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First Year Maths Workshop, Melbourne Uni, June 2014

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All previous examples were flipped

What do we accept as evidence? How do we measure?

- 1. Birgit Loch Department of Mathematics Swinburne University of Technology bloch@swin.edu.au Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom
- 2. Literature/theory vs. Practice • What is the flipped classroom? • Is there evidence that it works? From the literature. • What are the implications for mathematics teaching and learning in the age of MOOCs and blended learning? 2Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom
- 3. What is a flipped classroom? • Face to face (FTF) time with students is structured around active learning tasks • Students no longer just listen and take notes in FTF classes (no more traditional lectures) • Shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning environment • Students are first exposed to concepts before they come to FTF classes • Students take ownership of their learning Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 3
- 4. What is active learning? • Prince (2004) defines active learning as “any instructional method that engages students in the learning process” • The expectation is that classroom time is used more effectively and focus is placed on developing a deeper understanding rather than the shallow repeating of material from a text book. M. Prince. (2004). Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3): p. 223-231 Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 4
- 5. What is a flipped classroom? Often: • Multimedia material is provided online before class (“blended learning”) • Students collaborate in class (peer- instruction) • Instant feedback (e.g. via clickers) Important: careful alignment of all online and FTF learning experiences! Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 5
- 6. What forms can a flipped classroom take? They all have in common an active learning environment Otherwise: • Lecture, tutorial, online class • Small - large enrolments • Some traditional lecturing - none • Lots of videos – none; technology – or none • New learning spaces – or no change • There is no one right way of flipping – it depends on circumstances such as learning spaces, financial situation, teaching and tutoring staff skills, student needs, content, year level, university/faculty direction Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 6
- 7. Key elements of the flipped classroom 1. Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class. 2. Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class. 3. Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding. 4. Provide in-class activities that focus on higher level cognitive activities. Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom. Retrieved Sunday, June 22, 2014 from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 7
- 8. Good Practice from the most successful flipped classrooms • Pre-lecture activities must be made by the instructor • Students must be held accountable for completing pre-lecture activities • Time vacated by lectures must be replaced with active learning exercises with full participation of the instructor S. Bagley (2014). A Comparison of four Pedagogical Strategies in Calculus. RUME 2014 Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 8
- 9. Is there evidence that it works? Flipping stats lectures (UWA) • Students read through material before class, online quiz • Tutorials, labs (smaller) • Lectures: audience response system • Group discussions, peer instruction • Evidence: increased attendance, improved exam performance, more top performers R.N. Khan. (2013). Teaching First-Year Business Statistics Three Ways. Proceedings of Lighthouse Delta 2013. & fyimaths presentation, June 2014 Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 9
- 10. Flipping lectures (Auckland Uni) • Students work through material before class, prepare for debate • Small group discussions in lecture, class debates (Tanya’s vs Julia’s teams, comparing methods), trialed for one topic • Evidence: student perception (helped, but not preferred approach), most students did not prepare? Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 10
- 11. The LaTrobe tutorial model • Board tutorials • Learning space: No seats, no tables • No student preparation required • Group work, learning from other students, communication skills • Evidence: students engaged, tutorial attendance higher. Spread to other universities. K.A. Seaton, D.M. King & C.E. Sandison (2014) Flipping the maths tutorial: A tale of n departments. AustMS Gazette, 41 (2) Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 11
- 12. Does it work for large classes? • Introductory economics, 3500 students per year • Personal response systems or group work • Videos before class, >30 per semester, 10-25 mins • 160 hours of instructor time to record videos • “not all students have good time management skills” • Evidence: 80% of students prefer flipped to traditional lectures. Improved exam performance? R. Rossiter & B. Cao (2013). Large Enrollment University Classes: Can They Be Flipped? NSS Proceedings. Las Vegas Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 12
- 13. Comparison of four strategies for calculus teaching 1. Traditional lecture 2. Interactive student-centred lecture 3. “Inverted classroom” 4. Interactive student-centred technology-intensive lecture (applets from Geometer’s Sketchpad) • Curriculum “too much, too fast”? • Evidence: No statistically significant difference in exam results S. Bagley (2014). A Comparison of four Pedagogical Strategies in Calculus. RUME 2014 Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 13
- 14. Flipping Calculus Comparison of two streams of the same unit • One chapter flipped, the rest traditional vs all traditional • 15 mins of video before each class • Entrance quiz at start of class, linked to video; group work, problem solving tutorial style • Significant time investment: 2.25 hours for each lecture hour, to produce videos and quizzes • 78% of students watched videos beforehand Evidence: positive student comments, performance of students 5% higher in flipped class Jean McGivney-Burelle & Fei Xue. (2013). Flipping Calculus. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies. Volume 23, Issue 5 Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 14
- 15. Teaching methods comparison in a large calculus class • 100-200 students • Pre-class reading, group discussions, clickers, reactive lecture Evidence: Improved student performance on conceptual items, students more likely to connect procedures to new ideas • Question: Should assessment be modified to include more “problems which combine procedural and conceptual concepts in a decomposable way”? W. Code et al. (2014). Teaching methods comparison in a large calculus class. ZDM Mathematics Education Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 15
- 16. UQ: Exam revision sessions • 100 student tablet screens, synchronisation software • Exam preparation session • Evidence: student perception Donovan, D. and Loch, B. (2013). Closing the feedback loop: Engaging students in large first year mathematics test revision sessions using pen-enabled screens, IJMEST, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 1-13. Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 16 involved interactive fun useful cool
- 17. Should we ask or should we tell? • Meta-analysis of 225 studies on active learning vs traditional lecturing in STEM disciplines • Evidence: greatest effect size for smaller classes (<=50), but also improvements for larger classes > Students with traditional lectures 1.5 times more likely to fail than students with active learning classes (33.8% vs 21.8% failure rate) > Average exam scores improved by 6% “It is an open question whether student performance would increase as much if all faculty were required to implement active learning approaches” Freeman et al. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 17
- 18. What are the implications for mathematics teaching and learning? • Some universities have mandated blended learning. • Swinburne Faculty of SET is next… blended/flipped mode for first year units. Curriculum design workshop to get the blend right • Removal of boards from teaching spaces…mandated lecture recording Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 18
- 19. Some questions for the discussion • What are your own experiences with flipping? • How widespread is the drive to blended, flipped mode? Who is driving? • Have there been studies on the success of large scale flipping? • How is it resourced, and how does it fit individual’s research agendas? • Are readily available technologies suitable for maths learning/teaching? • How do we measure success of a flipped classroom? • Have you considered the “flipped flipped classroom”? Theory vs. Practice in the flipped classroom 19
- 20. More questions from previous presentations • What about the students who do not engage? • What if a technology-free approach works really well? Should you be forced to change? • How much staff training is needed? • What teaching/learning spaces do we need? • Can we afford not to flip? MOOCs? OERs? Teaching Mathematics with Technology 20

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