Dictionary for textual analysis


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Dictionary for textual analysis

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  2. 2. 2 KEY CONCEPTS IN MEDIA STUDIES GENRE The type or category of a film, programmeor other media text. Media Studies is concerned with: 1. The conventions of genre texts (generic conventions). 2. How & why audiences are attracted to genre products. 3. Industries’ useof genre. 4. How genre formats develop and evolve. IDEOLOGY A complex term, broadly relating to a framework of ideas and beliefs. These may be formally or informally held. In Media Studies ideology is inextricably linked to representation. NARRATIVE How a story is told / how a plot unfolds before an audience. Media Studies is concerned with: 1. The conventions of narrative (including how conventions aresometimes broken). 2. How narratives inter-relate with each other. 3. How and why audiences are attracted to narratives, and what they gain fromthem. 4. Industry’suseof narrative. Itis important to remember that narrative exists in factual and fictitious media forms. REPRESENTATIONS Representation forms the foundation of Media Studies. Media texts are re-presentations of reality, they are an interpretation, an opinion, they are never a transparent‘window on the world’ ORGANISATION/INSTITUTION An organisation is another name for a company. An institution can be used as another word for organisation or company but also is used to recognisethat organisations havea systemof values, usually apparent in the way in which texts are produced. AUDIENCE Without an audience the media could not exist. Media Studies is concerned with: 1. How audiences are targeted. 2. How audiences use the media. 3. How texts position audiences. 4. How audiences are affected by the media. 5. How audiences affect / shapethe media.
  3. 3. 3 Representation Representation Stereotype Counter Stereotype Gender – MEN Gender – WOMEN Age – CHILDREN Age – TEENAGER
  4. 4. 4 Age – UNIVERSITY Age – ADULTS Age – ELDERLY Ethnicity – BLACK
  5. 5. 5 Ethnicity – WHITE Ethnicity – ASIAN(indian) Ethnicity – ASIAN(oriental) Social class – Upper
  6. 6. 6 SOCIAL CLASS – Middle SOCIAL CLASS – Lower Physicalability / disability – Physically able Physicalability / disability – Disabled
  7. 7. 7 Regional Identity
  8. 8. 8 Sexuality – Heterosexual female Sexuality – Homosexual female Sexuality – Heterosexual male Sexuality – Homosexual male
  9. 9. 9 Camera Shots and Angles Name and Descriptionof Shot or Angle Picture of shot Why use it? High angle Taken from above looking down to a character or place Low angle Taken from below looking up to a character or place Canted angle A shot taken deliberately slanted to one side Establishing shot A long shot that establishes location / setting and general mood Close up Camera shotwhere the audience see the character or prop in detail Mid shot Camera shotwhere the audience can see the character/characters from the waist up
  10. 10. 10 Long shot Camera shotwhere the audience can see the whole body, or more generally a shot with a wide field of vision Wide shot / Extreme long shot A shot that capturesthe widest picture possible in the frame to show a landscape, scene, or context Two shot A shot of two people Aerial shot A shot taken from far overhead, usually via plane or helicopter, to give a bird's eye perspective Point of view shot A shot taken from the pointof view of a character Over the shoulder shot Shottaken over the shoulder of a character, asif you are in the scene
  11. 11. 11 Camera Movements Name Where does it move? Why use it? Tracking shot Camera moves forwards and backwards as wellas side to side. The movement is smooth as it is on a dolly Tracking shot (TRACKING IN) Towards the character or object Tracking shot (TRACKING OUT) Away fromthe character or object Tracking shot (SIDEWAYS TRACK) Sideways Tilt shot Up and down on an axis Zoom Movement of the lens (focus point). In or away froma character Arc shot Full or semi circle around an object or character Panning Left to right following a moving object Crane shot A shottaken by a camera on a crane
  12. 12. 12 Composition Name Description Why use it? Framing Framing is the technique of drawing attention to the subject of your image by blocking other parts of the image with something in the scene. Rule of Thirds The rule of thirds is a rule that states that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontallines and two equally- spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Proponents claim that aligning a subjectwith these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subjectwould. Depth of Field - deep and shallow focus Depth of Field: The distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scenethat appear acceptably sharp in an image. Deep Focus: In some cases, it may be desirable to have the entire image sharp (a large DOF) Shallow Focus: Emphasizing the subjectwhile de-emphasizing the foreground and background (a small DOF) Focus Pulls Changing the focus of an image between two different things.
  13. 13. 13 Mise En Scène Aspect of Mise-en-Scène What is it? What to look out for? Properties (Props) Location / Set Costume and Make Up Characterisation Lighting
  14. 14. 14 Editing Name of Editing Description Shot reverseshot A film technique wherein one character is shown looking (often off- screen) at another character, and then the other character is shown looking "back" atthe firstcharacter Cut What the shot moves fromone to another Long take A long time spent on one shotbefore it cuts to the next Shorttake A shortamount of time between 2 shots Eyeline match The eyeline match begins with a character looking at something off- screen, there will then be a cut to the object or person at which he is looking. For example, a man is looking off-screen to his left, and then the film cuts to a television that he is watching. Parallel editing Inter-cutting between two simultaneous stories or scenes. Jump cut A jump cut is a cut in film editing where the middle section of a continuous shotis removed, and the beginning and end of the shot are then joined together. The technique breaks continuity in time and produces a startling effect. Any moving objects in the shotwill appear to jump to a new position Rapid cutting A fastsuccession of cuts. Often used to speed up the pace of the scene- to match the action in the sceneeg. A car chase. Cut away A shot, often a close-up, inserted during editing, that cuts away fromanother shot, usually to illustrate a detail. Dissolve A gradualtransition fromone image to another. Fade in/ out A gradualtransformation to black or opposite. Ellipsis To show the passing of time Flashback A reversalof time within a story Wipe One shotis pushed off the screen by another one.
  15. 15. 15 Sound Name of Sound Description Diegetic sound Sounds fromthe world of the TV drama – a kettle boiling, a siren, a radio playing Non-diegetic sound Added sound to emphasis tension / mood – the underscore Ambient sound Ambient sound means the background noisepresent in a scene Sound bridge Music that crosses over from1 scene to the next Sound motif A recurring sound that hints to the sameevent / character Voiceover Dialogue over the scene – possibly narration, possibly whatthe character is thinking Soundtrack Songs played over scenes Score A piece of music created especially for a programmeor scene Dialogue A better word for talking Synchronous sound Synchronous Soundsarethosesounds which aresynchronized or matched with what is viewed. For example: if the film portrays a character playing the piano, the sounds of the piano are projected. Asynchronous sound Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the action. Sound effects Added sound during editing to make a certain effect Sound mixing The way sounds aremixed / blended together Sound perspective Sound perspective refers to the apparent distance of a sound. Incidentalmusic Background music which adds atmosphere Themes The theme song for the tv drama. Specially created for that show Stings A shortclip which is associated to a specific program Mode of address a term used by semioticians which proposes that media texts address its intended audience in a particular way, establishing a relationship between the producer of the text and the media’s audience Direct address When a character talks to the audience
  16. 16. 16 Additional Key Words Key Word Description Active audience Semi active audience Passiveaudience There are a range of audience theories in media studies which try to explain: a. the effect the media has on the audience b. how audiences usetexts In broad terms, these theories can be described as belonging to one of three categories: 1. Passive: Includes the hypodermic needle / magic bullet, and inoculation theories. All view the audience as passive recipients of media messages. 2. Semi-active: Semi-active theories such as the two step flow model suggestsome action on the part of the audience, but ultimately they are still affected by media messages. 3. Active: Audiences actively control and select media texts according to their own needs and desires. Examples include the uses & gratifications theory. Audience expectations What the audience expects froma particular media text. Audience gratification Pleasurethat an audience gains froma text. An audience might feel pleased with themselves if they solvean enigma or recognisean example of intertextuality. Audience positioning How texts are structured in ways that position audiences to adopt a particular perspective. Convention Unwritten rules / typical features of a media text. A text which follows conventions of its type / genre may contain many typical elements. Audiences are usually awareof these conventions on a subconscious level. Denotation The everyday, commonsense, or obvious meaning of a sign. Connotation The implied meaning of a sign due to its symbolism.
  17. 17. 17 Anything you want to add Key Word Definition
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