AP Biology 2009-2010
Cells & Cell Organelles
Doing Life’s Work
Regents Biology
bacteria
cells
bacteria
cellsTypes of cells
animal cellsanimal cells plant cellsplant cells
Prokaryote
- n...
Regents Biology
Cell size comparison
Bacterial cell
Animal cell
 micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter
 diameter of hu...
Regents Biology
Why study cells?
 Cells → Tissues → Organs → Bodies
 bodies are made up of cells
 cells do all the work...
Regents Biology
 What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live…
 “breathe”
 gas exchange: O2 in vs. CO2 out
 e...
Regents Biology
 Cells have 3 main jobs
 make energy
 need energy for all activities
 need to clean up waste produced
...
Regents Biology
Organelles
 Organelles do the work of cells
 each structure has a job to do
 keeps the cell alive; keep...
Regents Biology
1. Cells need power!
 Making energy
 to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…
 take in food & digest...
Regents Biology
 Function
 separates cell from outside
 controls what enters or leaves cell
 O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutri...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
Vacuoles & vesicles
 Function
 moving material
around cell
 storage
 Structure
 membrane sac
small fo...
Regents Biology
Food & water storage
plant cellsplant cells
contractile
vacuole
contractile
vacuole
animal cellsanimal cel...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
Lysosomes
small food
particle
vacuole
digesting food
lysosomes
 Function
 digest food
 used to make ene...
Regents Biology
A Job for Lysosomes
15 weeks
6 weeks
Regents Biology
lysosome
food digestion
garbage disposal &
recycling
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of ...
Regents Biology
 Function
 make ATP energy from cellular respiration
 sugar + O2 → ATP
 fuels the work of life
 Struc...
Regents Biology
lysosome
food digestion
garbage disposal &
recycling
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of ...
Regents Biology
 Mitochondria
 make energy from sugar + O2
 cellular respiration
 sugar + O2 → ATP
 Chloroplasts
 ma...
Regents Biology
Mitochondria are in both cells!!
animal cellsanimal cells plant cellsplant cells
mitochondriamitochondria
...
Regents Biology
central vacuole
storage: food,
water or waste
mitochondria
make ATP in
cellular respiration
chloroplast
...
Regents Biology
2. Cells need workers = proteins!
 Making proteins
 to run daily life & growth, the cell must…
 read ge...
Regents Biology
Proteins do all the work!
cellsDNA proteins
one of the major job of cells is to make proteins,
because…
on...
Regents Biology
Nucleus
 Function
 control center of cell
 protects DNA
 instructions for building proteins
 Structur...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
Ribosomes on ER
Ribosomes
 Function
 protein factories
 read instructions to build proteins from DNA
 ...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
 Function
 works on proteins
 helps complete the
proteins after ribosome
builds them
 makes membranes
...
Regents Biology
lysosome
food digestion
garbage disposal &
recycling
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of ...
Regents Biology transport vesicles
vesicles
carrying proteins
 Function
 finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins
 like...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
DNA
RNA
ribosomes
endoplasmic
reticulum
vesicle
Golgi
apparatus
vesicle
protein
on its way!
protein finish...
Regents Biology
central vacuole
storage: food,
water or waste
mitochondria
make ATP in
cellular respiration
chloroplast
...
Regents Biology
3. Cells need to make more cells!
 Making more cells
 to replace, repair & grow,
the cell must…
 copy t...
Regents Biology
Centrioles
 Function
 help coordinate cell division
 only in animal cells
 Structure
 one pair in eac...
Regents Biology
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes signals
cytoplasm
jelly...
Regents Biology
 Cells have 3 main jobs
 make energy
 need food + O2
 cellular respiration & photosynthesis
 need to ...
AP Biology 2009-2010
That’s my
cellular story…
Any Questions?
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01 cellorganelles2009regents

  1. 1. AP Biology 2009-2010 Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life’s Work
  2. 2. Regents Biology bacteria cells bacteria cellsTypes of cells animal cellsanimal cells plant cellsplant cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles
  3. 3. Regents Biology Cell size comparison Bacterial cell Animal cell  micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter  diameter of human hair = ~20 microns most bacteria  1-10 microns eukaryotic cells  10-100 microns
  4. 4. Regents Biology Why study cells?  Cells → Tissues → Organs → Bodies  bodies are made up of cells  cells do all the work of life!
  5. 5. Regents Biology  What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live…  “breathe”  gas exchange: O2 in vs. CO2 out  eat  take in & digest food  make energy  ATP  build molecules  proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids  remove wastes  control internal conditions  homeostasis  respond to external environment  build more cells  growth, repair, reproduction & development The Work of Life ATP
  6. 6. Regents Biology  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need energy for all activities  need to clean up waste produced while making energy  make proteins  proteins do all the work in a cell, so we need lots of them  make more cells  for growth  to replace damaged or diseased cells The Jobs of Cells Our organelles do all these jobs! ATP
  7. 7. Regents Biology Organelles  Organelles do the work of cells  each structure has a job to do  keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive Model Animal Cell They’re like mini-organs!
  8. 8. Regents Biology 1. Cells need power!  Making energy  to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…  take in food & digest it  take in oxygen (O2)  make ATP  remove waste  organelles that do this work…  cell membrane  lysosomes  vacuoles & vesicles  mitochondria ATP
  9. 9. Regents Biology  Function  separates cell from outside  controls what enters or leaves cell  O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste  recognizes signals from other cells  allows communication between cells  Structure  double layer of fat  phospholipid bilayer  receptor molecules  proteins that receive signals Cell membrane lipid “tail” phosphate “head”
  10. 10. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place
  11. 11. Regents Biology Vacuoles & vesicles  Function  moving material around cell  storage  Structure  membrane sac small food particle vesicle vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle filled w/ digested nutrients
  12. 12. Regents Biology Food & water storage plant cellsplant cells contractile vacuole contractile vacuole animal cellsanimal cells central vacuolecentral vacuole food vacuolefood vacuole
  13. 13. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage
  14. 14. Regents Biology Lysosomes small food particle vacuole digesting food lysosomes  Function  digest food  used to make energy  clean up & recycle  digest broken organelles  Structure  membrane sac of digestive enzymes digesting broken organelles
  15. 15. Regents Biology A Job for Lysosomes 15 weeks 6 weeks
  16. 16. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage
  17. 17. Regents Biology  Function  make ATP energy from cellular respiration  sugar + O2 → ATP  fuels the work of life  Structure  double membrane Mitochondria in both animal & plant cells in both animal & plant cells ATP
  18. 18. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2
  19. 19. Regents Biology  Mitochondria  make energy from sugar + O2  cellular respiration  sugar + O2 → ATP  Chloroplasts  make energy + sugar from sunlight  photosynthesis  sunlight + CO2 → ATP & sugar  ATP = active energy  sugar = stored energy  build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars Plants make energy two ways! ATP sugar ATP
  20. 20. Regents Biology Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cellsanimal cells plant cellsplant cells mitochondriamitochondria chloroplastchloroplast
  21. 21. Regents Biology central vacuole storage: food, water or waste mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis lysosome digestion & clean up cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material around organelles
  22. 22. Regents Biology 2. Cells need workers = proteins!  Making proteins  to run daily life & growth, the cell must…  read genes (DNA)  build proteins  structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)  enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)  signals (hormones) & receptors  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  ribosomes  endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Golgi apparatus
  23. 23. Regents Biology Proteins do all the work! cellsDNA proteins one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work!proteins do all the work! signals structural enzymes receptors
  24. 24. Regents Biology Nucleus  Function  control center of cell  protects DNA  instructions for building proteins  Structure  nuclear membrane  nucleolus  ribosome factory  chromosomes  DNA
  25. 25. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell chromosomes DNA lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleolus produces ribosomes
  26. 26. Regents Biology Ribosomes on ER Ribosomes  Function  protein factories  read instructions to build proteins from DNA  Structure  some free in cytoplasm  some attached to ER
  27. 27. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes build proteins nucleolus produces ribosomes lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling
  28. 28. Regents Biology  Function  works on proteins  helps complete the proteins after ribosome builds them  makes membranes  Structure  rough ER  ribosomes attached  works on proteins  smooth ER  makes membranes Endoplasmic Reticulum
  29. 29. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER works on proteins makes membranes
  30. 30. Regents Biology transport vesicles vesicles carrying proteins  Function  finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins  like UPS headquarters  shipping & receiving department  ships proteins in vesicles  “UPS trucks”  Structure  membrane sacs Golgi Apparatus
  31. 31. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling
  32. 32. Regents Biology DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Making Proteins TO: TO: TO: TO: nucleus
  33. 33. Regents Biology central vacuole storage: food, water or waste mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals Golgi apparatus finish & ship proteins nucleus control cell protects DNA endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins makes membranes lysosome digestion & clean up ribosomes make proteinscytoplasm jelly-like material around organelles nucleolus make ribosomes
  34. 34. Regents Biology 3. Cells need to make more cells!  Making more cells  to replace, repair & grow, the cell must…  copy their DNA  make extra organelles  divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  centrioles
  35. 35. Regents Biology Centrioles  Function  help coordinate cell division  only in animal cells  Structure  one pair in each cell
  36. 36. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recyclingvacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage centrioles cell division
  37. 37. Regents Biology  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need food + O2  cellular respiration & photosynthesis  need to remove wastes  make proteins  need instructions from DNA  need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein  make more cells  need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cells Cell Summary Our organelles do all those jobs!
  38. 38. AP Biology 2009-2010 That’s my cellular story… Any Questions?

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