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Ecommerce

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E-Commerce is enabled all the Businesses as well as people around the world for gaining thousand of advantages,,

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Ecommerce

  1. 1. E-CommerceProject Title: An investigation into e-commerce and its uses in andbenefits for commercial and public-sector organization. August 2011 Mr S.A Rajapaksha (M.sc, B.sc, BMS, HND) Sri Lanka. E-Mail: rajapakshasagmail.com. Page 1 of 46
  2. 2. E-Commerce Copyright declaration “This work or any part thereof has not previously been presented in anyform to the University or to any other institutional body whether for assessmentor other purposes. Save for any express acknowledgements, references and/orbibliographies cited in the work, I confirm that the intellectual content is the resultof my own efforts and no other person. “It is acknowledged that the author of any project work shall own thecopyright. However, by submitting such copyright work for assessment, theauthor grants to the University a perpetual royalty-free licence to do all or any ofthose things referred to in section 16(i) of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act1988 (viz. to copy work, to broadcast the work or to make an adaptation of thework). Page 2 of 46
  3. 3. E-Commerce AcknowledgementsIt is glad first of all to thank University of Wolverhampton and IDM campus forconducting a degree in business computing and giving this valuable opportunitythat will make my future career success. I also would like to thank my parentsand my family members who always push me towards getting involved in suchvaluable education opportunity and also encourage me to do it successfully.It is really happy to say big thanks and so gratitude to my module leader GrahamBrown and IDM Module Coordinator Mr Dharsana Hettiarachchi and also Otherall module lectures coming from Wolverhampton university and IDM lectures forconducting the degree programme with convenient way and providingnecessary steps to do Assignments and getting educated with followed subjects.And also i must thank for my mates who always help me the way of archiving thefinally project successfully. Page 3 of 46
  4. 4. E-Commerce ABSTRACTEcommerce is plays the vital role of the both Government and Private sectorOrganization as it is makes more convenient and effective process. Thereforepeople also have to be follow the concept as it is allows the more efficient at theday today busy environment.Following chapters of the report contained information about the ecommerceand the its various types, how globally and country wise ecommerceinvolvement, benefits and drawbacks to the both businesses and customersperspectives and finally necessary steps to be taken to avoid the somelimitations and advantages.Benefits and the drawbacks of the Ecommerce area broadly discuss as it is thereport to be investigated. The report cover with the limited scope and thesuitable justification, but it can be expanded in to vast area.Finally report discuss the progress of evaluating process and the product thatgone through to completed the report with the personal experiences passedthrough the report. Page 4 of 46
  5. 5. E-Commerce CONTENTSABSTRACT ................................................................................. 4Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. Introduction of Chapter ............................................................................. 7 1.2. Background ............................................................................................... 8 1.3. Project Aim ................................................................................................ 9 1.4. Project Objectives ..................................................................................... 9Chapter 2: Research Methods 2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................. 10 2.2. Definition of a Research Method ............................................................. 10 2.3. Why is a Research Method important? ................................................... 10 2.4. Types of Researh Methods ..................................................................... 11 2.4.1 Quantitative research...................................... ....................... 12 2.4.2 Quantitative research ............................................................... 12 2.5. Method comparision................................................................................ 13 2.6. Qualitative approach as the chosen method ........................................... 13Chapter 3: Literature Review .......................................................................... 14Chapter 4: Principal findings 4.1. Overview of E-Commerce ....................................................................... 19 4.2. Catogarization Of E-commerce ............................................................... 20 4.3. E-commerce in Public sector ...................................................................... 4.3.2 Siberia Ecommerce Involement............. ............ ....................... 23 4.3.2 Sri Lanka Ecommerce Invlovement .............................................. 24 4.4. E-commerce in Private Sector .................................................................... 4.4.1 Ecommerce in Sri Lanka.......................................................... 26 4.4.2 How impact to the SL Organization........................................... 26 4.4.3 Advantages of aaecommerce to Sri Lanka................................... 27 4.5. Global E-commerce Involvement ............................................................ 28 4.5.1 Thailand Ecommerce Growth......................................................... 29 4.6. E-commerce Solutions and Services ...................................................... 30 4.7. Benifits of E-commerce 4.7.1 private Sector 4.7.1.1 Cumtomer Perspective ..................................................... 31 4.7.1.2 Business Perspective ................................................. 32 Page 5 of 46
  6. 6. E-Commerce 4.7.2 Public Sector 4.7.2.1 Cumtomer Perspective ...................................................... 34 4.7.2.2 Business Perspective ........................................................ 34 4.8. Drawbacks of Ecommerce 4.8.1 private Sector ................................................................................ 35 4.8.2 Public Sector ................................................................................. 36 4.9. Drawbacks Solutions.......................................................................... 37Chapter 5: Conclusions .................................................................................. 38Chapter 6: Evaluation 6.1. Product ................................................................................................... 39 6.2. Process ................................................................................................... 40References........................................................................................................... 41Bibliography ......................................................................................................... 44AppendicesAppendix A ........................................................................................................... 45Appendix B........................................................................................................... 46 Page 6 of 46
  7. 7. E-Commerce Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter one tells about background, project aim and the project objectives,Currently E commerce plays a dramatic role around the world, with the newtechnology, e commerce technology is getting updating when the InformationTechnology is getting updating, this part will cover mainly how e – commerce willaffect the private sector and the public sector in country wise and global wise,benefits and draw backs of e commerce in private and commercial sector.This topic mainly focus in e-commerce because with the latest technologycitizens use to do these transactions online it is very easy and convenient forthem.1.1. BackgroundE commerce was initially started in 1982 by United States it is known as Bostoncomputer exchange (Bill) but it started to expand in Western Europe twentyyears later, Companies such as E-bay and Pioneer started in 1994mThe modern world is full of computerized now; still Sri Lanka is in learning curvebut gradually Sri Lanka also coming as developed countries.From the time that you are connected to the Internet that you can be consider aspart of Ecommerce. No one can be eliminate the concept of Ecommerce asinternet user always meet with the concept of ecommerce as S/he using theinternet for any requirement. Suppose that one user logging to the internet, forlooking some information about Ecommerce.It is no doubt s/he will find plenty of information for free. And also you willsometimes direct to site such as Amazon.com while you are referring the Googlelinks that asking to buy the book to refer as it is a very good book that written byfamous Author. So if its content is good user may buy it. so to create the econcept in action is not a difficult task as it is make you easy and full of freedomeven you buy or not. Page 7 of 46
  8. 8. E-CommerceThis report is about to investigation into How ecommerce is useful both privateand public sector organization. So in this report will be covered how Sri LankaUse the Ecommerce Concept as Developing country while how rest of the worldcontribution to the Ecommerce such as Thailand the True Corporation try tomotivate their Country people by stating new project.Even though it is true that there are hundreds of benefits using the Ecommerce,but also there is risk in that as technology is renew day by day while some frauduser try to hack the user’s personal details and credit cart. This is big issues thatmost of users are not taking part of the Ecommerce even though they alsorealise that how Ecommerce make easy them.The Report also would be covered the following area in depth, 1. Introduction to Ecommerce with different types of ecommerce 2. Ecommerce in public and private sector 3. How ecommerce involvement in country wise and globally 4. Ecommerce Solution and services 5. Benefits of ecommerce in public and private sector organization 6. Drawbacks of ecommerce in public and private sector organization Page 8 of 46
  9. 9. E-Commerce1.2. Project AimTo Evaluate how better to use this E-commerce concept for more successfully,both commercial and public sector organization.1.3. Project Objectives  Research and Gathered into what is E-commerce concept  Investigate how E-commerce involves in commercial and public sector organizations.  investigate how both private and public sector uses the E-commerce concept  Examine and elaborate the limitation which affected for e-commerce process.  Explore what are the strategies and techniques that can be adopted for more successful procedure  Suggest require actions to be taken for the use of successful ecommerce process.  Evaluate what are the benefits and drawbacks of using E-commerce concept by commercial and public sector organization. Page 9 of 46
  10. 10. E-Commerce Chapter 2: Research Methods2.1 Research definitionIn this going to be discuss research types and what is a good research mustinclude. And what is the research include in this report.2.2 Definition of a Research MethodAccording to Doctor Gwanmesia he mentioned “to make a research you mustknow what is a good research is (Gwanmesia).According to Kumar he has mentioned research is a particular way to findanswer for your questions and this has to be done according to three principlesKumar (2005).2.3 Why Research method is importantResearch method is important mainly to save time and money the important of itis gain correct information, it’s the duty of the researcher to identify the correctinformation from the sources, this apply more to the secondary researchermainly there are two types of research  Pure research- Pure research is defining new ideas thinking knowing information in a specific field that Anon (no date) described.  Applied research- Applied research is to resolve scientific problems this method is more practical than the pure research, this will find solutions to day to day problems which is occur in organizations Page 10 of 46
  11. 11. E-Commerce2.4 Types of ResearchQuantitative researchThis research deal with the measurement of attitudes, behaviours and perceptionsand includes interviewing methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-doorinterviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys.Anon(no date).Qualitative research methodThis research method is mainly deals with the human behaviour and it helps toinvestigate their social and cultural lives and providing a detailed description about thesubject area.Applied ResearchApplied research is taking to solve practical problemsCase study researchThis could hold many definitions and is usually used in the research ofinformation systems. It always investigates a real, practical situation especiallywhen the observation and situation are not clearly defined .Ethnography research-This research is more realistic where the ethnographershave to do field research according to their subject are by actually gettinginvolved in the lives or societies of their researches.Evaluation research- This includes effectiveness and the performance of theprogram.Primary researchPrimary research is a research which we find or research a new thing; it is needmore time than the secondary research because it is finding a new thing.Secondary researchIn Secondary researches do not find a new thing, backing up other professionalsarguments providing sufficient evidence. It consumes less time than the primaryresearch because do not research new things.Among the above mentioned research methods the qualitative and thequantitative methods are the most commonly used research methods. Becauseof this most researchers follow these two methods in order to get a good ideaabout the subject. Therefore it is very important to further analyse these twomethods. Page 11 of 46
  12. 12. E-Commerce2.4.1 Qualitative research methodQualitative research is about exploring an issue and finding solutions and findingsolutions for those issues. Qualitative research can have several viewpointsnamely,  What people say: the knowledge that they have and what they have understand.  What people do: actions they take and the behaviour of the project will be considered.  Culture: cultural forces and the culture within people will be analysed  Needs and desires: what people need and the emotional desires, etc….Qualitative research deals with the why factor but not the how of the project. Andanalyze the unprocessed information such as the interviews, transcripts, videos,audio tapes etc….Qualitative research further gain insight into peoples attitudes,behaviours, value systems, motivations, culture or lifestyles. Therefore theresearcher can obtain important business decisions, as well as research aboutspecific subject area Ereaut (2007).Dealing with unprocessed information can sometime be very hard and timeconsuming for the researcher because he/she needs to evaluate themthoroughly in order to get the final outcome.2.4.1 Quantitative research MethodQuantitative research is carried out when the researcher wants to know howmany and how often by mainly focusing on a target audience. It further analyzethe behavioural patterns, attitudes regarding the research. Quantitative researchgenerally evaluate a large numberAdvantages of quantitative research (Conger,Bryman,et al)  Flexible to follow un expected ideas during the research and explore the process effectively  Ability to study symbolic dimensions and social meaning  Increased opportunities  Sensitivity to contextual factors Page 12 of 46
  13. 13. E-Commerce2.5 Methods ComparisonIt is requires to be selected the most suitable research methods for the preparingthis report and it is suitable to compare with the existing features in eachaccording to the Neil,J (2007) as follow,Qualitative Research methods features  Aims of the research will be completed as this is detailed description process.  Research knows roughly what S/He is researching for  This is recommended to earlier phases of the research  Various form of data are collected as words, images or objects  Researcher is the instrument for the research process  More rich type data is considered and it is time consuming and less effort of generalized.Quantitative Research methods features  The aim is to clearly described features of what is intended to Observed while the statically models.  Researcher know clearly what is looking for  Late phase of the project is to be concerned  Statics and number format of data collected  Intention of the research is clearly understand and plan before data is collected  Data is more efficient and sometime miss the details of the contextual 2.6 Concern the Qualitative approach as the chosen methodQualitative method will be helpful to research the topic of Ecommerce androughly collected details of the Ecommerce as to be evaluates the users benefitsalong with the drawbacks.This method would be more appropriate as it is need to involve in the given casestudy and how the real world practical involvement to be researched. Page 13 of 46
  14. 14. E-Commerce Chapter 3: Literature ReviewLiterature review is the most important part of the report in literature review hasto put sources and back up with arguments. A literature review can be aprecursor in the introduction of a research paper, or it can be an entire paper initself, often the first stage of large research projects, allowing the supervisor tofocus student in the correct path(http://www.experiment-resources.com)It is a critical and evaluative account of what has been published on a chosenresearch topic (http://www.lboro.ac.uk)Above two authors has been explained what is literature review in their viewpoints, the first author has been explained literature review will help the studentsto do a research in a correct way this will apply in large research this will apply tosecondary research as well.The second author has been published it is a critical evaluation what has beenpublished, the both the authors has been seen it in two different angles.Focusing on both the definitions can think first one more meaningful it will coverbetter idea than the second definition, main thing is guide the student in thecorrect way if he or she goes in the wrong way that will be a big problem.The next Topic of the research project is investigation into Ecommerce and itsuses. So it can be found many definitions to the Ecommerce by various authorsand through various resources available online or by books.Two definitions have been listed in the report, an According to the Ward,Soverview “Ecommerce (or e-commerce) is the art and science of selling productsand/or services over the Internet.” andAndam,Z.R (2003) expands his views on Ecommerce as “Electronic commerceor e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for productsand services. It also pertains to any form of business transaction in which theparties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or directphysical contact.”Both authors described Ecommerce in similar perspective but differentapproaches. Ward,S’ definition elaborate as it is the way of archiving the productor service by selling through the internet so it can be found as Ecommerce is aonline selling process of product and/or services. Page 14 of 46
  15. 15. E-CommerceBut the Andam (2003) definition takes the Ecommerce concept in wider asEcommerce is takes place through online for the purpose of doing businessactivities for product and services. He also further described that is not a directlyor physically doing the transaction as all parties involve electronically.Even Both authors try to make their reader understand using similar concept butsecond author get the clear description than first author as it is a just a definitionwhere second author elaborate it more understandable.Next research was to collect the information about the Sri Lanka governmentinvolvement in Ecommerce. It was mainly get required information from theSurvey on E-commerce implementation in the SME sector in Sri Lanka whichwas conducted by the SLBDC for the Asia. (http://asiafoundation.org, 2002) ithas clearly described how SL Government involve in the Ecommerce and thecurrent difficulties and also the requirements that to be taken to develop theecommerce concept effectively in the country.Then The Information and communication Technology in Sri Lanka(http://www.icta.lk/ ) was very helpful to get the resources how currently SLGovernment involving the Ecommerce By Launching what kind of project suchas NANASALA Project which is to Improve the Nation IT literacy. Genawardana(2006) The Impact of firm-based characteristics on Adoption of E-commerce inSME in Sri Lanka Online survey also was referred to get the how EcommercePublic sector Behaviors and response to the Ecommerce.The next research is main part of Ecommerce which is the types of Ecommerce.There were plenty of online resources were found that published by manyAuthors and information was taken combining many authors views on websitesand EBooks as found details were different from another.Dauglas (2010) describes four main types of ecommerce and Another seventypes that are available in the industry.He mentioned this is a online buying, selling and exchange product and servicesonline. Following are the types that Dauglas (2010) described on the article.  B2B (Business-to-Business)  B2C(Business-to-Consumer)  C2B(Consumer-to-Business)  C2C(Consumer-to-Consumer)Then the article is included following Ecommerce types that available.  B2E, G2G, G2E, G2B, B2G, G2C, C2G Page 15 of 46
  16. 16. E-CommerceAndam (2003) discuss five main Ecommerce types as follow,  B2B  B2C  B2G  C2C)  Mobile CommerceThe eBooks not include more types as Andam (2003) Broadly evaluated the thisfive main types. It is found that Dauglas (2010) has not included m-commerceconcept as it is the trend of today ecommerce which is been growing whileAndam (2003) did not mentioned other available types of ecommerce exceptConsumer-to-Business to get to know for readers.When you take e commerce services can be categorized into sections such as  E commerce consulting  User Interface Design  Internet Marketing  Ecommerce solutionsE-commerce consultingAnalyse business and asses it is potential onlinehttp://www.ecommercepartners.net)- in this link citizens can analyse businessand assess potential online with the consultation people.User interface designTaking about User Interface designing it has to attractive then only customerswill visit to the web site, from good interface designing can get a good profit.Internet MarketingAccording Randy Duermyer’s angle Internet marketing includes variety of thingsat a certain time period, it consists banners, advertisements on websites(http:/homebusiness.about.com)According to Anon has defined Internet marketing is advertising and marketingefforts can be used in web and electronic mail to make sales through electroniccommerce.( http://www.webopedia.com)When comparing about these two definitions both the websites has been said itis included the internet and the email, Internet marketing can be used by using Page 16 of 46
  17. 17. E-Commerceinternet and e-mail, both the authors has been used the internet and electronicmail. Taking both the references into consideration can mention for electroniccommerce both the internet and the e-mail is very essential for e-commerce, itmeans electronic commerce cannot be done without the internet and e-mail.Then the next part of the report was to find the Benefits and Drawback of usingEcommerce for both public and private sector Organization. Manzoor,A (2010)And Smart,S (2007) in their article and EBook had listed several AdvantagesAnd Disadvantages of Using the Ecommerce. They are,Advantages 1. More affordable than traditional EDI. 2. Allows more business partners to be reached than with EDI. 3. Can reach to a more geographically dispersed customer base. 4. Increase sales and Decrease cost 5. Easy to Advertise 6. Reduction in inventories.Disadvantages 1. Some product are difficult to sell 2. Cost for technological change 3. Difficulties of integrating existing system to new one 4. Customer are fear to use credit card as if they feel UnconsciousGenerally there was no difficult to research on benefits and drawbacks ofEcommerce but it was complex to find information for public and private sectorseparately. Different Authors have given their own perspectives on the topic andinformation was collected and combined together and then aware the real worldEcommerce activity by referring the Business Magazine and chat with theBusiness Management Lecture of Open University and then included to thereport. So it was helpful to get the idea of what are the.Next The report discuss the Global involvement according to the Shivers (2011) Page 17 of 46
  18. 18. E-Commerceprediction. He also has given the numeric description how global Ecommercedeveloped year 2014. Pornwasin’s Article described the new project that isintended to be begin at Thailand with the reasonable factors such as morepeople used to use the Mobile rapidly with the internet facilities.next was to research the Ecommerce services and solutions available to theecommerce involved business organization and customers over the world. ItWebnauts, (2010) described on his article with the descriptive way. Someexample was found by goggling as follow, they are, 1. Visual | soft ecommerce (http://www.visualsoft.co.uk) 2. SANVER E-Solutions (http://www.sanver.com)Chapter 4-Principal Finding4.1 Overview of E-Commerce ConceptAccording to the Susan Ward’s overview “Ecommerce (or e-commerce) is the artand science of selling products and/or services over the Internet.” (Ward ) Page 18 of 46
  19. 19. E-CommerceEcommerce is “Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range ofonline business activities for products and services. It also pertains to any formof business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than byphysical exchanges or direct physical contact.” That how Andam (2003) definethe ecommerce on his view.By referring above definitions it can be make argument to Ecommerce as it is anonline executable process of online Buying and selling products and/or serviceswhere it makes sufficient and comfortable transaction between businesses andCustomers / consumers. It is understandable there are some main componentwhere involve with the Ecommerce concept as;Internet – where it is can be executed electronically between two or more partiesProduct or Service – this is what is to be exchanges (Buy or sell)Party – responsible for buying or selling (consumer or business)Transaction – where order or buy through online transaction method such as credit card.Security – where both buyer and seller are to be protected by cheating or misusing privacy information (pertcommerce.com).  Refer Appendix A to see the Ecommerce process graphically.4.2 Categorization of E-CommerceEcommerce can be categorizes into the major different types of e-commerce asfollow (Justin)business-to-business (B2B)This is the one type of Ecommerce that take buying and selling transactionthrough online between Businesses. (Anon) Page 19 of 46
  20. 20. E-CommerceHere B2B concept mainly brings down the meaning of which transaction ishappening between two firms. For example chemconnect.com is a chemicaldealing website where brings two firms together ”on virtual Marketing place ”.Srikanth (2000).This method is can be identify more as its transaction chain is depend on manyB2B firms as Vora (2010) describes where its need to collect resources fromvarious firms such as “automobile manufacture makes several B2B transactionssuch as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicle”Other Example: Online insurance policy management online supply request Employee benefit reporting Vora (2010).business to-consumer (B2C)This is the process of serving to customers its service or product. For examplecan be taken from Chirah Vora’s automobile manufacture example as its finaltransaction take place as vehicle sold to customer can ne consider Business toConsumer transaction Vora(2010).Example: Amazon.comBusiness-to-government (B2G)According to the view of Vora (2010), this can be describes as “public sectormarketing” where its make possibility of happening transaction of product orservice between various fields of government.Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)This method of E-commerce related to the process of buying and selling goodsand services to consumer to consumer through the online Wiley (no date).C2C Ecommerce is a identified as online auction where one consumer postproduct or service while other consumer is bid to purchase through online suchas very popular websites are eBay.com and Amazon.com Andam (2003).Consumer to Business (C2B) Page 20 of 46
  21. 21. E-CommerceThis means that consumer or any individual looking a business to sell product orservices. This is rarely can be seen in action even though it has identified C2Bas one form of Ecommerce type.Mobile commerce (m-commerce).Definition for the Mobile commerce is given by Consumer affairs Victoria,Department of Justice as “use of handheld wireless devices to communicate,interact, and transact via high-speed connection to the Internet."So M-commerce is a new trend of e-commerce that is growing among theconsumers which means that every online transaction done in Ecommerceintegrated to the wireless handheld device such as palmtops, Smart Phone.Consumer can buy order something on his way and collect that after he get backhome. This more efficient way to customer as they more concern on theavailable time for the day today works.By the organization perspective it is a most effective way to sales promotion asthey can send text massages to customers that promotes about new products.And also businesses can get the feedback of new product quickly that customerwould not be charge for reply. (Anon)According to the Douglas (2010) And Lewis (2010) it can also be found otherform of Ecommerce types available as follow,  B2E (Business to Employee)  G2G (Government-to-Government)  G2E (Government-to-Employee)  G2B (Government-to-Business) Page 21 of 46
  22. 22. E-Commerce  B2G (Business-to Government)  G2C (Government-to-Citizen)  C2G (Citizen-to-Government) 4.3 E commerce in Public sector4.3.1 Serbia Government involvement in EcommerceGovernment of Serbia include e-business in their part of the strategy, they havefound a national strategy the steering committee be in charge the following(Anon.)  Analysis of the current situation in e-business in the country,  Establishment of conditions, shortcomings and barriers to e-business implementation,  Elaboration of the strategy for creation of a framework for e-business implementation, Page 22 of 46
  23. 23. E-Commerce  Following the progress and readjustment of the activities whenever necessary,  Removal of administrative barriers,  Active cooperation and participation in international initiatives in the sphere of e-business, including the Working Group Initiative for Electronic Southeast Europe (e-SEE), the program e-Europe, UN/CEFACT, UNCTAD, etc.  Following the availability of new funds and standards for e-business. Funds for e-business include e-mail or messages, internet (e.g. e- documents, in HTML and XML and/or by use of web services), electronic data interface (EDI), smart cards, electronic money transfer, automatic data acceptance, bar codes, etc. the Information Society Department and other relevant bodies should facilitate acceptance of the above means in business practice in Serbia. When speaking of security in rendering services over the net, medium level of encrypting methodology should be used for data and information protection.The government should in charge of both the private and public sector, theyshould make new legislatives to increase the efficiency of the public sector. theymust work as a team to introduce the e-business of the country.(Anon)4.3.2 Sri Lanka Government involvement in EcommerceBy the time Sri Lanka (SL) government also has been involving in to used theecommerce concept for last few years and still it is proceeding. Most ofdepartments has own web sites that facilitate the people to get work done athome or work place unlike to visit the exact place that done few years back.SL already has published the Official websites (http://www.priu.gov.lk/) includinginformation of Government organization that connected in to the network. Thisproject is called Lanka Government Network (LGN) and the result of project isshown billow,  To provide most appropriate networking facility to Government organization Page 23 of 46
  24. 24. E-Commerce  Secure the internet connectivity of organization.  Given the IT training to the Government staff.For example students of government schools can be get the result online as it’sreleased using the official web site of Department of Sri Lanka(http://www.doenets.lk/exam/). And also most of public services have their ownweb sites to provide information to citizens that make people moreunderstandable. For example,  http://www.inlandrevenue.gov.lk/  http://www.customs.gov.lk/  http://www.motortraffic.gov.lk/index.php  http://www.airport.lk/  http://www.rpd.gov.lk/services.htmThen also online payments facilities and online buying facility has beenintroduced as well. For example water bill can be paid through online using theSri Lanka water board websites that connect with this URLhttp://www.waterboard.lk/. And Sri Lanka Telecom makes enable people to buyproduct Online with the good direction through online by providing usefulinformation even how to buy online. This is called Teleshop Online available atSri Lanka Telecom (http://www.slt.lk/) web site. And also online billing paymentsalso has been activated to their customers while allow to access web mail serveronline who are the web mail holders of SLT. (http://www.slt.lk/)There are some projects that has been conducting by the SL Government asfollowing,NANASALA : This is the project that aim to improve people’s IT literacy all overthe country to develop peoples, social and economical development of thecountry. Currently 608 Centres has been open and 1000 centres intended to beopened. (http://www.nanasala.lk/)Lanka Gate: this is the project that stated to supply all the information related toonline information and services to local , international, government andpublic/commercial sector organization and its users.(http://www.srilanka.lk/en_US/web/guest/home?param=en_US)This project mainly target to, Page 24 of 46
  25. 25. E-Commerce  provide general information of Sri Lanka  get the government services online  Integrate with the government e-services such as payment gateway.etc.project result :This is the government encouragement and flat form Government and privatesector organization to used the online services to their customers.Country portal that provide every type of information to all accesses.Benefits:  Easy and efficiency access to get the information for people in the country by saving their time and transaction cost.  Low cost of information services to both Government and private sector organizationToday Most of the banks are use the Ecommerce Concept as it is more reliableamong the people. Facilities such as, sampathnet online Banking service inSampath Bank of SL. So it is good chance to their customers to use accountonline for the transactions. according to the web site of Sampath Bank(http://www.sampath.lk/) also sampathvishwa is the another facility that customerenables to used computer for all the transaction conducting by the bank. Forexample,  Investments  Money transfer  Payments for cyber shopping4.4 Ecommerce in Private Sector4.4.1 Ecommerce in Sri LankaCurrently in Sri Lanka E –commerce involvement is very high in organizations, InSri Lanka majority of the investments of E-Commerce is done by private sector,then it goes to partnerships finally it had goes to the public sector companies,public sector companies are the least involvement in E commerce conceptaccording to the research by Doctor Kennady Gunawardane professor of SriJayawardanepura University (Gunewardane)Electronic Commerce is very new to Sri Lankan citizens; they have been notvery familiar to use E-commerce since Introduction of E-commerce in Sri Lankanfirms both private and public sector. Due to that, employees in organizations bithesitant to use electronic commerce.Private sector in Sri Lanka is not very familiar with E-commerce, especially when Page 25 of 46
  26. 26. E-Commerceyou take the telecommunication area it is very limited in main business centressuch as Colombo and Kandy. The bandwidth of the internet also limited, most ofthe citizens are also not very familiar with the internet access. (Lane et al).4.4.2 How E commerce will be impact to Sri Lankan organizationsAs mentioned above by the authors in Sri Lanka, Kandy and Colombo are themain business based areas, around their lot of private sector organizations hasbeen established. It can be categorized in to small medium enterprises andMicro enterprises. According to authors view point first the authorize people ofSri Lanka has to provide the facilities to increase the E-commerce infrastructurein Sri Lanka. Especially in Sri Lanka private sector as mentioned earlier byauthors not computerized, still they have not been updated with the latesttechnologies with relevant to E-commerce, still they have been using thetraditional methods which will directly impact the commercial sector in profit areabecause there main idea is to gain profit. This will impact in many ways as youcan see below.  Less Efficient – for example if you take a private bank if they not have linked all the branches together it is difficult to deal with the customers because of that aspect customers will does not go to that specific bank again because it is not customer friendly.  Short of Profit – When the private Sector is not fully computerized it will occur problems, for example if we take E- purchasing, if a person needs to buy a CD through the internet they should have such kind of facilities, because if not they might not got go to the shop and purchase the CD due to busyness of work, so the ultimate problem is the company will lose the customer and they will lose the income too.4.4.3 Advantages Of Ecommerce in Sri LankaSri Lanka Mobitel is the national mobile service provider that uses the newtechnology and complete services to their customers. To proceed theecommerce process internet speed and the unlimited connection is basicrequirements. So SL Mobitel is providing the require internet facilities to all overthe country organization and to their customers.It is mainly include for their service,  Online billing Payments  Online shop for the mobile phones  Online Information service Page 26 of 46
  27. 27. E-CommerceBenefits  Consumers and organization gain the high speed mobile and internet services.  Customers allow paying their bills online and saving the transaction cost.  Available to get the free 24 hour service when it’s required.  Online mobile shopping and delivery to the customers with new technological accessories. Page 27 of 46
  28. 28. E-Commerce4.5 Global E commerce involvementBraganza (no date) explained that It is not a secret that people and businessesinteract with the internet has been growing day by day rapidly where it makesthe premises of global economy. That is why most new businesses arebeginning through the online for new group of people around the world.Growth of E-Commerce in United Sates can be shown statically on Appendix Awhere it is elaborate it has been growing year by year as it is difficult to found theglobal growth of Ecommerce statics (see Appendix A).When it consider the global Ecommerce Australia and Canada are the leadingcountries for usage of Ecommerce. Shivers (2011) predict as it will be adjustableas following.According article of capturecommerce.com Tom Shivers elaborate as “If theseprojections are accurate, annual ecommerce spending, in billions for 2014 willbe:  North America $202.8  Western Europe $166.5  Asia-Pacific $93.2  Latin America $27.1  Eastern Europe & Russia $27.0  Australia $4.9  Africa & The Middle East $3.0 “. Page 28 of 46
  29. 29. E-Commerce4.5.1 Thailand Ecommerce GrowthPornwasin (no date) describes on her article as Thailand mobile users has beenincreasing year by year. So True Corporation is to introduce new mobile basedecommerce service on weloveshopping.com as they believe the mobile is thenew trend in ecommerce.Facilities by new project by True Corporation:Expect to allow Thailand citizens to do transaction as customer to customerwhere integrating the existing ecommerce platform.Overall Thailand Ecommerce growth in this year is expected about 40 percentand weloveshopping.com also expected the same rate.To make new market opportunities to customer to customer e-commerceKey points to start the project:Over 6 millions of mobile users in Thailand.Increasing the mobile usersCustomer behaviors change whether they like to be online all the time or alwaysto be online. Page 29 of 46
  30. 30. E-Commerce4.6 E-Commerce Solutions and ServicesE commerce Solution is a created software that use in effective way where usedto sell your product or services through online. Software or solution for yourwebsite can be created and used according to your products and servicesbehaviors. Almost software will enable users to do transactions through softwareas software solution facilitates the shopping cart as part of software. Webnauts,(2010)Payment process is basically done by shopping cart by accepting the viza,master card, Credit card etc. in the business site. But there are some processesthat you need to enable in your business site such as order checkout and fulfill, ifit is need to be deliver need to include shipping and taxes charges.So software solution is a complete process that enable to handle your businesssite transaction automatically through online as customers doing the onlinetransaction and until the product or service reached to the customer. Therefore itis facilitate you to done online transaction by using software solution for yourbusiness site. There are many of ecommerce solution providers and it is norestriction to used the suitable provider according to your product or service.Some Ecommerce solution provider examples: 3. Visual | soft ecommerce (http://www.visualsoft.co.uk) 4. SANVER E-Solutions (http://www.sanver.com/) 5. osECOMMERCE (http://www.oscommerce.com/) 6. ingenuity.net (http://www.ingenuity.net/) 7. mountain media [m} (http://www.mountainmedia.com/) Page 30 of 46
  31. 31. E-Commerce4.7 Benefits of EcommerceOnline transaction is the new trend that most of people and businessorganization and also government where take part of internet users. So users ofinternet have been growing more rapidly. Then automatically it is made the placeof global economy around the world where most of online activities such asbuying, selling, marketing product or service. Marshall (2010).Private sector organization take the most use of Ecommerce concept than Publicsector as everything decided on the profit by private sector where sometimespublic sector has to be think of welfare and benefits to the people of country.4.7.1 Private Sector4.7.1.1 Customer perspectiveEasy buying processThere are many opportunities to the online buyers to buy product by comparingthe quality and the prices through visiting many websites where its make themarket place at home or office anywhere around the world. Buyer can orderonline where seller can facilitates buyer to buy If it is downloadable and noadditional distribution cost will be added to your transaction. But is it distributiontaking place offline distribution cost will be spent (Bora).Convenient transactionManzoor (2008) also mentioned that online transaction make you moreconvenient as you are not in the store or shop where your product or serviceavailable. They also can be chosen most preferable payment method as theyare provided many payments gateways to online buyers.Reduce product or service costSmart(2007) mentioned that both sales cost and marketing cost will be reducewhile Manzoor (2008) says that increase the sales and cost would be decrease.Both had intended to mean that cost would not much than the normal market.first author tries to say that cost for the business sale would be reduce whilesecond author mentioned that cost reduce and sales increase. Both get the twoviews but same final result, it would be,Ecommerce business websites enable customers to direct access to site andpurchase they intended. Therefore it is fully cutting down the cost that may becharged by intermediates. So product and service can be cheaper as customerdoes the purchase from direct suppliers. Page 31 of 46
  32. 32. E-CommerceQuickly awarenessCustomer also enables to interact with other customer over the world and sharethe experience between them and compare the products and prices as well. Andalso customer get the information quickly as request that no waiting time to be. Ifany changes done by the business organization customer will be quicklyinformed as it has no complex task to be fulfilled for the change.4.7.1.1 Business perspectiveEffective and efficiency processIt is open to your customer 24 hours in 365 days. So anytime, anywheretransaction can be take place even if you do not aware as everything ishappening through online system. So business no need to involve every timewhere customer need to order the preferred product or service.This is almost online activities are to be taken place as store is located online.So any customer can be connected from anywhere around the world even thereis no any between person like retailer and also No limitation of selling yourproduct. (Anon)Customer SatisfactionCustomer can be provided most required product or service according to thecustomer preference as it is possible to make reliable business relationship withcustomer. This can be happen by referring customer comments and suggestionof the available product.Low costNo need to afford high cost as there is no require huge staff and additionalsystems such as order tracking and billing systems service to handle thetransaction Marshall (2010).Incorporating online transactionCustomer is doing the payments or transfer through online where that onlinetransaction process has been organized to process as customer buy availableproduct or service. (imi) Page 32 of 46
  33. 33. E-Commercecan be reached to the global customersThis is the major benefits available to the business as there are billions of peopleusing the internet for their day today activities. Internet has no restriction toreaches any person from anywhere. So internet is a gateway to your businesswhere it makes market to customers in all over the world. So ecommercebusiness site can be refer from anywhere in the world and do the purchase if theproduct or service preferable to the customer.Even though there are vast numbers of internet users over the world, it is yourbusiness responsible to get attraction from the users to your product. Becausethere are many competitors available as ecommerce is new trend to thebusiness market today.promotion and updated informationadvertising can be done without any cost on the business site even it is smallcompany. So products and services can be promoted easily as physical marketdone promotion through TV, newspaper or by broachers. And also any partyinvolve in transaction can be exchange information even every country over theworld. Advertising or information exchange has no any constrain, in fact it isdone in your own business website Manzoor (2008).But if it is new business no more consumers get to know there is online shop forbuy certain goods or services. Therefore first the organization has to go in to thecustomers means aware the customers about the new site and products that areavailable. Here it has to be done some advertising on television or some famousnetworks such as Face book, Twitter . no more cost will be spent if new businesscollected the thousand of customer to visit them online. Page 33 of 46
  34. 34. E-Commerce4.7.2 Public Sector4.7.2.1 Customer PerspectiveMake trust on the TransactionWhen its concern of the public sector it is more reliable to do transaction throughonline if you are facilitated public sector ecommerce facilities. So customer canbuy the product or service with the warranty as government sector cannot cheatthe citizen of the country.Save time and transaction CostAS the citizen of a country it is need to get some information and services fromthe Public or Government sector Organization and it will be simple if thegovernment organization used their services through Online. Public sector ofmost countries of the world provided to their people to pay taxation throughonline where it is reduce more time and making it is more reliable.Suppose that person need to pay Electric or Water Bill, so person has to go tothe certain place and need to pay as it is time wasting task. But if it is facilitatedto pay online you can pay wherever you are.Ex : http://www.waterboard.lk/4.7.2.2 Business PerspectiveGovernment ProcurementIt can buy the product or services that required buy the government departmentor public sector organizations. Its reducing the transaction or purchasing cost asno intermediate or agency involve with the transaction.And also it facilitates to published the required product or service through theonline as no cost will be expended. Blakeley and Matsuura (2001)Can get high Demand.Generally people are trust the public sector Organizations and like to dotransaction with them as it has the coverage of government. So if thegovernment can get this opportunity and begin with the new projects like Onlineselling and buying and providing services , it will be in considerable position. Page 34 of 46
  35. 35. E-Commerce4.8 Draw backs of Ecommerce to public and private sector Organization4.8.1 Private Sector PerspectiveShipping takes more Timeif your product is a physically to be delivered as it is cannot download; it will takemore time to reached product to you.Customers are not preferred to buy some product online as customer need tocheck the product physically. For example H/She wants to buy a computer Tablefrom furniture shop, but customer need to check its quality, comport and itslooks before purchase it. So such a business’s reduce the ability of customersbuying power through the online. King (2006)AS King,W (2006) explains that it is not huge chance to businesses such asfurniture business as customer hesitate to buy product online. It is reasonable asthose product are expensive and to be valuable longer time. Therefore customerneeds to check before buy it. And also it might get too much time as there arewaiting list for orderLegal issues on securityAs Ecommerce is taking place over the internet around the world such as acrossthe countries. This might be chance some hackers to earn money illegally andtheft the personal identity and information has become the serious problem overthe internet. Therefore some consumers hesitate to buy product or service onlineManzoor (2008).changed of TechnologyIf the business is currently existing with the traditional system and it will bedifficult to integrate with new Database and Online system also it will be somecost. Today technology is growing day by day and its probably need businessesto be changed their existing online systems for the customer attraction and alsocustomer highly expect the new thing that means easiness and fast transactionon the system. Then software development companies will serve you with highin cost. Manzoor (2008) Page 35 of 46
  36. 36. E-Commerce4.8.2 Public Sector PerspectiveAvoid the Income Tax:Online transaction done easily just clicking the mouse point and specially acrossthe country to country transaction still to be consider as it is easily avoided bythe both buyer and seller. (Jrank)Lack of ICT KnowledgeEven though Government intended to used the Ecommerce Concept still there issome barriers such as Lack of It knowledge to the Citizens. So As thegovernment has to invest money on giving the opportunities to develop the ICTknowledge and then only it can be used the Ecommerce projects that mostpeople can be obtained. So government need to start the development projectthat makes high in cost. Andam (2003) Page 36 of 46
  37. 37. E-Commerce4.9 What are the steps that can be taken to accelerate and reduce the drawbacks and limitation that currently involve in Ecommerce.By Private Sector  Makes the Website with the fully information and used to post the useful link that can support for the customers will make the interact with your business.  Customer always expects the multi features of the web site. Therefore facility to customer to used the multiple searched that customer will not escape the site. And also the attraction design and easiness of used the site also should be considered.  Building the real time based customer support service to help the customer that will make the confidence towards the organization.Public Sector:Government can encourage using ecommerce for both organizations andconsumers by following responsibilities.  Need to prepare fare policy environment that both parties can be achievable and helpful.  Use the ecommerce to government services such as online billing payment.  Facilitate organization to involve in online business with legal protection for both buyer and seller.  Reduce or eliminate the cost of duty for Clarence of foreign product. Then more businesses will be take place among various nations.  Invest to the improvement of the Infrastructures to develop the communication services of the Country Manzoor (2010) Page 37 of 46
  38. 38. E-CommerceChapter 05 - ConclusionThe project was based on the investigation into the benefits and its users in tothe public and private sector organization.Firstly Ecommerce concept and types of Ecommerce was described with theexamples with the different authors views and mainly currently used of typeswere elaborated.Then the global and country wise involvement of the Ecommerce with thecurrent projects that has been taken By the Sri Lanka Government. It was clearlyhelped to discuss the how current Ecommerce involvement done by theGovernment.Even though there were benefits and advantages of Ecommerce and also thereare some limitation and drawback that affected to the ecommerce process. Soas a private or public sector organization there are some tasks to be taken thathelped to reduce or eliminate.With the new technological growth and also the trend of mobile users it almosthas been spread among the people over the world. So there were many sourcesfound that helped to carried out the above mentioned points to be completed.Finally it was happy end with the positive self evaluating research project. Page 38 of 46
  39. 39. E-CommerceChapter 6: EvaluationThis chapter consists of information about the self experience of the process ofreport completed. It is done through the Product Evaluationand Process Evaluation. How Ecommerce uses to the private and public sectororigination is the topic that would evaluate in the report. With the world ispassing towards the global world the topic “Ecommerce” was not the new thingas currently though engaging and also there are some experience in it. but it hadto broadly discuss with the limited Scope with the reliable Sources. Following willinclude how process and product evaluation had done.6.1 Product EvaluationMy topic will consist of investigation of E-commerce to private and public sectororganization. There were some knowledge and awareness of the topic sincethere is opportunities to involving in day to day life. but the fact that was toresearch and find the reliable and suitable sources to the topic. Mainly theknowledge and information were obtained by referring online articles. EBooks,and magazine and newspapers. Plenty of information were found regarding thetopic and the fact that was to understand the complex aspects of the sourcesand obtain the better knowledge as it was a secondary research.When the found information used it was to concern the value of the source suchas Author, Published Date Etc. So even though found more sources online fewsources was used to report as it was to critically evaluate with the comparisonsand argument.Time was the restriction of the work as there were some unavoidablecircumstances that concentrate on the project were bit diminished such asRation’s Funeral and New Year Festival. Anyhow time had to managed as therewas deadlines to submit draft report.Objectives of the report was achieved with the report scope that what was thefinal Objective to be archive as “Evaluate what are the benefits anddrawbacks of using E-commerce concept by commercial and public sectororganization” where it has included by identifies Business and Customerperspectives for both public and private sector organization. Page 39 of 46
  40. 40. E-Commerce6.2 Process EvaluationFinally hope that would be able to completed the good secondary research anduseful information contained report. most of the things that did according to theresearch plan ,but some areas could not find much information, for some partshas skipped due to limited time period, such as Ecommerce Process and How toimplement in the Organization Using What strategies. the biggest problem wasthe time ,Managing time was the biggest problem both has to go parallel withlecturers helped me on time aspect and almost pushed to the correct path whenthere is snappy situations on the projects. but the Dedication and hard workingtowards the achievements was easier to get the happy milestone.AS mentioned, above sections were lot of draw backs such as short ofreferences, some were not specifically related to which was trying to search andwas pretty annoying for the research process as well. Some articles were therebut it was more complicates and did not understood it easily, Most of the topicswhich were there in the Wikipedia site actually all the topics were their whichwas trying to search but the problem was that found and supervisor told was thatis not reliable such as other sites because any one can edit and post back.Then the deadline for the draft report made me more active and researchinformation even though had time constrains in one month period as there wasunavoidable circumstances, but the draft report submission did about 70% andsubmitted and then there was time period to submit the final project with thefeedback of the University. Then it regularly used the collected information withthe good references and citation with the weaknesses that pointed out by thefeedback.Finally it is must mentioned that it would be able to satisfy with the report asthere was experience in doing the professional report with the correct path andthe gained the much awareness and specially this chapter was much helpful toaware that how to evaluate self work in own work. It is enormous experience thatgained and keeps it up towards the future professional life. Page 40 of 46
  41. 41. E-Commerce References Andam, Z.R.(2003) e-Commerce and e-Business [online]. [cited 28 March 2011]. Available from World Wide Web : <http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-ecom.pdf > (Anon).(no date) E-Commerce [online].[Cited 08th April 2011]. <http://www.pks.rs/abc/Ecommerce/tabid/1380/language/en- US/Default.aspx>. Anon. ( 2008) What is Ecommerce? [online]. [Cited 27th March 2011]. <http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/e-ommerce.htm>. Anon .(no date) An overview of Ecommerce [Online Image]. [Cited 2 March 2011]. <http://digiteen2008.wikispaces.com/Digital+Commerce>. Anon. (no date) E-commerce Benefits [online]. [Cited 2nd March 2011]. < http://www.ecommerceeducation.com/benefits-of-ecommerce.asp>. Anon. (no date) E-commerce Components [online]. [Cited 27th March 2011] Available at : < http://xpertcommerce.com/e_commerce_components.htm>. Blakeley,C.J and Matsuura,J.H. (2001) E-GOVERNMENT: AN ENGINE TO POWER E-COMMERCE DEVELOPMENT [Online].[Cited 15th June 2011] Available From World Wide Web : < http://www.alliancelawgroup.com/e-gov_ecom_dev.pdf> Bora.C.(no date) Advantages and Disadvantages of Ecommerce [online]. [Cited 2nd May 2011 ]. < http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and- disadvantages-of-electronic-commerce-e-commerce.html>. Braganza,M. (no date) Global Ecommerce – New Trends Involved in Ecommerce Business [online].[Cited 09th April 2011 ]. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/global-ecommerce-new-trends-involved- in-ecommerce-business.html>. Chou,S. (no date) MIS E-Business/E-commerce [online] [Cited 28th March 2011] <http://www.google.lk/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCQQFjAB&url=http %3A%2F%2F140.118.5.28%2FMIS_Notes%2FMIS_Lecture%25208- 1_EB%2520and%2520EC.ppt&rct=j&q=MIS%20E-Business%2FE- commerce%20&ei=3WL_TYnbM8aHrAe6wdTJDw&usg=AFQjCNHtWmghnRGu NvBwOkQNkFUsK-EyZQ&cad=rja > Page 41 of 46
  42. 42. E-Commerce Consumer affairs Victoria, Department of Justice.(2002)[online].[Cited 13th June 2011 ].Available From World Wide Web : http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/ CA256902000FE154/Lookup/ CAV_Publications_Reports_and_Guidelines/$file/mcommerce.pdf Dauglas,T.L (2010) 4 categories of ecommerce [online].[cited 15th June 2011]. <http://ezinearticles.com/?4-Categories-of-Ecommerce&id=4261147> Gunawardana,K.D.(2006) The Impact of firm-based characteristics on Adoption of E-commerce in SME in Sri Lanka [Online].[cited 14th June 2011]. Available From World Wide Web : http://www.sjp.ac.lk/research/pdf/1010-kennedy-ecommerce-sme.pdf Imi,I. (nodate) Importance and Uses of E Commerce [online].[Cited 6th may 2011]. <http://hubpages.com/hub/IMPORTANCE-AND-USES-OF-E- COMMERCE>. Jain,J.R.(no date) Different type of E-Commerce [online].[Cited 07rd April 2011]. Available from World Wide Web : <http://www.scribd.com/doc/45888464/e-Commerce#fullscreen:on>. JRank.(no date) Electric Commerce [Online].[Cited 12th June 2011].< http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic- Commerce.html> King,W. (2006) What is e-Commerce- Advantages and drawbacks [online]. [Cited 09th May 2011]. <http://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-e-Commerce--- Advantages-and-Drawbacks!&id=241542>. Lewis,E.(2010) The different Types of Ecommerce [online].[cited 16th June 2011].<http://www.articlewindow.com/ecommerce/the-different- types-of-ecommerce/> ManZoor,A.K.S.(2010) E commerce Technology And Management [online]. [Cited 6th May 2011]. Available at World Wide Web : < http://www.scribd.com/doc/40219342/e-Commerce>. Marshall,J. (2010) the benefits and Drawbacks of Ecommerce ! [online], [Cited 17th March 2011l].< http://whoisjohnmarshall.com/the-benefits-and-drawbacks- of-e-commerce>. Page 42 of 46
  43. 43. E-Commerce Pornwasin,A.(no date) true sees wildfire growth in ecommerce [online].[Cited 3rd may 2011]. <http://www.nationmultimedia.com/home/2010/06/29/ technology/True-sees-wildfire-growth-in-e-commerce-30132628.html > Smart,S.(2007) Benifits of E commerce [online].[Cited 4th April 2011]. <http://resources.alibaba.com/topic/43717/Benefits_of_E_Commerce.htm >. Srikanth,A .(2000) E-Commerce: A B2B Guide [online].[Cited 7rd April 2011]. <http://www.hindu.com/businessline/iw/2000/05/28/stories/0728g101.htm >. Shivers,T. (2011) Forecast for global ecommerce growth [online].[Cited 7th April 2011]. <http://www.capturecommerce.com/blog/general/forecast-for-global- ecommerce-growth/>. Singh,S.K.(no date) Benefits and Disadvantages of Ecommerce [online].[Cited 4th may 2011].<http://www.articlerich.com/Article/Benefits-and-Disadvantages-of- Ecommerce/332954>. Vora.C (2010) Business to business overview [online].[Cited 07rd April 2011]. Available From World Wide Web : <http://www.netessence.com.cy/ downloads/b2b.pdf> Ward,S. (no date) Ecommerce [Online].[Cited 26th March 2011]. <http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/onlinebusiness/g/ecommerce.htm>. Wiley,M. (no date) What is consumer to consumer E- Commerce [online]. [Cited 08th April 2011]. < http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-consumer-to- consumer-e-commerce.htm>. Webnauts. (2010) Variety of user for e commerce Solutions [online].[cited 4th may 2011]. < http://blog.webnauts.net/variety-of-uses-for-ecommerce- solutions/>. Page 43 of 46
  44. 44. E-Commerce Bibliography Raynolds,J.(no date) The complete e-commerce book: design, build & maintain a successful Web [online].[26th March 2011]. Available at :<http://books.google.lk/books?id=ktYm0p9iYX0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=/E- commerce&hl=en&ei=Yt_9Tf2eGIPuvQOR3IWbAw&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false> Botha,J , Bothma,c and Geldenhuys.(no date) E-Commerce [online].Available at: <http://books.google.lk/books?id=SbSXCmsO5VMC&printsec=frontcover &dq=/E-commerce&hl=en&ei=Yt_9Tf2eGIPuvQOR3IWbAw&sa= X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepa ge&q&f=false > Bajaj,K.K And Nag,D (No date) E-Commerce [online].[13th June 2011].Available at : http://books.google.lk/books?id=YNZ0oh7XBKAC&printsec=frontcover&d q=/E- ommerce&hl=en&ei=Yt_9Tf2eGIPuvQOR3IWbAw&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=fal se Tue,Y(2008) Stakeholder Involvement and Cultural Preference in E- commerce System Development Life Cycle [online].[6th June June] Available at : < http://www.cs.uta.fi/research/theses/masters/ Yue_Yunfeng.pdf > Sial,S (no date) Types of Ecommerce [onlin].[29 th April 2011] http://ezinearticles.com/?Types-of-E-Commerce&id=2002490 Ecommerce Blog (no date) Types of ecommerce [online].[13 th June 2011]< http://www.cartedge.com/blog/articles/types-of-electronic- commerce> Alt-team (no date) E-commerce types [online].[27th March 2011] <http://www.alt-team.com/e-commerce-types.html > eSales Track Blog (no date) Advantages and Disadvantages [online].[29th March 2011] < http://www.esalestrack.com/blog/2008/09/advantages- and-disadvantages-of.html > Palmer,J.(2007)The Keys to Ecommerce [onine].[14 th June 2011] http://www.palmerwebmarketing.com/blog/online-surveys-the-key-to-e- commerce-success/ Page 44 of 46
  45. 45. E-Commerce AppendicesAppendix A Figure 01: The Digital Ecommerce cycleThis image represent that how electronically proceeding the Ecommerce process asAnon. Described in the Online article. Page 45 of 46
  46. 46. E-CommerceAppendix BFollowing table elaborated how U.S Ecommerce process is been growing year 2000 to year2007. U.S. Retail Sales Total Retail and Ecommerce Sales (in billions) Year Total Ecommerce % 2000 $2,988,756 $27,673 0.90% 2001 $3,067,725 $34,353 1.10% 2002 $3,134,322 $44,842 1.40% 2003 $3,265,477 $56,615 1.70% 2004 $3,474,340 $70,938 2.00% 2005 $3,688,059 $87,397 2.40% 2006 $3,887,363 $106,583 2.70% 2007 $4,040,411 $127,690 3.20% Table 01 Source: http://www.access-ecom.info/article.cfm?id=85&xid=MN Page 46 of 46

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