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Flying safely at fakr

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Flying safely in and out of Krugersdorp - FAKR

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Flying safely at fakr

  1. 1. Flying Safely in and out of KRUGERSDORP - FAKRKRUGERSDORP - FAKR By ChrisPhotos: JohnCopyright aviatech@telkomsa.net
  2. 2. H.M.S.H.M.S. KRUGERSDOR
  3. 3. A FEW FACTS Flying into FAKR will require a high degree of aircraft handling precision and accuracy. The likelihood of up and downdrafts, wind shear and turbulence is high (sometimes quite severe). The probability of a strong x-wind is good. It is unmanned and will require excellent lookout and vigilance. It is sometimes quite busy, requiring good spacing in the traffic pattern with clear and concise radio work and good situational awareness. High Density Altitudes- reduced Aircraft performance.
  4. 4. Some more factsIt is a Licensed Aerodrome. It has been in use since 1968 The club has a membership strength of approx 210 active members There are in excess of 100 aircraft based . There is a basic Flare-path system for night flying. (no night training allowed). It is well located for Ab-initio Training There are two Flying Schools based. There is Avgas available.
  5. 5. The following information was correct at the last update viz August 2005. It is imperative Airfield Operational Information: (Ref: SA AIPPart 2. FAKRAD2.1-1) however that users consult the AIP/AIP Sup/AIC's and Notams for current information and amendments. Location Indicator : FAKR Unmanned Airfield Reference Point (WGS 84) :S26°:04':53, 9287", E27°:43':32,4438" Located at the windsock/signal area. Elevation : 5 485'. Displaced Threshold : RWY 08/26 have displaced thresholds. RWY 08/26 : 9 m wide tar strip : declared length - 843 m : total length of tar - 1124 m : RWY 08 & 26 have displaced THR : THR 08 Elev - 5460' : THR 26 Elev - 5499' CCT : ALT 6300' RH-RWY 26. LH-RWY08. (800' non-standard CCT due FALA TMA at 6500'). Lighting : RWY edge lights & THR lights. Not per ICAO. Night Flying : Restricted to Krugersdorp based pilots familiar with the airfield (See AIP). Night Hazard (Birds) :Before take-off at night it is advisable to backtrack and check the runway for birds (Kiewiets/Pied Plovers). Night Training : Not permitted (per AIP). Freq : 122.0 Mhz (unmanned). Taxiway : Aircraft to adhere to taxiways. Extract from FAKR Rule Book
  6. 6. General Hazards : 1.Non std joining due FALA TMA. 2.Wind shear on apchs. 3.Pools of water on runway after heavy rain. 4. Birds at night. Take off on the cut grass strips (hdgs 35/17 + 34/16) at pilot's discretion and at pilot's risk and is not permitted unless a competent observer in radio contact with the taking off aircraft can verify that there is no crossing traffic on 08/26 to effect in this regard. (Note: these are NOT licensed runways.) When runways 08/26 are in use, landing on the cut grass hdgs 15/33 or 16/34 will be accommodated only when wind conditions make it necessary for tailwheel type aircraft. All such operations at pilot's discretion and risk. Pilots are to refer to CAR 91.6.12. Cut grass strips 35/14 and 34/16 are not licensed runways. Circuits on cut grass strips 15/33 and 34/16 will not be permitted when the circuit 08/26 is active. A radio check on 122.0 Mhz is required prior to taxing to the holding position of a runway. Unauthorised aerobatics are not permitted at FAKR - Ref CAR 91.7.29. Extract from FAKR Rule Book
  7. 7. Safety: It is expected of every pilot operating at Krugersdorp to do so in a responsible and sensible manner. At all times a high standard of airmanship must prevail with due consideration for fellow airmen. COWBOYS ARE NOT WELCOME!! Behaviour or operation of aircraft on the ground or in the air contrary to the Civil Aviation Regulations or any part thereof will not be tolerated. Any display of blatantly poor airmanship or disregard for the safety of others will precipitate disciplinary action. Repeated and/or extreme infringements will result in the loss of the privilege to fly at this airfield with the backing of the CAA. Since this relatively busy airfield is unmanned, one of the foremost safety concerns is the probability of midair or other collision. Therefore it is essential that pilots use standard radio procedures, clearly and accurately stating their position. A reminder that nothing substitutes a good lookout!! With this in mind it is standard procedure to request a “radio check” from other aircraft prior to taxing to the holding position of a runway – no radio – no fly!. Remember flight safety is a pyramid that stands on three legs i.e. skill, technical knowledge and good judgement. If any of these three legs are weak, the pyramid will topple! If in doubt speak to your flight instructor and/or safety officer – no question is a stupid question – it is not what you know that will hurt you, but what you don’t know. Ground based radio stations may not be operated for the purpose of traffic advisory information unless under the supervision of a qualified Instructor or other person as approved by the Committee. Please become familiar with the provisions of CAR 139 and 185 and comply fully. Extract from FAKR Rule Book
  8. 8. Some Don’ts: The CAR's are specific and prohibit certain unauthorised activities on the Airfield. The following are some unauthorised activities which have in the past caused problems. (a) The unsupervised riding of motorcycles and quad bikes on the Airfield by minors, especially the children of members. (b) Parachute jumping on the Airfield. (c) Flying of model aircraft other than as directed by the Club in compliance with SOP's. (d) Unsupervised facilitating of 3rd party vehicular entrance onto the airside of the Airfield. (e) Erecting signboards, digging trenches and the like on the Airfield without the Operator's authorisation. (f) Aerobatic flying at the Airfield. (g) Allow animals to roam around the Airfield. (h) Drive vehicles recklessly on the main taxiway. (i) Don’t drive on the main taxiway at all whilst an aircraft is landing/taking off. Last but not least… HAPPY FLYING !! Extract from FAKR Rule Book
  9. 9. SINCE THE WORDS ‘SITUATIONAL AWARENESS’ POP UP FREQUENTLY Situational Awareness in flight, equates to the true perception of the dynamic flight situation ! AWARENESS OF: • Geographical position. • Terrain (form, proximity and height above terrain) • 3 – D orientation. • Aircraft flight-path / trajectory. • Energy level - speed (increasing, decreasing, remaining constant). • Configuration of aircraft i.e. flaps, under carriage etc. • System status ( level of serviceability, mode awareness). • Status of Self and others (cognitive etc.). • Intentions of self and others ( ATC, second crew member etc.). • The greater environment ( other aircraft, weather, navaids, etc.). • Time ( how much is available, how quickly is it passing etc.).
  10. 10. JHB TMA 7600’ ALT – FL IIO (FRQ 125.8 BELOW TMA) FALA TMA 6500’ ALT – 7600 ALT ( FREQ 124.0) FALA CTR GND – 6500’ ALT ( FREQ 124.0) 5 N.M. RADIUS FAKR (FREQ 122.0) FALA FAKR ORIENT X-WINDS MICRO-LIGHTS RECAP - AIRSPACE VANS NOT TO BE USED FOR OPS STANDARD JOINING PROCEDURES FOR UN- MANNED AIRFIELDS DO NOT APPLY DUE TO AIRSPACE RESTRICTIONS PVT STRIP
  11. 11. TANK FARM 6300’ SILOS 6300’ ALTERNATE JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ FALA CTR PREFERED JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ JOIN DIRECT OVERHEAD FROM SOUTH 6300’ 26 CIRCUIT HEIGHT 6300’ BROADCAST ON FREQ. 122.0 KEEP CLEAR OF ORIENT TANK FARM 6300’ SILOS 6300’ ALTERNATE JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ FALA CTR PREFERED JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ JOIN DIRECT OVERHEAD FROM SOUTH 6300’ 26 CIRCUIT HEIGHT 6300’ BROADCAST ON FREQ. 122.0 KEEP CLEAR OF ORIENTTANK FARM 6300’ ALTERNATE JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ FALA CTR PREFERED JOINING FROM NORTH 6300’ JOIN DIRECT OVERHEAD FROM SOUTH 6300’ 26 CIRCUIT HEIGHT 6300’ BROADCAST ON FREQ. 122.0 KEEP CLEAR OF ORIENT 08 JOINING PROCEDURES AS PER AIP JOIN O/H 6300’ L/H DOWN WIND 08 OR R/H DOWN WIND 26 NORTH ENTRY WEST ENTRY SILOS 6300’ SOUTH ENTRY DCT FROM FALA VIA SOUTH OR NORTH ENTRY REMAINING CLEAR OF THE CIRCUIT NOT TO BE USED FOR OPS
  12. 12. NORTH ENTRY CHECK POINT 1 TANK FARM ALT 6300’ GOOD LOOK-OUT & LISTEN OUT (FREQ 122.0) TANK FARM TARLTON RD. INTERSECTION BE AWARE OF X- WINDS (micro lights) next to Tarlton rd. opposite Tarlton Drag Strip VANS AIRFIELD REPORT POSITION AND NEXT INTENTIONTURN LEFT TO SILOS FIELD APPROACH CHECKLIST AS PER P.O.H.
  13. 13. NORTH ENTRY CHECK POINT 2 SILOS ALT 6300’ GOOD LOOK-OUT & LISTEN OUT, ESPECIALLY TRAFFIC INBOUND FROM WEST AND OUTBOUND TRAFFIC FROM FAKR (FREQ 122.0) RAILWAY LINE SILOS RANDFONTEIN MAINTAIN CLEAR OF FAKR CIRCUIT. Scan for circuit traffic. FROM TANK FARM REPORT POSITION & NEXT INTENTION TURN LEFT HDG 080º
  14. 14. VIEW OF FAKR APPROACHING FROM THE SILOS ALT 6300’ GOOD LOOK-OUT & LISTEN OUT, ESPECIALLY TRAFFIC INBOUND FROM SOUTH & EAST & TRAFFIC AIRBORNE FROM RWY 26 TURNING OUT LEFT (FREQ 122.0) FROM SILOS FLY HDG 080º(M) PARALLEL TO RWY 08 FINAL TRACK INBOUND TO JOIN OVERHEAD SCAN FOR TRAFFIC IN CIRCUIT !!!!! By this time you should be well aware of what RWY is in use if there is other traffic in the pattern. Listen out!! Look out!!!
  15. 15. VIEW OF FAKR APPROACHING FROM SOUTH ALT 6300’ GOOD LOOK-OUT & LISTEN OUT FOR TRAFFIC IN CIRCUIT FREQ 122.0) PLAN SPACING AND SLOTTING INTO CIRCUIT . EMERGENCY GRASS AREA CLOSED BE AWARE OF PVT STRIP – TRAFFIC !! SHARP LOOK- OUT AND SITUATIONAL AWARENESS !!
  16. 16. THRESH HOLD RWY 26 THRESH HOLD RWY 08 OVER HEAD ALT 6300’ CHECK WIND SOCK/S & SIGNALS. DECIDE RWY IF NO OTHER TRAFFIC IN THE PATTERN. LOOK OUT & LISTEN OUT REPORT POSITION & NEXT INTENTION V / A’s. as required
  17. 17. VIEW FROM DOWN WIND ALT 6300’ ( 800’ CIRCUIT) GOOD LOOK & LISTEN OUT. GOOD SPACING !!!! REPORT JOINING MID DOWN-WIND RWY 08 or RWY 26. (STATE NO. IN TRAFFIC IF APPLICABLE, full stop or touch and go) 26 08 DOWN WIND BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST AS PER P.O.H. 08 ORBIT LEFT26 ORBIT RIGHT IF UNABLE TO SAFELY JOIN CIRCUIT DUE TO TRAFFIC ORBIT SOUTH OF RUNWAY AND RETURN TO REJOIN.
  18. 18. LEFT BASE RWY 08 REPORT POSITION 6100’ TURNING FINAL APPROACH 1.5 NM REPORT FINAL APPROACH ( full stop or touch and go) STABILISE APPROACH BEFORE RADIO CALL V/A’s as required V / A’s as required
  19. 19. FINAL APPROACH RWY 08 6000’ approx. 1.5 n.m. Power + Configuration = Performance! 1.5 n.m from Thresh Hold at 500’ above airfield elevation = ±3.0º Glide Slope to touch down. Rule of thumb 5 x G.S. = R.O.D. for 3.0º Glide Slope. Know your Aircraft – what Power Setting will give you the required rate of decent at v-ref (Approach Speed) with the selected landing configuration. E.g. approach G.S. 65kts x 5 = 325’/min R.O.D. A good benchmark to work around and then make small power adjustments to compensate for conditions. SELECT PLANNED TOUCH DOWN ZONE. IN THIS ENVIRONMENT IT IS IMPORTANT TO FLY A STABILIZED APPROACH: RATE OF DECENT. SPEED. CENTRE LINE. PRE-DETERMINED TOUCH DOWN ZONE. It is the quality of a good pilot to go-around if not happy with the approach!!!!!!!!
  20. 20. SPEED & RATE OF DECENT ON SCHEDULE!! CENTRE LINE! HOLD OF X- WIND! LOOKING GOOD! OOPS! TURBULENCE! CHECK WIND SOCK PICTURE REMAINING CONSTANT – TOUCH DOWN ZONE - CONSISTENT TURBULENCE, UP DRAFTS & DOWNDRAFTS CAUSED BY WIND & TOPOGRAPHY, WIND- SHEAR.
  21. 21. TOO DEEP! MAKE EARLY DECISION TO GO AROUND IT IS THE MARK OF A GOOD PILOT!! GO AROUND! power up, flaps & gear up as per P.O.H. CHECK POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB at SAFETY SPEED! REJOIN CIRCUIT OR CONTINUE AS PER YOUR MISSED APPROACH BRIEFING PROVERB: PLAN FOR THE MISSED APPROACH, LANDING IS A BONUS. ALWAYS PLAN AHEAD!!! STATE YOUR INTENTIONS Even if you’re doing a touch & go and you are deep, rather execute the go around –if the engine fails after touch down you may not have enough stopping distance !
  22. 22. RIGHT HAND BASE RWY 26
  23. 23. FINAL APPROACH RWY 26 EXPECT TURBULENCE, UP DRAFTS AND DOWN DRAFTS CAUSED BY WIND AND TOPOGRAPHY. WIND-SHEAR.
  24. 24. H.M.S.H.M.S. YOUYOU HAVE JUST HAVE JUST LANDED SAFELY LANDED SAFELY ON:ON: - KRUGERSDORP Please report to the Club House to meet the people !
  25. 25. DEPARTURE FROM FAKR – POINTS TO CONSIDER • DENSITY ALTITUDE • AIRCRAFT LOADING • AIRCRAFT TAKE OFF AND CLIMB PERFORMANCE • RADIO CHECK BEFORE TAXIING •CROSS WIND COMPONENT • ANTICIPATED TURBULENCE • TAKE OFF BRIEFING – ANTICIPATION OF EMERGENCY • GOOD LOOK OUT • CLEAR & CONCISE RADIO WORK • BE SITUATIONALLY AWARE – position of other aircraft etc.
  26. 26. 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 750' SEA LEVEL 1525' 8000' DA 1800' SEA LEVEL 3700' 8000' DA GROUND ROLL OVER 50FT DENSITYALTITUDE-FEET. ... TAKE OFF PERFORMANCE GROSS WEIGHT 2450LBS PAVED LEVEL DRY RUNWAY FULL POWER BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE ZERO WIND FLAPS 10 ° EXTRAPOLATION OF THE GRAPH ABOVE 9000' INVALID TAKE OFF DISTANCE EXAMPLE ONLY NOT TO BE USED FOR OPS. CAN YOU REMEMBER HOW TO CALCULATE DENSITY ALTITUDE? IF NOT, YOU’D BETTER RECAP! HIGH DENSITY ALTITUDES HAVE A PROFOUND AND SOMETIMES SAD EFFECT ON THE SAFE OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT !! Not just take off performance but landing ground roll also increases!!!
  27. 27. LINNING UP ON RUNWAY 26 THE NEED FOR GOOD RADIO WORK AND SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IS CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED HERE, YOU CANNOT SEE AN AIRCRAFT LINING UP ON RWY 08 TAKE NOTHING FOR GRANTED THERE COULD BE A TAIL- DRAGGER GETTING AIRBORN FROM THE GRASS
  28. 28. TAKE OFF ON 08 EARLY TURN OUT IS ADVISED DUE TO RUGGED TERRAIN STRAIGHT AHEAD ( 15º BANK ) ENHANCED OPTIONS FOR FORCED LANDING V / A’s 400’ CAUTION! R/H TURN OFF 08 RISING RUGGED TERRAIN & POSSIBILITY OF TURBULENCE & DOWN DRAFTS TAKE OFF 26 STANDARD CLIMB AHEAD TO 500’ THEN SET HEADING
  29. 29. 08 26 26 TO NORTH 26 TO SOUTH 26 TO WEST ALTERNATE 26 TO EAST LOOK OUT FOR CROSSING TRAFFIC ENTERING FROM THE SOUTH PREFERED 26 DEPARTURE TO EAST TRAFFIC ENTERING FROM SOUTH 08 TO NORTH 08 TO EAST 08 TO SOUTH – BE CAUTIOUS OF TURBULENCE & AIRCRAFT CLIMB PERFORMANCE. TERRAIN !!!! 08 TO SOUTH NOT GOOD - CONFLICTS WITH INBOUND TRAFFIC FROM SOUTH DEPARTURE FROM FAKR – LOOK OUT, LISTEN OUT, BROAD CAST YOUR INTENTIONS & POSITION DEPARTING, AVOID SILOS & TANK FARM DUE TO INBOUND TRAFFIC – KEEP A GOOD LOOK OUT FOR CROSSING & INBOUND TRAFFIC WHEN DEPARTING IN ANY DIRECTION. 08 TO WEST
  30. 30. SOME MORE GENERAL INFORMATION & TIPS TAXI ONLY ON TAXI-WAYS – TAKE OFF AND LAND ONLY ON LICENSED RUNWAY 08 / 26 GRASS ‘RUNWAY’ TO BE USED ONLY IN EMERGENCY. ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS WHEN CROSSING THE ‘GRASS RUNWAY’. TAILDRAGGER PILOTS SOMETIMES USE IT! PREVAILING WIND IS NORTHERLY. MOST TURBULENT CONDITIONS CAUSED BY STRONG SOUTHERLY WIND BUT ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS WHEN WIND IS STRONG IRRESPECTIVE OF DIRECTION. Busy un-manned circuit can easily cause interruptions to Vital Actions.
  31. 31. Any Questions ?
  32. 32. Cheers !! Thanks for your time ! Fly

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