Slavery, freedom, and empire


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Slavery, freedom, and empire

  2. 2. FREEDOM AND SLAVERY • Land, Labor, Staple equation • Three distinct slave systems existed in the British colonies • Chesapeake Bay • South Carolina and Georgia • Non-plantation societies of New England and the Middle Colonies
  3. 3. FREEDOM AND SLAVERY • Chesapeake Bay’s slave system • Based primarily on tobacco plantations • Plantations small • Daily interaction between masters and slaves • Slavery transformed society into a hierarchy based on freedom • Large planters • Yeoman farmers • Indentured servants and tenant farmers • Slaves • Slavery codified slowly, starting in 1660s • Race divisions begin • Black= slave • White= free
  4. 4. FREEDOM AND SLAVERY • South Carolina and Georgia’s slave system • Slavery based on rice cultivation • Rice and indigo required large-scale cultivation • By 1770, slaves comprised about ½ of SC population
  5. 5. • • •
  6. 6. FREEDOM AND SLAVERY • Slavery in the North • Both agricultural and urban slavery • Large estates rare; winters made agricultural slavery unprofitable • New York: Largest colonial slave population • Pennsylvania: Eve of Revolution, no more than 8% of Philadelphia pop. were bonded servants
  7. 7. SLAVE CULTURE • In the Chesapeake Bay colonies, slaves learned English and participated in the Great Awakening • They were thoroughly exposed to English culture and assimilated into mainstream society • In South Carolina and Georgia, slaves participated in two contrasting societies: • African culture: consisted primarily of slaves who worked in rice plantations • Euro-American culture: consisted primarily of urban servants (house workers) • In the Northern colonies, slaves developed a distinct African-American culture much slower than their counterparts • Slaves had more access to main-stream society and culture • They were also not as legally restricted as in the South
  8. 8. SLAVE RESISTANCE • A common sentiment for slaves in America was the desire for freedom • Many colonial slaves ran away to Spanish Florida and cities in Northern colonies • The first slave uprising was in New York (1712) • Other rebellions: • Stono Rebellion (1739) – led to a more restrictive slave code • New York City Fires (1741) – rumored to be part of a slave conspiracy to attack colonists • As a result, sentiment towards free blacks and slaves worsened • Numerous slaves were executed in the aftermath
  10. 10. SEVEN YEARS’ WAR • Begins in 1754 as the British attempt to remove the French from western Pennsylvania • War not officially declared until 1756 • For the first four years, the British lose--and badly • Successes in 1758: Duquesne, Louisburg, Frontenac • Most North American fighting ends in 1760 • Change in British strategy caused by death of George II • Fighting in North America continues with Anglo-Cherokee War
  11. 11. TREATY OF PARIS (1763) • Changed the economic, political, and social relations between Britain, France, and Spain • France and Britain suffered financially and with long-term consequences • Britain gains French Canada and Acadia (80,000 primarily Roman Catholic French speakers) • Spain trades Florida to regain Cuba, also gains Louisiana from France • Mississippi River open to ALL for trade
  12. 12. • • • • •
  13. 13. THE GREAT AWAKENING • A period of heightened religious activity in the colonies between the late 1720s and 1740s • • Brought on by the arrival of young Anglican pastor George Whitefield Whitefield traveled through the colonies preaching enthusiastically • Visited towns, villages, and the backcountry (known as circuit riding) • Known for attracting large, emotionally charged crowds and generating considerable controversy • Other preachers such as Jonathan Edwards generated immense controversy through his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • What was their goal? • • • Attempt to compel non-Christians to covert to Christianity and those who were lost to recommit to God Controversial because they rejected Calvinism and segregation in church services Conservative church members particularly did not care for the circuit riders
  14. 14. George Whitefield Jonathan Edwards
  15. 15. THE GREAT AWAKENING • Factions • “Old Lights” – conservative church members who rejected the controversial preaching of the circuit riders • “New Lights” – liberal church members who came under scrutiny for supporting the circuit riders and accepting blacks into white church services • What did the movement achieve? • Split Protestantism into more denominations; Presbyterians were especially affected, strengthened Baptist and Methodist congregations • Had little effect on Anglicans and Quakers • Became social criticism for colonial society • Rejected slavery in particular • Eventually, “New Lights” eclipsed “Old Lights” and ushered in a new era of religious influence in the colonies • Became a great influence of connecting God’s will with the Revolutionary War in the 1760s and 1770s