More Related Content

Slideshows for you(20)


Recently uploaded(20)


role of non governmental organisation in rural development and agricultural extension

  1. 1
  2. Agriculture Village Education Services industries Development Modernization Technical Dispensary Mechanization Technical training Artisan skills Health guidance High Yielding Marketing Agriculture Family welfare 2 Rural Development According to Ensminger, “Rural Development is a process of transformation from traditionally oriented rural culture towards an acceptance and reliance on science and technology”.
  3. Why we need NGOs Gaps in the development process between reach and requirement of services  Ignorance.  Lack of willingness.  Lack of awareness.  Reluctance.  Non-availability of services. 3
  4. Seminar 4 Krishna D K 10753 Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in agricultural extension and rural development Strategies, Approaches and Constraints
  5. Introduction toNGO 5 A Non Governmental Organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is legally constituted, organizedandoperated on a local, national or internationallevel. TheyareTask-orientedanddriven by peoplewith a commoninterest Someare organized around specific issues: → Human rights → Environment → Health → Poverty eradication → Rehabilitation → Employment Include project implementation and advocacy. Principles Altruism Voluntarism
  6. NGOs / Voluntary Service 6 • Term NGO became popular in India only in the 1980s, the voluntary sector has an older tradition. • Since independence from the British in 1947, the voluntary sector had a lot of respect in the minds of people- Mahatma Gandhi was an active participant • India has always had the tradition of honouring those who have made some sacrifice to help others.
  7. NGOs Classification Bythe levelof Orientation Charitable Orientation Service Orientation Participatory Orientation Empowering Orientation Bythe levelof Operation Community Based Organizations City Wide Organizations National NGOs International NGOs 7
  8. Charitable Orientation-Needs of the poor -distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc Service Orientation- Provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programs are designed by the NGO Participatory Orientation- Self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. Empowering Orientation- The aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. 8
  9. Community-based Organizations- These can include sports clubs, women's organizations, and neighborhood organizations, religious or educational organizations. Citywide Organizations- Its Include organizations such as the Rotary or lion's Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. National NGOs- Its Include organizations such as the Red Crrss, YMCAs/YWCAs, professional organizations etc. Some of these have state and city branches and assist local NGOs. International NGOs- Redda Barna and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to religiously motivated groups. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11 Grassroots Development • Targets disadvantaged groups through small, locally based projects. • The overall aim is to empower people to become self-reliant • These projects usually involve training and education programs to transfer skills and build the capacity and confidence of local organisations and communities. • This approach at its most successful allows the benefits of a project to continue beyond the duration of the project itself. Humanitarian/Emergency Relief focuses on relief in times of disaster such as earthquakes, floods and cyclones. NGOs in this area aim to gain access to disaster zones as quickly as possible to provide emergency health services and food aid. Approaches of NGOs
  12. 12 Advocacy • Aims to draw public attention to an issue and influence government policy either on behalf of, or alongside, a particular community interest group. • Different NGOs target specific communities, groups or sectors in their advocacy work. • Advocacy can be approached through NGO participation in high level policy dialogues, lobbying, or through grassroots and community campaigning. • Approaches to advocacy and the level of involvement of affected communities differ with each organisation. Volunteer • Programs run by NGOs facilitate sending volunteers overseas to offer technical assistance, project support and capacity building in a variety of sectors such as nursing, education, engineering and agriculture.
  13. FeaturesofNGOs 13  Support democratic system  Function on no profitbasis  Non Political in character  Clearly defined objectives  Limited external control  Voluntary Character  Wide operational area  Positive contribution  Need financial support  Interest in long-termprojects
  14. ActivitiesofNGOs 14  Create awareness  Protect human rights  Encourage rehabilitation  Gainful employment  Combat man made crisis  Protect environment
  15. Basic Facts on NGO Total Number of NGOs in India 3.3 million Rural Based 53% Urban Based 47% 15 (Source: Invisible, Yet Widespread: The Non-Profit Sector In India, December , PRIA)
  16. NGOs in India 16 There are 31,74,420 societies in the States and Union Territories The PRIA survey reveals that 26.5% of NGOs are engagedin religious activities 21.3% work in the area ofcommunity and/or social service About one in five NGOs works in education 7.9% are active in the fields ofsports and culture. 6.6% work in the health sector. Source : Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India,
  17.  Uttar Pradesh tops the list with more than 5.48 lakh NGOs, followed by Maharashtra which has 5.18 lakh NGOs.  Kerala comes third with 3.7 lakh NGOs, followed by West Bengal with 2.34 lakh NGOs.  Delhi alone has more than 76,000 NGOs of the 82,250 NGOs in the Union Territories, 17
  18. Sources Percentage of Total Fund Local (peoples contribution and Corporate Contribution) 80% Government 13% International 7% 18 (Source: Invisible, Yet Widespread: The Non-Profit Sector In India, December 2008, PRIA) Sources of funding in India
  19. Types of funding Types Percentage of Total Fund Self Generated 51.0% Loans 7.1% Grants 29.0% Donations 12.9% 19 (Source: Invisible, Yet Widespread: The Non-Profit Sector In India, December 2008, PRIA) Long-term sustainability
  20. 20
  21. List of Agriculture NGOs 21 Name of NGOs Nanndi Foundation ASA(Action For Social Development) PRADAN(Professional Assistance for Development Action) SRIJAN(Self-Reliant Initiative through Joint Action) ISAP(India Society of Agri-Business Professionals) CARD(Centre for Advanced Research and Development) Aga Khan Foundation (India)
  23. Analytical frameworks for the rural development programme of NGOs Aspect Points considered A) planning 1.Goals 2.Objectives 3. Resource acquisition 4. Market scope 5. Coalition building Encompassing all living situation of rural people Specific to land and land based activities 1. Locally available 2. External 1.Locally market 2. Internal 3. External Village institutions, other NGOs research institutes B) Implementation Planning Monitoring and review Leadership Motivational reward People selection Bottom up approach Close supervision Local cosmopolite Incentives to village institution Resource poor as beneficiaries 23 Tawade (2001)
  24. Strategies used by few NGOs for rural development and agricultural extension 24
  25.  Use of ATMA funds  Funds released by ministry under various schemes  Collaboration with institutions-IARI VO linkage model, DAESI training by MANAGE, establishment of KVK (BIRDS,BAIF)  Using CSR funds for rural development  Use of various extension methodologies for transfer of technologies- PRA, Farmer to Farmer extension, krishi melas, demonstrations  Adoption of villages  Research and development 25
  26. 26Illustrations Agriculture : • Sapling Service • Demonstrations • Technical Support • Seed & Fertilizer Service • Marketing of Agro produce • Sub Soil Irrigation Horticulture : • Sapling Service • Demonstrations • Technical Support • Marketing of Horticultural produce • Promotion of Intercropping technique • Fruit Processing Sericulture : • Support to rural youth in Silk reeling Vermi culture : • Demonstration • Extension Women's Activities : • Establishment of women's Industrial co-operative • Establishment of women's Poultry farming co-operative • Establishment of women's Credit co-operative • SHGs • Employment generation through Electronic assembly work • Income generating through stitching and hand weaving Yerala project society, sangli
  27. 27 Animal Husbandry : Support to rural youth in dairy farming Processing of Milk Distribution of Mulch Animal Goat farming training Goat Bank Demonstration of Goat farming Extension of Goat Farming Free Vetererian Services Poultry farming Youth training in Poultry farming Marketing of Poultry Produce Trainings : Training in Electrical & Electronic appliances maint. Repairs & Maint. Of water lifting machines. Computer training Tailoring & Embroidery Training Beauty Parlour Training Agriculture School for young farmers. Training to youth in life skills.
  28. WASME 28 Itstands for World Association for Small and Medium Enterprises (WASME) Type:Primary Level NGO Established in 1980 Headquartered in Noida, India Objectives of WASME  Developing relationship between SMEs in developed and developingcountries.  Networking with related / similar organizations.  Enlarging collaboration with UNagenciesand international organizations.  Capacity building of SMEsthrough managerial and skill development programmes.  Disseminating information on and about international developments in SMEsector.  Carrying out research and studies on topical issuesconfronting SMEs.
  29. AWAKE 29 It stands for Association ofWomen Entrepreneurs of Karnataka Type:Intermediate NGO Established in 1983 Headquartered in Bangalore, Karnataka,India Strives to promote entrepreneurship among women asameansto achieve selfreliance and socio-economic independence. AWAKEaimsto:  Topromote entrepreneurship among women and thereby empower them to join the economic mainstream  To enhance the status of women in the society, by creating a culture of entrepreneurship amongst women in both rural and urbanareas  Todevelop successful models of entrepreneurship for emulation world-wide
  30. OXFAM(India) 30 India Amember of aglobal confederation of 17Oxfams. It stands for Oxford Committee forFamine Relief Type:Primary LevelNGO Operating in India since1951 Theyfight poverty and injustice by linking grassroots programming (through partner NGOs)to local, national and global advocacy andpolicy-making Oxfam India works in partnership with over 130 grassroots NGOsto address rootcauses of poverty and injustice in the fourareas of o Economic Justice, o Essential Services, o Gender Justice and o Humanitarian Response and o Disaster RiskReduction (DRR).
  31. CRY 31 It stands for Child Rights and You Type:Grassroot level NGO Established in 1979 It was started by RippanKapur Non-profit organization in India that aims to restorechildren'srights in India. It focuses mainly on the 4 basicrights:  Survival,  Development,  Protection  Participation
  32. SEWA 32  Member’s Employment  Better Income  Foodand Nutrition  Safety and Security  Housing  Literacy  Organizational Strength  Self Reliance It standsfor Self EmployedWomen'sAssociation Type:Intermediate NGO Headquartered in Ahmedabad, Gujarat,India Establishedin 1972 It isanorganisationof poor,self-employedwomenworkers who earnaliving through their own labour or smallbusinesses. SEWA’s areaof concerns are:
  33. NGOs in Intergovernmental Processes 33 4 important functions: Setting agendas Negotiating outcomes Conferring legitimacy Implementing solutions
  34. Examples of potentially replicable NGO-GO interaction  NGO-GO Configurations for Providing Technical Advice and Feedback - This has been done in Chile, where government has contracted private technology companies to cater to the larger commercial farmers, and NGOs for small subsistence-oriented farmers. But an attempt to do so was failed in India.  NGO-GO Configurations in Training-In Gujarat, India, the Aga Khan Rural Support Project (AKRSP) identified village training needs through discussions with farmer groups  NGO-GO Configurations in Group Formation-NGOs can effectively organize groups around integrated pest management, soil and water management, and the management of common property resources and capital assets. 34
  35. What extension services can do to further collaborate with NGOs?  NGOs have supported local groups to produce seed, including vegetable and soya bean seed production in Bangladesh, and the multiplication of planting material for potatoes in the Ecuadorian Andes  PRADAN-support the introduction of chrome-leather tanning by a local group, encouraged links with commercial lending organizations and private leather traders, not least because the latter could give accurate feedback on product quality. 35
  36.  Very specific efforts will have to be made to convey both feedback on existing technologies and NGOs' requirements for new technologies to researchers.  GO and NGO staff can jointly participate in training courses (ideally led by a joint team) in the action-oriented methods such as participatory rural appraisal favoured by NGOs.  NGOs are concerned to develop local capacities for experimentation which build solely on farmers' indigenous knowledge or on this and relevant "outside" ideas. 36
  38. RUDSETI Started: 1982 President: Dr. D Veerendra Hegde. Place: Ujire in Karnataka 38
  39. Vision statement  RUDSETI considers the youth as valuable human resource of the country to exploit the scope available in various avenues by launching the lucrative micro enterprises.  Transformation of youth into productive assets by short duration intervention.  To identify , orient, train counsel and assist young people to take various self-employment ventures and to take up all such activities as are relevant in the field of self-employment.  To train rural development workers required by various organization. 39
  40. Training programmes 1) EDP (Entrepreneurship Development Programme) a) Agriculture EDP b) Product EDP c) Process EDP d) General EDP 2)Programme for established Entrepreneurs a) Skill up gradation b) Growth programme 3) Rural Development &HRD programme 4) Technology Transfer Programme 40
  41. Special features of RUDSETI  Individual attention at all stages to beneficiaries.  Development through constant counseling and continuous follow up.  Excellent co-ordination between the beneficiary and other agencies.  Low budget project which can be emulated. 41
  42. SKDRDP SKDRDP- Srikshetra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project President: Dr. D Veerendra Hegde. Place: Karkala (taluk) Dakshina kannada (district) Started: 1982 42
  43. Aim of the project: Rejuvenating the villages by strengthening their natural, social and economic roots, besides promoting balanced development of natural and human resource in rural areas. 43
  44. Objectives of the (SKDRDP) To work towards the upliftment of the rural poor. To organize the rural populace in mobilizing the rural infrastructure for a swift development. To utilize locally available natural and human resources for progress. To introduce gainful sustainable means for development of agriculture. 44
  45. Cont…. To encourage farm sector and the non-farm sector activities. To blend integrity, discipline and values in the process of development. To facilitate participatory community and village development programmes. 45
  46. MYRADA MYRADA-Mysore Resettlement and Development Agency Established in -1968 Mission To foster of ongoing change in favour of the rural poor. To promote strategies through which the full potential of women and children are realized. To influence public polices in favour of the poor. 46
  47. Areas of work Rural credit system Organizations of women Management of micro-watershed Forestry Resettlement 47
  48. BAIF BAIF- Bharathiya Agro-Industry Foundation Started -1980 Aim –implementing an Integrated Rural Development programme Mission -is to create opportunities of gainful self- employment for the rural families, especially disadvantaged sections, ensuring sustainable livelihood, enriched environment, improved quality of life and good human values. 48
  49. Programmes Livestock development Integrated watershed development programme Agri-Horti-Forestry Agri-Business Empowerment of women 49
  51. Impact of SKDRDP on land development Category Before SKDRDP No. % After SKDRDP No. % Land development work done 28 27.0 97 96.0 Land development work not done 74 73.0 5 4.0 Total 102 100.00 102 100.0 51 (n=102) Nagaraja (1987)
  52. Category Before SKDRDP No. % After SKDRDP No. % Irrigation facilities available 26 25.0 65 64.0 No irrigation facilities 76 75.0 37 36.0 Total 102 100.00 102 100.0 52 (n=102) Nagaraja (1987)
  53. Impact of SKDRDP on increase in employment opportunity for the beneficiaries Category Below average No. % Above average No. % Before SKDRDP 41 40.0 61 60.0 After SKDRDP 28 27.0 74 73.0 53 Nagaraja (1987) (n=102)
  54. Impact of SKDRDP on starting subsidiary occupation Nature subsidiary occupation Before SKDRDP No. % After SKDRDP No. % Dairy 4 3.0 11 11.0 Poultry 2 2.0 3 3.0 Bee-keeping 2 2.0 12 12.0 Rubber cultivation - - 8 8.0 Sericulture - - 19 18.0 Beneficiaries not started any of above subsidiary occupation 94 93.0 49 48.0 Total 102 100.00 102 100.0 54 (n=102) Nagaraja (1987)
  55. Impact of SKDRDP on changes in cropping pattern (n=102) Cropping Category Before SKDRDP No. % After SKDRDP No. % Mono cropping 93 92.0 8 8.0 Double cropping 9 8.0 11 11.0 Integrated mixed cropping - - 12 12.0 Double cropping with integrated mixed cropping - - 71 69.0 Total 102 100.00 102 100.0 55 Nagaraja (1987)
  56. Role of Non- Governmental Organizations in Rural Development: A case study-2001 INDU BHASKAR AND GEETHAKUTTY, P.S 56
  57. Distribution of beneficiaries based on the Index of consequences of rural development efforts of the NGOs Group Class Frequency Percentage Least beneficial 0.0-0.2 - - Less beneficial >0.21-<0.6 - - Moderately beneficial 0.61-<0.9 10 10.00 Most beneficial 0.91 and above 90 90.00 57 Indu Bhaskar and Geethakutty (2001)
  58. Dynamics of voluntary organization-2001 TAWADE 58
  59. Programmes and activities undertaken by pratishthan Activity Benefits accrued 100Power tillers distribution Cultivation of kokum Watershed development Stone fencing to area Land development Concept of village planning institute Health service center Gokul vigyan yatra Literacy campaign Cultivation of citronella Agro industries estate Total eight villages Increased mango plantation in area 200 ha fallow land comes under cultivation 21 lakh seedlings were prepared Two villages were covered 300 villages, 1.50 lakh people benefited Skill improvement techniques and skill of their profession 59 Tawade (2001)
  60. Why some NGOs are successful? Strengths  The majority of NGOs are small and horizontally structured with short lines of communication  capable of responding flexibly and rapidly to clients' needs and to changing circumstances.  They are also characterized by a work ethic conducive to generating sustainable processes and impacts.  NGOs‘ concern with the rural poor means that they often maintain a field presence in remote locations, where it is difficult to keep government staff in post. 60
  61. NGO Strengths  One of NGOs' main concerns has been to identify the needs of the rural poor in sustainable agricultural development.  They have therefore pioneered a wide range of participatory methods for diagnosis and, in some contexts, have developed and introduced systems approaches for testing new technology, for example in Chile (Sotomayor, 1991).  Multi stakeholder approach-farmer, rural women, old age, children and youth 61 Contd.
  62. NGO Strengths  Integration of local knowledge systems in the design of technology options (Chaguma & Gumbo, 1993).  Innovative dissemination methods, relying on farmer-to- farmer contact, whether on a group or individual basis (e.g., Sollows, Thongpan, & Leelapatra, 1993).  NGOs have developed new technologies such as soya production in Bangladesh (Buckland & Graham, 1990) or management practices such as the sloping agricultural land technology in the Philippines (Watson & Laquihon, 1993)  But more often they have sought to adapt existing technologies, such as PRADAN's efforts in India to scale down technologies developed by government for mushroom and raw silk production and so make them accessible to small-scale farmers (Vasimalai, 1993). 62
  63. The weakness  NGOs' small size means that their projects rarely address the structural factors that underlie rural poverty.  Small size, independence, and differences in philosophy also militate against learning from each other's experience and against the creation of effective forums, whether at national or provincial levels.  Some ‘fashionable locations’ have become so densely populated by a diversity of NGOs that problems have arisen not merely of competition for the same clientele, but of some undermining the activities of others (Ayers, 1992).  NGOs have limited capacities for agricultural technology development and dissemination and limited awareness of how to create effective demand-pull on government services. 63
  64. The weakness  Some NGOs are more accountable to external funding agencies than to the clientele they claim to serve.  Donor pressure to achieve short-term impacts, combined with a lack of cross-learning, has led in some cases to the promotion of inappropriate technology, such as protected horticultural systems in the Bolivian Andes (Kohl, 1991).  Many NGOs place great emphasis on voluntarism. Whilst such concepts as "volunteer extension workers" have great intuitive appeal and reflect widely commended values, they are some times promoted at the expense of financially sustainable alternatives.  This was evident in SIDA's farm-level forestry project in North Vietnam, for instance, where the scope for supporting an emerging private nursery sector in the provision of technical advice was ignored, and complex and largely voluntary advisory services at the village level were promoted instead. 64
  65. ChallengestoNGOs  Need for honest and dedicated persons.  Need for transparency to create confidence.  Protect the interest of the people rather than members  Transparent and easy to operate mechanism.  Codes of conduct  Lack of Funds:  Absence of Strategic Planning  Poor networking  Poor Communications  Political Interference  Watchdog agencies and government oversight  Long-term sustainability 65
  66. ROLE OF NGOS IN GLOBALIZING WORLD Per Boutros-Ghali in 1995 “ Non-governmental organizations are a basic element in the representation of the modern world. And their participation in international organizations is in a way a guarantee of the latter’s political legitimacy…From the stand point of global democratization, we need the participation of international 66
  67. 67

Editor's Notes

  1. shilpan
  2. n