frenum to rectomylohyoid curtain
 It has 3 regions (anterior, middle and posterior)
 The anterior region extends from the lingual frenum back to where mylohyoid
muscle curves above the level of the sulcus (premylohyoid fossa)
 The middle region extends from premylohyoid fossa to the distal end of the
mylohyoid ridge, curving medially from the body of mandible. The curvature is
caused by the prominence of mylohyoid ridge and the action mylohyoid
muscle
 The posterior region: here, the flange passes into the rectomylohyoid fossa
and completes the TYPICAL S FORM of the correctly shaped lingual flange
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
The lingual flange of the lower denture will be short anteriorly than posteriorly
The lingual flange in the middle region slopes medially towards the tongue
ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS-
RETROMYLOHYOID SPACE
 The retromylohyoid space lies at
distal end of the alveololingual
sulcus
 It is bounded by anterior tonsillar
pillar, posteriorly by the
retromylohyoid curtain
ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS-
RETROMYLOHYOID CURTAIN
 Formed posteriorly by the
superior constrictor muscle,
laterally by the mandible and
pterygo-mandibular raphe,
anteriorly by lingual
tuberosity, and inferioirly by
the mylohyoid muscle
 NOTE: RMC IS
RETROMYLOHYOID
CURTAIN
RETROMOLAR PAD
 It is a non-keratinised triangular pear-shaped pad
of tissue at the distal end of the lower ridge.
 Submucosa contains glandular tissue, fibers of
buccinators and superior constrictor muscle,
pterygomandibular raphe and terminal part of the
tendon of the temporalis.
 The retromolar papilla is a pear shaped area just
anterior to the retromolar pad, it is a dense
fibrous connective tissue.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The distal end of the denture pad should
cover 2/3rd of the retromolar pad.
 The retromolar pad provides the
peripheral posterior seal for the lower
denture.
PTERYGOMANDIBULAR RAPHE
 Raphe is a tendinous insertion of two
muscles.
 Arises from the hamular process of the
medial pterygoid and gets attached to the
mylohyoid ridge.
 Muscular attachments present here are:
 superior constrictor: postreolaterally
 Buccinator: anterolaterally
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 Since it is very prominent in some
patients, a notch like relief must be
provided on the denture.
SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF THE
MANDIBLE
These are areas responsible for bearing loads in the
mandible.
Buccal shelf area
Residual alveolar ridge
BUCCAL SHELF AREA
 It is the area between buccal frenum and anterior
border of masseter muscle.
 BOUNDARIES:
 Medially-the crest of the ridge.
 Distally-the retromolar pad
 Laterally-the external oblique ridge.
 The mucous membrane covering the buccal shelf
area is loosely attached, less keratinized and
contains a thick submucosa overlying a cortical plate.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 It lies at right angles to the vertical occlusal
force; this makes it suitable as primary stress
bearing area for lower denture.
BUCCAL SHELF AREA
RESIDUAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE
 The edentulous mandible may become flat, due to resorption;
which results into outward inclination and progressively
widening of mandible.
 Similarly maxilla resorbs upward and inward making it smaller.
 It is the reason for edentulous patients to have prognathic
apperance
 The slopes of residual alveolar ridge have thin plate of cortical
bone. The slopes of the ridge are at an acute angle to occlusal
forces.
 Hence, it is considered as a SECONDARY stress bearing
area.
 Since crest of the ridge has cancellous bone, it is not
favourable as primary stress bearing area.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE.
 Any movable soft tissue overlying the ridge should not be
compressed while making impression.
RELIEF AREA
Mental foramen
Genial tubercle
Mylohyoid ridge
Mandibular tori
MENTAL FORAMEN
 It lies between the 1st and 2nd
premolar region.
 Due to ridge resorption, it may lie
close to the ridge.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 It should be relieved in these areas
as pressure over the nerve passing
through it can get compressed by
denture base leading to
paraesthesia (numbness) of lower
lip.
GENIAL TUBERCLE
 The genial tubercle are a pair of dense
prominences at the inferior border of the
mandible at the lingual midline
 They represents the muscle attachment of
the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscle.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 They only become relevant in the denture
when there is excessive resorption of the
residual ridge.
MYLOHYOID RIDGE
 The mylohyoid ridge is a bony
prominence along the lingual aspect of
the mandible
 Soft tissue usually hides the sharpness of
the mylohyoid ridge
 Anteriorly, this ridge with mylohyoid
muscle is close to the inferior surface of
the mandible
 Posteriorly, after resorption, it often
flushes with the residual ridge.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 The mucosa membrane overlying the
sharp or irregular mylohyoid ridge needs
to be relieved because denture base
might easily traumatize it.
MANDIBULAR TORI
 These are the abnormal bony
prominence found bilaterally on the
lingual side, near the premolar region
but they may extend posteriorly to the
molar area
 It is covered by thin mucosa.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 It has to be relieved or surgically removed,
according to its size and extent.
 Small tori may only require relief in the
denture
 Large tori requires removal before a
denture can be fabricated.
CONCLUSION
 Thus, we see that a sound knowledge of the
anatomical landmarks of the denture bearing area is a
prerequisite, if one has to achieve the objective one
has in mind; fabrication of a complete denture that has
maximum retention, stability and support with
preservation of underlying structures with minimum
post insertion problems.
REFERENCES
 Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patient : Zarb
Bolender
 Preclinical manual of prosthodontics : S Lakshmi
 Impressions for complete dentures : Bernard Levin
 Textbook of Prosthodontic : Nallasyamy
 Boucher’s prosthodontics treatment for edentulous
patients. 13th Edition
 Heartwell’s syllabus of complete denture. 4th edition.

More Related Content

What's hot

Heat cure acrylic
Heat cure acrylicHeat cure acrylic
Heat cure acrylicAamir Godil
 
Dental Occlusion
Dental OcclusionDental Occlusion
Dental Occlusiondentistry
 
impression techniques of complete denture
impression techniques of complete dentureimpression techniques of complete denture
impression techniques of complete dentureakanksha arya
 
Jaw relation
Jaw relationJaw relation
Jaw relationIAU Dent
 
Class ii amalgam
Class ii amalgamClass ii amalgam
Class ii amalgampayal singh
 
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial Denture
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial DentureKennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial Denture
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial DentureAamir Godil
 
Steps Of Cavity Preparation
Steps Of Cavity PreparationSteps Of Cavity Preparation
Steps Of Cavity PreparationAbhinav Mudaliar
 
Complete denture processing & errors
Complete denture processing & errorsComplete denture processing & errors
Complete denture processing & errorsAli Alarasy
 
Complete denture - Introduction to Prosthodontics
Complete denture - Introduction to ProsthodonticsComplete denture - Introduction to Prosthodontics
Complete denture - Introduction to ProsthodonticsAmmedicine Medicine
 
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.srinivaslalluri
 
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)Aliya zehra Raza
 

What's hot (20)

Acid Etching of Enamel and Bond Strength
Acid Etching of Enamel and Bond StrengthAcid Etching of Enamel and Bond Strength
Acid Etching of Enamel and Bond Strength
 
Heat cure acrylic
Heat cure acrylicHeat cure acrylic
Heat cure acrylic
 
Dental Occlusion
Dental OcclusionDental Occlusion
Dental Occlusion
 
Glass ionomer cement
Glass ionomer cementGlass ionomer cement
Glass ionomer cement
 
Jaw relation in complete dentures
Jaw relation in complete denturesJaw relation in complete dentures
Jaw relation in complete dentures
 
impression techniques of complete denture
impression techniques of complete dentureimpression techniques of complete denture
impression techniques of complete denture
 
Jaw relation
Jaw relationJaw relation
Jaw relation
 
Impression materials
Impression materialsImpression materials
Impression materials
 
Class ii amalgam
Class ii amalgamClass ii amalgam
Class ii amalgam
 
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial Denture
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial DentureKennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial Denture
Kennedy’s Classification in Cast Partial Denture
 
Class II cavity preparation
Class II cavity preparationClass II cavity preparation
Class II cavity preparation
 
Steps Of Cavity Preparation
Steps Of Cavity PreparationSteps Of Cavity Preparation
Steps Of Cavity Preparation
 
Complete denture processing & errors
Complete denture processing & errorsComplete denture processing & errors
Complete denture processing & errors
 
Complete denture - Introduction to Prosthodontics
Complete denture - Introduction to ProsthodonticsComplete denture - Introduction to Prosthodontics
Complete denture - Introduction to Prosthodontics
 
Matrix bands
Matrix bandsMatrix bands
Matrix bands
 
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.
Tooth preparation for Metal ceramic crowns.
 
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)
Steps of Tooth preparation (in brief)
 
Spacer designs
Spacer designsSpacer designs
Spacer designs
 
dentin bonding agents
dentin bonding agentsdentin bonding agents
dentin bonding agents
 
Impression Materials (Dental)
Impression Materials (Dental) Impression Materials (Dental)
Impression Materials (Dental)
 

Similar to Anatomy and clinical significance of denture bearing areas

anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptx
anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptxanatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptx
anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptxSALAWUSAMUELADINOYI
 
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptx
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptxANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptx
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptxAmanBobal1
 
significance of maxillary denture bearing area
significance of maxillary denture bearing area significance of maxillary denture bearing area
significance of maxillary denture bearing area Narayan Sukla
 
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla
Anatomical landmarks of maxillaAnatomical landmarks of maxilla
Anatomical landmarks of maxillaHiba Hamid
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)MINDS MAHE
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLA
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLAANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLA
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLADr Saheer Abbas
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importance
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importanceANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importance
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importanceSrustishastri
 
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREAPOSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREAAswati Soman
 
Anatomical landmarks-7620033
Anatomical landmarks-7620033Anatomical landmarks-7620033
Anatomical landmarks-7620033salim malik
 
Mandibular anatomical landmarks
Mandibular anatomical landmarksMandibular anatomical landmarks
Mandibular anatomical landmarksNishu Priya
 
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary arch
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary archAnatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary arch
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary archShazlana Raheem
 
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarks
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarksMaxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarks
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarksRajvi Nahar
 
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]Pooja Langote
 
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandible
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandibleOsteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandible
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandiblepranav verma
 
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarks
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarksAnatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarks
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarksMohammed Aziz
 

Similar to Anatomy and clinical significance of denture bearing areas (20)

anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptx
anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptxanatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptx
anatomyandclinicalsignificanceofdenturebearingareas-160731195726-converted.pptx
 
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptx
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptxANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptx
ANATOMICAL-LANDMARKS-OF-CD.pptx
 
significance of maxillary denture bearing area
significance of maxillary denture bearing area significance of maxillary denture bearing area
significance of maxillary denture bearing area
 
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla
Anatomical landmarks of maxillaAnatomical landmarks of maxilla
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla
 
Landmarks
LandmarksLandmarks
Landmarks
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS (Dr.ABHIRAMI)
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLA
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLAANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLA
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF MAXILLA
 
Anatomical landmark
Anatomical landmark Anatomical landmark
Anatomical landmark
 
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importance
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importanceANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importance
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA and it's importance
 
2.anatomy of the denture foundation areas
2.anatomy  of the denture foundation areas2.anatomy  of the denture foundation areas
2.anatomy of the denture foundation areas
 
2.anatomy of the denture foundation areas
2.anatomy  of the denture foundation areas2.anatomy  of the denture foundation areas
2.anatomy of the denture foundation areas
 
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREAPOSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
 
Anatomical landmarks-7620033
Anatomical landmarks-7620033Anatomical landmarks-7620033
Anatomical landmarks-7620033
 
Posterior palatal seal
Posterior palatal sealPosterior palatal seal
Posterior palatal seal
 
Mandibular anatomical landmarks
Mandibular anatomical landmarksMandibular anatomical landmarks
Mandibular anatomical landmarks
 
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary arch
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary archAnatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary arch
Anatomical landmarks of edentulous maxillary arch
 
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarks
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarksMaxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarks
Maxillary and mandbular anatomical landmarks
 
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]
Anatomical landmarks of maxilla and mandible [autosaved]
 
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandible
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandibleOsteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandible
Osteology and mucose membrane of maxi & mandible
 
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarks
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarksAnatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarks
Anatomical landmarks for edentulous patients and facial landmarks
 

Recently uploaded

Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...narwatsonia7
 
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxDr.Nusrat Tariq
 
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...rajnisinghkjn
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Servicesonalikaur4
 
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...sonalikaur4
 
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAAjennyeacort
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...narwatsonia7
 
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...rajnisinghkjn
 
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.ANJALI
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsMedicoseAcademics
 
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceCollege Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceNehru place Escorts
 
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photosnarwatsonia7
 
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxRadiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...Nehru place Escorts
 
call girls in green park DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in green park  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in green park  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in green park DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Time
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any TimeCall Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Time
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Timevijaych2041
 
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Models
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking ModelsMumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Models
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Modelssonalikaur4
 
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi NcrDelhi Call Girls
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
 
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
 
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...
Noida Sector 135 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few C...
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
 
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...
Call Girls Near Airport Ahmedabad 9907093804 All Area Service COD available A...
 
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
 
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
 
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
 
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.
Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development.
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
 
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceCollege Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
 
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
 
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxRadiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
 
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...
Call Girls Service in Virugambakkam - 7001305949 | 24x7 Service Available Nea...
 
call girls in green park DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in green park  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in green park  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in green park DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Time
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any TimeCall Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Time
Call Girls Viman Nagar 7001305949 All Area Service COD available Any Time
 
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Models
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking ModelsMumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Models
Mumbai Call Girls Service 9910780858 Real Russian Girls Looking Models
 
Epilepsy
EpilepsyEpilepsy
Epilepsy
 
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr
9873777170 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls In North Avenue Delhi Ncr
 

Anatomy and clinical significance of denture bearing areas

  • 1. ANATOMY AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS GROUP 3 DEN/2012/004……….. Chairman DEN/2012/001……….. Secretary DEN/2012/003 DEN/2012/024 DEN/2011/015 DEN/2012/019
  • 2. OUTLINE INTRODUCTION ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS CONCLUSION REFERENCES
  • 3. INTRODUCTION M.M Devan Dictum “Aim of a prosthodontist is not only the meticulous replacement of what is missing, but also perpetual preservation of what is present” A prosthesis must function in harmony with the tissues that support them and those that surround them. Hence the dentist must understand the macroscopic as well as microscopic anatomy of the supporting and limiting structures of the denture.
  • 4. ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS The anatomy of edentulous ridges in the maxilla and mandible is very important for the design of the complete denture. The total area of support from the mandible is significantly less than from the maxilla. The average available denture bearing area for an edentulous mandible is 14cm2,whereas for edentulous maxilla it is 24cm2. Therefore the mandible is less capable of resisting occlusal forces than the maxilla.
  • 5. THE ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE Serves as a cushion between the denture base and the supporting bone. Mucous membrane is composed of mucosa and sub mucosa. Sub-mucosa is formed by connective tissue that varies from dense to loose areolar tissue. Mucosa covering the hard palate and the crest of the ridge is classified as MASTICATORY MUCOSA. The mucosa is characterized by its well defined KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM.
  • 7. ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING AREA - MAXILLA The ultimate support for the maxillary denture are the bones of the two maxilla and the palatine bone. The anatomical land marks in the maxilla are LIMITING STRUCTURES SUPPORTING STRUCTURES RELIEF AREAS
  • 8.
  • 9. LIMITING STRUCTURES OF THE MAXILLA  Limiting structures are sites that will guide us in having an optimum extension of denture so as to engage maximum surface area without encroaching upon the muscle action.  These are structures that limit the extent of the denture: 1. Labial frenum 2. Labial vestibule 3. Buccal frenum 4. Buccal vestibule 5. Hamular notch 6. Posterior palatal seal 7. Fovea palatinae
  • 10. LABIAL FRENUM  Single or double fibrous band covered by mucous membrane which extends from labial aspect of residual alveolar ridge to the lip.  Absence of muscle fibers. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Limits labial flange of denture.  It has to be relieved while making impression in other to prevent dislodgement of the denture and to prevent ulceration. It is seen as a V- shaped notch in the impression.
  • 11. LABIAL VESTIBULE  It extends from buccal frenum on one side to the other, being divided into right and left by labial frenum.  Anteriorly: orbicularis oris muscle  Posteriorly: labial aspect of alveolar ridge. It has a thin mucosa and thick submucosa with large amount of loose areolar tissue and elastic fibers. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The labial flange of the denture will be in complete contact with labial vestibule to provide a peripheral seal in the denture.
  • 12. BUCCAL FRENUM  Band of fibrous tissue overlying the levator anguli oris, that divides labial vestibule from buccal vestibule.  The orbicularis oris pulls frenum forward and the buccinator pulls it backward. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Since it has muscular attachments, adequate relief must be provided to prevent the dislodgment of denture.(that is, it can move posteriorly as a result of the buccinator muscle and anteriorly as a result of the orbicularis oris.)  It requires more clearance for its action than labial frenum because it moves mesially, buccally and vertically by orbicularis oris, buccinator and levator anguli oris respectively.
  • 13.
  • 14. BUCCAL VESTIBULE  Buccal vestibule extends from the buccal frenum to the hamular notch.  Bounded externally by cheeks and internally by residual alveolar ridge.  The size of the vestibule varies with the contraction of the buccinator muscle. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The patient’s mouth must be half open during impression taking, because opening of mouth during final impression causes the coronoid process to move anteriorly narrowing the buccal vestibule.  Compared to labial flange, buccal flange has less interference and so provides maximum retention.
  • 15. HAMULAR NOTCH  Hamular notch forms the distal limit of the buccal vestibule, located between the tuberosity and the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.  Pterygomandibular raphe is attached to the hamular notch.  It has thick submucosa made up of loose areolar tissue. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  If denture border is short of the hamular notch The denture will not have a posterior seal resulting in loss of retention of the denture.  If denture extend beyond hamular notch The pterygomandibular raphe is pulled forward when patient opens mouth causing dislodgement of denture.
  • 16. POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA  Also known as post dam.  “The soft tissues at or along the junction of the hard and soft palate on which pressure along the physiological limits of the tissues can be applied by the the denture to aid in the retention of the denture.”-GPT (GLOSSARY OF PROSTHODONTICS TERM)
  • 17. POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA PARTS  postpalatal seal  pterygomaxillary seal EXTENSIONS  anteriorly- anterior vibrating line  posteriorly- posterior vibrating line  laterally- 3-4mm anterior-lateral to hamular notch
  • 18. Pterygomaxillary seal Postpalatal seal DIFFERENCES  It is the part of the posterior palatal seal that extends across the hamular notch and extends 3 to 4 mm anterolaterally to end in the mucogingival junction on the posterior part of the maxillary ridge.  It is the part of the posterior palatal seal area that extends between the two maxillary tuberosities.
  • 19. Pterygomaxillary seal Postpalatal seal POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
  • 20. VIBRATING LINE  “The imaginary line across the posterior part of the palate marking the division between the movable and immovable tissues of the soft palate which can be identified when the movable tissue is moving’’-GPT  Denture should extend 1-2mm posterior to this vibrating lines. Types:  Anterior vibrating line  Posterior vibrating line
  • 21. ANTERIOR VIBRATING LINE  It is an imaginary line lying at the junction between the immovable tissue over the hard palate and the slightly movable tissues of the soft palate.  It is cupid bow shaped(because of the shape of the underlying bone).  Valsalva maneuver: The patient is asked to close his nostrils firmly and gently blow through his nose, to locate the anterior vibrating line. Arrow showing the bone that gives bow shape to anterior vibrating line in edentulous patients.
  • 22. POSTERIOR VIBRATING LINE  It is an imaginary line located at the junction of the soft palate that shows limited movement and the soft palate that shows marked movement.  This line is usually straight.
  • 23. POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL CONTD CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:  It maintains contact with the anterior portion of the soft palate during functional movements of the stomatognatic system (i.e mastication, deglutition and phonation). Therefore, the primary purpose of the posterior palatal seal is the retention of maxillary denture.  Reduces the tendency for gag reflex as it prevents the formation of the gap between the denture base and the soft palate during functional movements.  Prevents food accumulation between the posterior border of the denture and the soft palate.
  • 24. FOVEA PALATINAE  These are the depresssions or indentations situated on the soft palate on the either side of the midline.  It is formed by coalescence of the duct of several mucous glands.  The position of the fovea palatinae also influences the posterior border of the denture.  The secretion of the fovea spreads as a thin film on the denture therefore aiding in retention. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  In patients with thick ropy saliva, the fovea palatinae should be left uncovered or else the thick saliva flowing between the tissue and the denture can increase the hydrostatic pressure and displace the denture.
  • 25. SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF MAXILLA PRIMARY STRESS BEARING  HARD PALATE  POSTERO-LATERAL SLOPES OF THE RESIDUAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE SECONDARY STRESS BEARING AREA  RUGAE  MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY  ALVEOLAR TUBERCLE
  • 26. HARD PALATE  It is formed by palatine shelves of the maxillary bone and the premaxilla.  Lined by keratinised epithelium.  The horizontal of the hard palate provides the PRIMARY STRESS- BEARING AREA. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The trabecular pattern in the bone is perpendicular to the direction of force, making it capable of withstanding any amount of force without marked resorption.
  • 27. POSTERO-LATERAL SLOPES OF THE RESIDUAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE  “The portion of the alveolar ridge and its soft tissue covering which remains following removal of the teeth.”-GPT  Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium.  Even though the sub-mucosa is thin it sufficiently provide adequate resiliency to support the denture.  It resorbs rapidly following extractions and continues throughout life at a reduced rate. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The vertical forces during physiological activities like mastication falls on denture and is transmitted posteriorly. The postero-lateral slopes of the ridge bears the force and hence is the primary supporting structure.
  • 28. RUGAE  These are the mucosal folds located in the anterior region of the palatal mucosa.  In the area of rugae, the palate is set at an angle to the residual alveolar ridge and is thinly covered by soft tissue which contributes to the secondary stress bearing area. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  It is associated with the sensation of taste and the function of speech.  They assist the tongue to absorb via its papillae.  They also enable the tongue to form a perfect seal when it is pressed against the palate in making linguo- palatal constant stops of speech.  Rugae should not be displaced, otherwise the rebounding may dislodge the denture.  They provide antero-posterior resistance to movement of the denture and increased surface surface area helps in retention.
  • 29. MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY  It is the bulbous extension of the residual alveolar ridge in the 2nd and 3rd molar region, terminating in the hamular notch. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The area is less likely to resorb.  Artficial teeth are not set on tuberosity region.  The tuberosities sometimes exhibit buccal undercuts, if it is unilateral it can be utilized for the retention.
  • 30. NOTE  Residual ridge was first considered to be a primary stress bearing area but it is now considered a secondary stress bearing area because of the fact that bone is subjected to continuous resorption though it decreases as the span of edentulism increases.
  • 31. RELIEF AREAS These are areas in the denture bearing areas which should be relived during construction of dentures. Incisive papillae Mid-palatine raphe Fovea palatine Palatine torus Rugae
  • 32. INCISIVE PAPPILAE  It is the midline structure situated behind the central incisors.  Incisive foramen lies immediately beneath the papillae.  As resorption progresses, it comes to lie nearer to the crest of the ridge.  The naso-palatine nerves and vessels pass through it. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  While making final impression pressure should not be applied on this region.
  • 33. MID-PALATINE RAPHE  This is the median suture area covered by a thin sub-mucosa, so the mucosa layer is in close contact with the underlying bone  For this region, the soft tissue covering the median palatal tissue is non- resilient in nature and may need to be relieved. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  If pressure is applied during impression making,the denture base will cause soreness over the midpalatine raphe area.
  • 34. FOVEA PALATINE  Bilateral indentations near the midline of palate. Posterior to junction of hard and soft palate  These are a pair of mucous gland duct orifice near the midline at the junction of the hard and the soft palate  Formed by coalescence of several mucous gland duct CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Aids in determining vibrating line  These landmarks provide a guide to the position of the posterior palatal border of a denture
  • 35. PALATINE TORUS  A developmental bony prominence sometimes seen in the centre of the palate. This structure is often covered by relatively incompressible mucoperiosteum CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  If it is small, the denture is relieved  A mucosally supported denture may need to be relieved over the torus to prevent the denture rocking and flexing about the mid line.
  • 36. RUGAE  Irregular shaped ridges of the connective tissue covered by mucous membrane in the anterior third of the hard palate CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Should not be disturbed by impression for maximum comfort
  • 37. ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS- MANDIBLE  These are areas in mandible that are closely related to the base of the mandibular complete denture. They are covered with mucosa and sub mucosa of varying degree of thickness and compressiblity.  The anatomical landmarks in the mandible are ; LIMITING STRUCTURES SUPPORTING STRUCTURES RELIEF AREAS
  • 39. LIMITING STRUCTURES OF THE MANDIBLE LABIAL FRENUM LABIAL VESTIBULE BUCCAL FRENUM BUCCAL VESTIBULE LINGUAL FRENUM ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS RETROMOLAR PAD PTERYGOMANDIBULAR RAPHE
  • 40. LABIAL FRENUM  It is a fold of mucous membrane at the median line. It divides the labial vestibule into left and right labial vestibule.  It consist of band of fibrous connective tissue and helps to attach orbicularis oris muscle.  It is shorter and wider than the maxillary labial frenum. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  During final impression, making sufficient relief must be given without compromising the peripheral seal.  The frenum is quite sensitive and active, and the denture must be fitted carefully around it to maintain a seal without causing soreness.
  • 41. LABIAL VESTIBULE  It runs from the buccal frenum to buccal frenum. It is divided into left and right by labial frenum.  Fibers of orbicularis oris,incisivus and mentalis are inserted near the crest of the ridge. Mentalis muscle is an active muscle. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Extent of the denture flange in this region is often limited because of muscle that are inserted close to the crest of the ridge.  Thick denture flanges may cause dislodgement of dentures when patient opens the mouth wide open.
  • 42. BUCCAL FRENUM  The buccal frenum forms the dividing line between the labial and buccal vestibule.  May be single or double, broad U shaped or sharp V shaped.  It overlies depressor anguli oris muscle.  Fibres of the buccinator muscle attach to the frenum. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Relief for buccal frenum is given in denture to avoid displacement of the denture.
  • 43. BUCCAL VESTIBULE  Extends from buccal frenum to retromolar pad.  It is nearly at right angles to biting forces.  Extent of the buccal vestibule is influenced by buccinators muscle,which extends from modiolous anteriorly to pterygomandibular raphe.  The masseter muscle contracts under heavy closing force and pushes inward against the buccinators muscle to produce a massetric notch in the distobuccal border of the lower denture. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The distobuccal border of the lower denture should accommodate the contracting masseter muscle so that the denture does not dislodge during heavy closing force.
  • 44. LINGUAL FRENUM  It is a fold of mucous membrane existing when the tip of the tongue is elevated.  It overlies the genioglossus muscle which takes origin from the superior genial tubercle.  The anterior region of the lingual flange is called sub-lingual crescent area. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The relief for the lingual frenum should be registered during function.  A short frenum is called tongue tie. It should be corrected if it affects the stability of the denture.
  • 45. ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS  It is the space between residual ridge and tongue.  Extends from lingual frenum to rectomylohyoid curtain  It has 3 regions (anterior, middle and posterior)  The anterior region extends from the lingual frenum back to where mylohyoid muscle curves above the level of the sulcus (premylohyoid fossa)  The middle region extends from premylohyoid fossa to the distal end of the mylohyoid ridge, curving medially from the body of mandible. The curvature is caused by the prominence of mylohyoid ridge and the action mylohyoid muscle  The posterior region: here, the flange passes into the rectomylohyoid fossa and completes the TYPICAL S FORM of the correctly shaped lingual flange CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The lingual flange of the lower denture will be short anteriorly than posteriorly The lingual flange in the middle region slopes medially towards the tongue
  • 46. ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS- RETROMYLOHYOID SPACE  The retromylohyoid space lies at distal end of the alveololingual sulcus  It is bounded by anterior tonsillar pillar, posteriorly by the retromylohyoid curtain
  • 47. ALVEOLOLINGUAL SULCUS- RETROMYLOHYOID CURTAIN  Formed posteriorly by the superior constrictor muscle, laterally by the mandible and pterygo-mandibular raphe, anteriorly by lingual tuberosity, and inferioirly by the mylohyoid muscle  NOTE: RMC IS RETROMYLOHYOID CURTAIN
  • 48. RETROMOLAR PAD  It is a non-keratinised triangular pear-shaped pad of tissue at the distal end of the lower ridge.  Submucosa contains glandular tissue, fibers of buccinators and superior constrictor muscle, pterygomandibular raphe and terminal part of the tendon of the temporalis.  The retromolar papilla is a pear shaped area just anterior to the retromolar pad, it is a dense fibrous connective tissue. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The distal end of the denture pad should cover 2/3rd of the retromolar pad.  The retromolar pad provides the peripheral posterior seal for the lower denture.
  • 49. PTERYGOMANDIBULAR RAPHE  Raphe is a tendinous insertion of two muscles.  Arises from the hamular process of the medial pterygoid and gets attached to the mylohyoid ridge.  Muscular attachments present here are:  superior constrictor: postreolaterally  Buccinator: anterolaterally CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  Since it is very prominent in some patients, a notch like relief must be provided on the denture.
  • 50. SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF THE MANDIBLE These are areas responsible for bearing loads in the mandible. Buccal shelf area Residual alveolar ridge
  • 51. BUCCAL SHELF AREA  It is the area between buccal frenum and anterior border of masseter muscle.  BOUNDARIES:  Medially-the crest of the ridge.  Distally-the retromolar pad  Laterally-the external oblique ridge.  The mucous membrane covering the buccal shelf area is loosely attached, less keratinized and contains a thick submucosa overlying a cortical plate. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  It lies at right angles to the vertical occlusal force; this makes it suitable as primary stress bearing area for lower denture.
  • 53. RESIDUAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE  The edentulous mandible may become flat, due to resorption; which results into outward inclination and progressively widening of mandible.  Similarly maxilla resorbs upward and inward making it smaller.  It is the reason for edentulous patients to have prognathic apperance  The slopes of residual alveolar ridge have thin plate of cortical bone. The slopes of the ridge are at an acute angle to occlusal forces.  Hence, it is considered as a SECONDARY stress bearing area.  Since crest of the ridge has cancellous bone, it is not favourable as primary stress bearing area. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE.  Any movable soft tissue overlying the ridge should not be compressed while making impression.
  • 54. RELIEF AREA Mental foramen Genial tubercle Mylohyoid ridge Mandibular tori
  • 55. MENTAL FORAMEN  It lies between the 1st and 2nd premolar region.  Due to ridge resorption, it may lie close to the ridge. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  It should be relieved in these areas as pressure over the nerve passing through it can get compressed by denture base leading to paraesthesia (numbness) of lower lip.
  • 56. GENIAL TUBERCLE  The genial tubercle are a pair of dense prominences at the inferior border of the mandible at the lingual midline  They represents the muscle attachment of the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscle. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  They only become relevant in the denture when there is excessive resorption of the residual ridge.
  • 57. MYLOHYOID RIDGE  The mylohyoid ridge is a bony prominence along the lingual aspect of the mandible  Soft tissue usually hides the sharpness of the mylohyoid ridge  Anteriorly, this ridge with mylohyoid muscle is close to the inferior surface of the mandible  Posteriorly, after resorption, it often flushes with the residual ridge. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  The mucosa membrane overlying the sharp or irregular mylohyoid ridge needs to be relieved because denture base might easily traumatize it.
  • 58. MANDIBULAR TORI  These are the abnormal bony prominence found bilaterally on the lingual side, near the premolar region but they may extend posteriorly to the molar area  It is covered by thin mucosa. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  It has to be relieved or surgically removed, according to its size and extent.  Small tori may only require relief in the denture  Large tori requires removal before a denture can be fabricated.
  • 59. CONCLUSION  Thus, we see that a sound knowledge of the anatomical landmarks of the denture bearing area is a prerequisite, if one has to achieve the objective one has in mind; fabrication of a complete denture that has maximum retention, stability and support with preservation of underlying structures with minimum post insertion problems.
  • 60. REFERENCES  Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patient : Zarb Bolender  Preclinical manual of prosthodontics : S Lakshmi  Impressions for complete dentures : Bernard Levin  Textbook of Prosthodontic : Nallasyamy  Boucher’s prosthodontics treatment for edentulous patients. 13th Edition  Heartwell’s syllabus of complete denture. 4th edition.