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  1. 1. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 12 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 1. CONCEPTOFBONDEDLABOUR:-Bonded labour implies services which are rendered under forcedorcompulsoryconditionsandwhichariseout ofmortgagingoneselftoanotherforsomeeconomic condition. Such consideration may be loan/ debt/ advance or any other. A bonded labour implies one whorendersbondedservicei.e.Servicearisingoutof certain obligations flowing from economic consideration like loan / debt / advance, customary obligations, forced labour, indebtness. The bonded labour system represents essentially the relation between a creditors and debtor. When a debtor incur loan/ debt/ advance from the creditor, he undertakes to mortgage his services or the service of any of his family members to the creditor for specified or for an unspecifiedperiodwithcertainconsequencesassuch as :-i.Service without wages or with nominal wages ii.Denial of choice of alternative avenues of employment. iii.Denial of the right to move freely. iv.Denialoftherighttoselloneslabourortheproduct of ones labour at marketvalue. Theseconsequencesmayexistindividually or collectively. It is however not at all necessary that all consequence should be together in existences to prove the existence of bonded labour system existenceofcreditors’debtors-relationshipwithone oftheconsequencesasaboveisenoughtodetermine of existence of bonded labour system. 2. CONSTITUTIONALANDLEGALPROVISIONS. :-Theconstitutionof Indiaguaranteestoallitscitizens social,economicandpoliticaljustice,Libertyofthought expression,belief,faithandworship,equalityofstatus and of opportunity, fraternity, assuring the dignity of theIndividualandtheunityandintegrityofthenation. Under article 23(1) of constitution prohibited beggar andothersimilarforms&offorcedlabourareprohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offencepunishableinaccordancewithlaw.Article35 (a) (II) of constitution not only confers the power on parliament to provide for punishment for the contraventionofthesaidprovisionsofarticle23(I)but expresslytakesawaythepowerofthestatelegislation November, 2010 to make any legislation with regard to the said matter. Thereareseveralprovisionsintheconstitution,which areinconsonancewithhespiritofarticle23.Thereare article19(righttofreedom),article21(protectionoflife and personal liberty) article 24 (Prohibition of employment of children in factories mines and other formsofhazardouswork),article38thestatetosecure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people. After Independence the provincial level Acts were orrissa debt. Bondage regulation 1948, RajasthanSagrisystemAct1961andKeralabonded laboursystemAct1975,whileattheprovinciallevel anumberofisolatedlegislativeeffortshadbeenmade, actuated by a host of varying considerations the laws so enacted did not deal with the issues of identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded laborers in their entirely for the whole country. The constitutional directive and in the wake of the obligation emanating from ratification of ILO convention number 29 in November 1954, the need fornationallegislationhadbeenfeltlongsince.After few year the bonded labour system (Abolition) ordinance1975waspromulgatedbythepresidenton 24/10/1975 and this act was passed both houses on 02/09/1976 by this ordinance the bonded labour systemwasabolishedandthebondedwerefreedand discharge from any obligation to render any bonded labourandtheirbondeddebtswerealsoextinguished. 3.MAIN PROVISIONS OF BONDED LABOUR (ABOLITION) ACT1976 :-i.Theprovisionofshort title,extentandcommencementhasbeengiven under Section 1. ii.The provision of definition, agreement, ascendant or descendant, bonded debt, bonded labour, bonded labour system, family and nominal wages has been given under Section 2 & 3. iii.The Provision of commencement of bonded labour systemshallstandabolishedanyagreementofcustom as such will be null and void has been given under Section 4 & 5. iv. The provision of every obligation of a bonded labour liability to repay bonded debt. To stand Research Paper 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 A STUDY OF BONDED LABOUR SCHEMES IN BILASPUR DISTRICT(C.G.) * Dr. K.K. Singh **Anita Pathak * Labour Inspector,A-19, Babji Nagar, Tifra, Bilaspur (C.G.) ** Executive,Apollo Hospitals, Bilaspur (C.G.)
  2. 2. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 13RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION extinguished, property of bonded labour to be freed from mortgage & creditor not to accept payment against extinguished has been given under Section 6 to 9. v.The provision of district magistrate can made trial of offences under this act has been given under section 10. vi. The provision of duty of district magistrate & otherofficershallasforaspracticabletrytopromote the welfare of the free bonded labour has been given under section 11. vii.The provision of every district magistrate or officer shall take such actions may be necessary to radical enforcement of forced labour has been given under section 12. viii. The provisionofvigilancecommitteesshallbeconstituted at district and sub. Division level has been given under section 13 to 15. ix. The provision of offences and procedure for trial has been given under section 16 to 23. 4.GUIDELINESFORBONDEDLABOURS:-Being enactedthebondedlabour(abolition)Act1976,central Government had issued guidelines and budget for release, rescue and rehabilitation of bonded labours. Theguidelinesofcentralgovernmentweregivenbelow:- i.OrganizationofNationalsurveyjointlyconducted bytheGandhipeace foundationandNationallabour Institute for estimation of the member of bonded labours (1978-79) ii. Inclusion of rehabilitation of freed bonded labour as an item in the new 20 point economic programme announced to the nation on 14/01/1982,holdingaNationalseminaronidentification, release and rehabilitation on bonded labours in Feb. 1983. iii. Amendment of Section 2(g) of bonded laboursystem(Abolition)Act1976 inApril 1985 to an explanation to bring contract and migrantlabour within the purview of bonded labour system. iv. OpeningacellinLalbahdurShastriNationalAcademy of Administration in 1986-87 for taking up documentation exclusively on bonded labour with involvement of member of Indians administrative service, the future administration of the country. v. Deputingseniorofficialsoftheministryof labourto different parts of the country for on the spot review of the pace of implementation of programmes of rehabilitation of freed bonded labourers. vi. Involvement of the Programme Evaluation Organization (PEA) of the Planning Commission andCentreforRuralDevelopment,IndianInstituteof Public Administration (IIPA) for content, process and impact evaluation of the programmes or rehabilitationforfreedbondedlabour.vii.Thelatest involvement of the National Human Rights Commissionwith theworkofidentification,release andrehabilitationof bondedlabourers w.e.f.11.11.97 at the behest of the supreme count and pronouncement of a good number of landmark judgments for the apex count setting the tone and paceofworkrelatingtoeliminationofforced/bonded labour are some of the notable development. 5. NEEDFORTHESTUDY:-Bondedlaboursystem isacancerforsocietysoitisnecessarytorootoutthis illness’fromsociety.BondedLaboursystemexistsin different part of the country, a system of usury under which the debtor or his descendants or dependants have to work for the creditors without reasonable wagesorwithnowagesinordertoextinguishthedebt. The system implies the infringe most of the basic humanrightsanddestructionofthedignityofhuman labour.Anextensiveresearchworkhasbeendoneon schemesforBondedLabourofBilaspurDistrict(C.G.). The present study was undertaken to know schemes forBondedLabours.ThestudywouldhelpfulN.G.O., workers, employers, District Administration & Government. 6. OBJECTIVESOFTHESTUDY:-Thepresent studyisundertakentofulfillthefollowingobjectives:- i.To know the system of implementation of identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded labour.ii.To know the implementation status of schemes for bonded labour.iii.To offer suggestion for stopping bonded labour system. 7. HYPOTHESISOFTHESTUDY:- i.There is no significant presence of bonded labour in BilaspurDistrict(C.G.)ii.The Schemes run by district administration is upgrading the life of migrant bonded larbours. 8.AREAOFTHESTUDY:-TheAreaofthestudyis BilaspurDistrictof Chhattisgarh state. The study yearis2009-10. 9.METHODOLOGYOFTHESTUDY:-Theresearch is based on secondary source of data taken from magazines. Journals, Books and office record of District Magistrate Bilaspur and Assistant Labour commission Bilaspur to find out the status of implementation of Bonded Labours Schemes which is being run by central & state Government. 10.PROFILEOFTHEDISTRICTBILASPUR:- BilaspurisaRevenueDistrictofChhattisgarhState. Itislocated111Kms.NorthofthestatecapitalRaipur (C.G.).BilaspurDistrictisfamousforricequality,Silk Industry and cultural Background. Bilaspur District is located in eastern part of Chhattisgarh and fall withinlatitude21’47"to23’8"andlongitude8’14" to83’15"andsurroundedbyKoriyaDistrict,Shahdol DistrictofMadhyaPradeshinNorth,RaipurDistrict inSouth,KorbaandJanjgeer-ChampaDistrictinEast
  3. 3. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 14 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION and Kawardha in West. The Total area of Bilaspur District is approximately 6377 SQ K.M. The Total populationofDistrictis1993042(Census2001.The PopulationofS.T.&S.C.inBilaspurDistrictis20% & 19 % respectively. The Bilaspur District is most MigrantArea for Labour. They go to out of state for Brick Kiln & Construction works. Going there they becomebondedsothisismainProblembeforeBilaspur DistrictAdministration. 11. SYSTEMOFIDENTIFICAITON,RELEASE& REHABILITATIONOFBONDEDLABOUR:-Central Government has given the actual responsibility for implementation rest on shoulders of the state government. The incidence of bonded labour system has been reported primarily from Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerla, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan,TamilNaidu&UttarPradesh.TheseStates hadtakentimelyinitiativethroughandavaryingscale for identification, release & rehabilitation of bonded labours.StatelikeHariyana&Gujrathadtakenstand right from the beginning. A welcome change in the stand of the Government of Hariyana, Gujrat & Maharastrawerebroughtaboutinthewakeofdirections fromtheapexandHighCourt,suchtypeotherstateshad started identification, release & rehabilitation to bonded labours.Ason31/03/2006,280411bondedlabourshave beenidentifiedandreleased,251569bondedlabourshave been rehabilitated and 28041 are left to be rehabilitated 20,000personsareyettobetraced.Eithertheyhaveleftthis hearthandhomeandmigratedtootherpartsofthecountry or are dead.The law provide for the duties and responsibilitiesoftheDistrictMagistrateandeveryofficer specified by act. They have to ensure that the provisions of the act are properly carried out. The law also provides fortheconstitutionofvigilancecommitteesatthedistrict and sub Divisional level, duties and responsibilities of suchcommitteesintheareaofidentification,releaseand rehabilitationofforcedBondedLabours. AspernormsVigilanceCommitteeisfunctioning inBilaspurDistrictaswellasinSubDivisionallevel.Collector becomesthechairperson(President)ofDistrictVigilance Committee.11membersofVigilanceCommitteehavebeen nominated by District Magistrate. Five sub Divisional VigilanceCommitteeshasbeenformedatBilaspur,Bilha, Kota,Lormi,PendraAndMungeli.EachSubDivisional VigilanceCommitteeispresidedoverbySubDivisional MagistrateandeachCommitteeconsistsof7nominated member by Sub Divisional Magistrate District & Sub Divisional Vigilance Committees have taken steps to generate awareness, rescue, release, rehabilitation and welfareprogramme.PeriodicallyMeetingsareorganized byvigilancecommitteesoastoanalyzethecomplaints receivedandactiontakensuchasinbetweenyear2000 to2010nosuchBondedLabourcasesinBilaspurDistrict have been registered. Thus proving that fact that such system does not prevail in Bilaspur District. 12.AWERNESSPROGRAMMEANDACTIONOF DISTRCTADMINISTRATION:-Theseprogrammes aregiven:-i.ThemigrantLabourisregisteredatGram Panchayat Level and has given the information about Bonded Labour. ii. On regular basis public grievance, redresses camps are heldandthe district administration makes a point to distribute literature and spread awareness among people. iii.The Labour Department regularly deputes Labour Inspector in the identified pocket in particular and the rural area ingeneralforsame.iv.TheDistrictmagistratemakes inter district communication to release, rescue to bonded labours. v. S. P. deputes separate team for rescue to bonded labour. vi.Ajoint team of revenue, policeandlabourdepartmentsendtorelease bonded labour on delay. Because of above awareness and action promgramme of district administration, Complaints regardingmigrantlabourthosewhogotootherstates forbetterwageandemployment.Maximumnumbers ofmigrantworkersgotoU.P.,M.P.,Bihar,WestBengal, Panjub, Hariyana, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharastra, Gujrat & Delhi etc for Brick Kiln & Construction works and they become bonded. Their complaints are received and send a letter to related District Magistrate to release and risqué and then reach to their home to Bonded Labours, if complaints are correct. Compliments regarding migrant works are givenbelow.InformationofComplimentsregarding migrant workers Received. Above table shows that from 2000-2010, 896 complaints regarding migrant Labour have been received, 864 found incorrect, 32 foundcorrectand787workershavebeenreleaseand rescued. 13.REHABILITATION&WELFARESCHEMES OF FREEDBONDEDLABOUR:-Rehabilitationof freed bonded labour is an extremely complex and difficult task but District administration of Bilaspur (C.G.)hasstartedsomanyrehabilitationandwelfare schemes for bonded labour & their family which are given below. i. All most such bonded labours have beenissuedJobCardunderNREGAprogrammes.ii. The DistrictAdministration is trying to in corporate such bonded labours under Minimata Scheme, Antahvyawasai, Prime Ministers Employment schemes. iii.District administration is providing opportunity under Pradhanmantry Gram Swarojgar Yojna.iv.HomelessBondedLabourisbeingcovered under Indira awash Yojna.v.The District Administrationislookingforwardtoimplementone
  4. 4. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 15RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION of the most important directions given by honorable SupremeCourttoformamodelrehabilitationcentre. vi. One percent cess collected under the building & other construction workers welfare board is to be spent on the registered Bonded Labour.vii. The children of bonded Labours are thus put to school to keepthemalongwiththemainstream.viii.Rs.10.60 lacs were distributed among 53 families under rehabilitationintheyear2008.ix.Rs.46.00lacswere distributedamong462bondedlabour.Earlier2010. 14.SUGGESTION:- i.Bondedlabourshouldbeidentifiedindry,drought. prone and public works should be started at those areas. ii. A drive is required & to be simultaneously launchedenforcementofminimumwages.iii.Adrive is required to be launched for timely adjudication of allclaimsundersection20ofM.W.Act1948.iv.Public Distribution system & all other schemes and programmes run by government shall be made more vibrant and transparent so that whatever people at or below the subsistence level earn could be utilized in purchase essential commodities. v.Awareness programme should be made timely. 15. CONCLUSION :- On account of the effective roleofvigilancecommitteemadeforthereasonsand its proper monitoring has resulted into the non presenceofbondedlabourinBilaspurDistrict.Apart from this the schemes and programmes running for the rehabilitation and welfare of the migrant bonded labour from other states have been fruitful, as a consequence of which a total of 787 migrant bonded labours of other states were released rescued & rehabilitatedfrom2000to2009-10.Nonavailabilityof bonded labours indicates that the role of vigilance committee & law enforced in this regard have been very effective and the schemes are required to run furtherwithsomemoreimprovementsuchasmedical facilitiesforthefamilyofmigrantbondedlabourand fee exemptions to their children. i. Potdar B. R. “Labour & Industrial law in Madhya Pradesh/ Chhattisgarh” (2008) Wadhwa & Company Law book Sellers & Publishers, 27 M.G. Road, Indore, Madhya Pradesh. ii. Ministry of Law (2004) “Abolition of Bonded Labour System” Government of India Ministry of Labour New Delhi. iii.Human rights manual for District Magistrate, & N.H.R.C., Faridkot House, New Delhi. iv. Jain B.M.E. “Research Methodology” (1987). Research Publication, Jaipur (Rajsthan). v. Information and data are collected from office of district magistrate & Assistant Labour Commissioner, Bilaspur (C.G.) R E F E R E N C E Information of Compliments regarding migrant workers Received.