www.salga.org.zaPurpose of the Study• “…to identify the potential for strengthening public participation and social accountability in South African local governance through the use of ICT’s, in the form of e-Inclusion and e- Participation and e-Government programmes.“ 3
www.salga.org.zaGovernance ContextThe Policy Framework Vote Public Policy formulation Municipality Service Delivery Collaborative (Organised) Local Development
www.salga.org.zaThe Status Quo• Auditor General – little transparency / accountability around finance• Low trust by citizens• Persistent corruption despite successive programmes to combat it• Patronage & nepotism undermine services & efficiency 5
www.salga.org.zaLocal Government Turnaround Strategy• Implement a new ward committee governance model;• good citizenship campaign to “unite the nation”;• mobilise public involvement in local development.
www.salga.org.zaKey Trends• E-Inclusion• Infomediaries• Interaction tests DEPTH of citizenship• Social Media (Twitter, Facebook, MixIt)• Citizens more equal People are getting • Governments more responsive connected, where is • ICT’s driving Gov maturation government? 7
www.salga.org.zaPotential Case Studies in ICT Usage• Social Media: Langeberg Local Municipality (Facebook to reach citizens by creating a Facebook City Pages). Others include City of Johannesburg, Grahamstown and Durban.• Two way SMS platforms - eMakhazeni• Smart transportation systems - Nelson Mandela Bay Metro• Open source software - eThekweni Metro: use of to run websites & Voip to reduce telephone costs• Document Information Management Systems - uThungulu District Municipality (KZN) –could allow ward committees to track project progress in their areas
www.salga.org.zaSelect Findings – Case Studies• Unevenness in ICT usage – competence mainly in metros & DMs• Community participation functions are rarely ICT enabled• Wariness amongst managers of using ICTs for accountability / transparency – seen as a political function• Some existing internal e-government functions could be easily enriched with eParticipation elements
www.salga.org.zaSelect Findings – Case Studies• ICTs are a productive focus for shared services – economies of scale, core expertise etc – may include mentor & support relations• Communication, public participation and IT functions are not always integrated and coordinated for the best impact on public participation and accountability.• ICT resource and infrastructure deployments tend to favour communication, branding and public relations functions at the expense of participation and transparency.
www.salga.org.zaRecommendations & Model/s Following a Maturity Model approach Medium ICT High ICT Maturity Basic ICT Maturity Maturity with start‐ with advanced e‐ (e‐government) up e‐governance governance 12
www.salga.org.zaBasic ICT Maturity (e-government) -Short to Medium Term• Register for SMS alerts of council meetings, • Provision of all information as required by standing committees, IDP representative MSA and MFMA on website forums etc • On-line newsletter – can be an e-version of• ICT enabled customer satisfaction surveys hard copy newsletter (website, sms, call centre) • Making provision for key staff to use social• ICT enabled services at Multi-purpose media to enrich work content and access Resource (Thusong) Centres external expertise• Provision for online payment of taxes, • User-friendly searchable data base on web utilities, vehicle licenses, permits etc – can of key policies, minutes and by-laws be through a third party facility such as arranged by most relevance for service Easypay users• Call centres – mainly for service issues / • Creation of a Facebook municipal page and account queries use for public engagement on municipal issues• Full contact details for ward councillors published on internet 13
www.salga.org.zaMedium ICT Maturity with start‐up e‐governance (Med to Long Term)• Logging key concerns / issues per ward to • Provision of high level user services such as free sms number / website CCTV traffic flow patterns and water quality info from beaches to website or mobile• Internet-based ward profiles & data incl images • Use of rural hubs at schools, clinics etc to provide identity of traditional chief for the• Registration of interested parties via web or area, focus of recent consultations, projects email for input on key components e.g. scheduled for area & priorities spatial frameworks, land use plans etc • Email updates to registered subscribers• Provision for electronic input into IDP e.g. during times of municipal crisis e.g. budget / email, SMS or other link cash flow crisis• Email register of key interest groups / • Page on website summarising results of advocacy bodies by topic – targeted performance assessment from Annual feedback on draft by-laws, policies etc Report• Website facility for public comments / • On-line provision for receiving registering & feedback on draft by-laws, policies etc acknowledging petitions and complaints 14
www.salga.org.zaHigh ICT Maturity with advanced e‐governance(Long term)• Bi-annual SMS polls on performance of • General use of chat rooms, Wikis, mixit or ward councilors other social media platforms to generate discussion on key topics• Monitoring of ward projects via website link to key documents on intranet / municipal • On-line feedback to municipal departments data bases via website, sms, call centre, mixit or email – specific emails for different business units /• Wiki facilitated joint drafting of by-laws or line departments can be created policies by expert panels / interest groups • Conduct on-line polls on key LG issues e.g.• Electronic drafts of annual Report circulated re-naming suburbs and streets to registered interest groups / CSOs for comment prior to publication • Install webcams at council meetings enabling those who reside far away to watch• Identify and register particular proceedings at a municipal library. School ‘infomediaries’ for particular wards to children could also watch these meetings as facilitate on-line needs analysis / service part of the Life Orientation curriculum. prioritisation for ward / community based planning 15
www.salga.org.zam-participation pilot project in Greater TzaneenMunicipality
ContextGTM Why “Mobile Participation”• Population: 500 000, 80% • Majority of residents have cell rural, 125 villages phones• Large youth population (¾ • SMS’s will be read, more under 35) reliable that other • Current PP mechanisms incl. communication channels ward committees, ward • Especially attractive meetings, izimbizo, events communication medium for => Geographical, capacity & youth financial constraints in • Addresses challenges related facilitating effective public to large distances participation • Relatively cost‐effective
Concept OUTBOUND SMS’S INBOUND SMS’S Councillors/ Know your Input on Council ward councillor development sms alerts of priorities e.g. Objectives opportunities to linked to 1. Improve scope & quality participate e.g. IDP/budget of public participation in ward/ward consultations governance of GTM committee/IDP/ Input on 2. Improve municipality’s budget proposals e.g. responsiveness to meetings, new policies & citizens/stakeholders izimbizo, by‐laws, tariffs documents Feedback on Citizens/ available for surveys comment etc. stakeholders Report service Surveys e.g. delivery faults customer Lodge satisfaction complaints/ask Service delivery questions notices e.g. disruptions
www.salga.org.zaSMS - COMMUNICATING WITH THE COMMUNITY Case Study Emakhazeni Local Municipality 19
www.salga.org.zaCOLLECTING DATA:DECISION WAS TAKING NOT TO TAP INTO THE MUNICPIAL ACCOUNT • Privacy • “Buy in” wanted from the CitizensNOITCES WERE ISSUED AND ADVERTISEMENTS PLACED IN LOCAL PAPERS.WE THEN ISSUED A REQUEST ON THE MUNICIPAL WEBSITE.
www.salga.org.zaHOW IT WORKS: THIS IS A WEB BASED SYSTEM. ADVANTAGE IS THAT ONCE YOU HAVE INTERNET ACCESS, YOU CAN LOG INTO YOUR SECURE ACCOUNT ONLINE. AFTER LOGGING IN, YOU ARE PRESENTED WITH AN OPTION MENU.
www.salga.org.zaHOW IT WORKS: •YOU CAN ADD INDIVIDUAL CELL NUMBERS . •IMPORT FROM YOUR ADDRESS BOOK. •IMPORT AN EXCEL OR CSV FILE.
www.salga.org.zaEVEN AFTER YOU HAVE IMPORTED YOUR DATA FILE, YOU CAN STILL EDIT IT.THE SYSTEM ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO LOCALISE YOUR DATA BASE.
www.salga.org.zaSENDING IS EASY.WRITE YOUR MESSAGE IN THE TEXT BOX.TICK THE GROUPS YOU WANT TO TARGET.PRESS SEND.
www.salga.org.zaYOUR MESSAGE FIRST GOES TO AN OUTBOX,THEN TO THE SENT BOX.
www.salga.org.zaSMS REPORTING IS USER FRIENDLY.JUST SELECT THE PERIOD YOU REQUIRE, AND GENERATED REPORTS CAN BE SAVED IN PDF.
www.salga.org.za Model for e-Participation The Public &Other Stakeholders Info-mediariesMunicipality ICT infrastructure (Hardware & Software) Informational Base for Well Established Processes (IDP, Budget, By‐Laws, municipal communications & ward meetings, legislated informational bases MSA & MFMA, etc.)
Model Software Infrastructure Free numbers and outgoing SMS (incurs cost to municipality) Internet apps and incoming SMS (no cost to municipality)Client side (Public) Any Web Mobile Mobile PSTN or Mobile Mobile App Mobile Browser Browser Phone or VoIP phones Third party site SMS GatewayServer side (Municipality) Mobile (Mxit, or provider PCM Website IVR Website FaceBook, (e.g. System etc.) BulkSMS) Call Centre Software
www.salga.org.zaRecommendations• 1st priority - ICT’s deployed, to the established and well understood systems of participatory local governance:• From internal e-government to true eParticipation• Change mindset of officials – ICTs are not just for PR / communication purposes• ICT standards linked to municipal category / grade / incentives 29