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  1. 1. 9SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 Teacher education is an integral component of educa- tional system. It is intimately connected with society and is conditioned by the ethos, culture and character of a nation. The constitutional goals, the directive principlesofthestatepolicy,thesocio-economicprob- lemsandthegrowthofknowledge,theemergingexpec- tations and the changes operating in education, etc. call for an appropriate response from a futuristic edu- cationsystemandprovidetheperspectivewithinwhich teacher education programmes need to be viewed. IntroductionofTeacherEducation The need for improved levels of educational participation for overall progress is well recognized. The key role of educational institutions in realizing it is reflectedin avarietyofinitiatives takento transform the nature and function of education both formal as well as non-formal. Nearly 430 District institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) have already been establishedby1997-98.TheDIETsarechargedwiththe responsibilityoforganizingpre-serviceandin-service programmes in addition to being the nodal resource centersforelementaryeducationatdistrictlevel.Like- wise,CollegesofTeacherEducation(CTEs)and Insti- tutions ofAdvanced Study in Education (IASEs) have been given the responsibility of introducing innova- tions in teacher education programmes at the second- ary stages and in vocational education. Today, there are more than 200 universities and 800 colleges. Kothari commission remarks "The destiny of India is being shaped in its classrooms." No doubt education plays a significant role in nation's development but the quality of education is greatly determined by the quality of teachers, therefore, great efforts were made and still are being made to improve the quality of teacher education. Indian teacher education system has been strengthened a lot during the past couple of years. The NCTERegulation2007wererevisitedandmodifiedby theNCTEandnotifiedin2009.TheElementarySchool Teacherqualificationswereworkedoutandnotified in August 2010. The TET inclusion in qualifications has beenwidelyappreciated,wherein,itwasprovided that even after obtaining the necessary qualifications the teacher will have to obtain at least 60% marks in TET. Norms and standards for two year diploma in per- formingandnon-performingArtEducationwereworked outbytheCouncilandnotified inAugust2009.Teacher education New Curriculum Framework was designed and releasedduringMarch2010.Thestudyofdemand and supply of trained teachers in States and union Territories at primary, upper primary and secondary levels was completed by the council in 2010 and pub- lished in 30 volumes. The recognition of sizable num- ber of below standard teacher education institutions was withdrawn. A large number of teacher education institutions have shifted to their own premises. Bridge courses have been introduced to strengthen teacher education, where found wanting. Online applications and self-disclosure drives were introduced. A manual hasbeendesigned onthestructureand functioningofthe labs University of teacher education has come up at Chennai.IITEisbeingestablishedinGujarat.Manyinte- grated teachereducation programmes areproposed. Pri- vate teacher education universities are also coming up. ProblemsofTeachereducation The efforts made by the NCTE are indeed appreciable.Teacher Educationhas been struggling to strengthen its identity. Struggle does not mean degenerationof values and degeneration of institu- tions. It is true that after persistent struggle there is evidentimprovement,butstillthereisno endtoperfec- tion. Every establishment has noise. There are issues and resolves, problems and solutions, puzzles and pathways. Reflections on some of the issues/problems concerning teacher education in India are presented in this research paper. Some of the problems concerning teacher education are discussed below- SocialProblems Casteism,communalismandregionalismare some ofthe problems in the body politic ofthe society, which misguide the youth. Increasing delinquency, violence, terrorism and fissiparous tendencies and use of inappropriate means to get one's ends served are threats to the national integration and social cohesion. Democracy,violenceandterrorismcannotcoexist.The explosion of population with all its allied disturbing trends is not only neutralizing the economic gains but Research Paper - Education Aug- Oct , 2013 Teacher Education: ProblemsandTheirSolutions * AcademicAssociate SchoolofEducation, UttarakhndOpenUniversity * Siddharth Kumar Pokhriyal
  2. 2. 10 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 also creating many problems for the country. Indian society still suffers from evils like child labour, child marriage,untouchability,anddiscriminatorytreatment to women, violation of human rights etc. and most of the people are unaware of their legal rights. Problems of Cultural Reconstruction Education is the process of transmission of dynamic and responsive componentsofculturalheritage and its continuous enrichment. There is a need to reinterpret the Indian culture in its distinctidentity and composite strength. IsolationofTeacherEducation Teacher education Institutions which were considered 'islands of isolation' have gradually devel- oped linkages with schools, peer institutions, univer- sities and other institutions of higher learning as also thecommunity.Thecurriculumoftheschool,itsactual transactionalmodalities,examinationsystem,manage- ment processes and its ethos need to be the main thrust areas of teacher education programmes. It is observed in day-to-day functioning that teacher educators often tend to losecontact with content areasrelevant to their own disciplines resulting into gaps in communication and latest information. The schools consider the teacher education department as an alien institution and not a nursery for theprofessionaldevelopmentofschoolteacher.These departments only observe the formality of finishing the prescribed number of lessons no caring for the sounders of pedagogy involved in the procedure. Vision & Mission Mismatch Teacher education universities are also coming up. But, there are evident mismatches amongst vision, establishment, and mission. NoTeacherEducationPolicy There is no Teacher Education policy in In- dia.ButwhowillformulateTeacherEducationpolicy? To preserve the identity and sancttity of education, it is high time that we introduce Indian educational ser- vices. It is unfortunate that education is not even con- sidered as an entity. Identity Crisis Every teacher education institution ought to have valid identity. Valid identity means valid insti- tutional land & plant,valid settings, valid inputs, valid process and valid products. Each And every teacher and teacher educator ought to have aunique identifi- cation number. Teacher education will have to revive and build its identity. Problemofselection Defects of selection procedure lead to dete- rioration of the quality of teachers. Better selection method would not only improve the quality of training but also save the personal and social wastage. DeficienciesofsmalltimeperiodprovidedforTeacher's training The main purpose of teacher education programmeistodevelophealthyattitude.,broadbased intrest and values. It is not possible during the short duration of nine months. Inadequate Empirical Research /Poor Research sce- nario In India, research in education has been considerably neglected. The research conducted is of inferiorquality.Theteachereducationprogrammesare not properly studied before undertaking any research. Research in education is replicate and repetitive de- void of freshness, either of problem or of approach or of methodology. There is lack of continuity, cumula- tiveness and synthesis in most of the studies. Most of the studies are descriptive rather than preventive and ameliorative. Lackofsubjectknowledge The B.Ed. programme does not emphasize the knowledge of the basic subject. The whole teach- ing practiceremains indifferent with regard to the sub- ject knowledge of the student teacher. Inadequate Technology Infusion Teacher Education programmes are largely traditional. In India teacher educators are averse to innovation and experimentation in the use of methods of teaching. Their acquaintance with modern class- room communication devices is negligible. We have not yet been in a position to infuse the technological innovations for transacting the education. There is more of knowledge deepening than knowledge con- struction. Lackofproperfacilities In India, the teacher education programme is being given a step-motherly treatment. About 20 per- cent of the teacher education institutions are being run in rented buildings without any facility for an experi- mental school or laboratory, library and other equip- ments necessary for a good teacher education depart- ment.Thereareno separatehostelfacilitiesforstudent teachers. Insufficientfinancialgrants Inmostofthestatesteacher education is still being run by the fee collected from studentteachers, as the share ofstate grantis too small. Suggestions for Solutions of Teacher education Prob- lems Some suggestions to remedial solutions of teacher educationproblemsare- 1. The courses of studies both in theory and practice should be reorganised. For this a pragmatic research should be conducted by some universities too what is thecoursestructurewhichwillbehelpfulforrealisation of the goals of teacher education. A compre
  3. 3. 11SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 hensivejobanalysisofteachinginourschools should necessarily be made the basis for recasting of courses in teacher education. 2. There are demand and supply imbalances in teachereducation.Appreciableattemptshave been made for manpower planning. But, the manpower planning still needs to be done morescientifically.Itisexpected thatthevari ous States governments playan active role in manpower planning. 3. ATeachereducationdepartmentshould there fore,conductspecialinnovativeprogrammes inthefollowingdirections:-Seminar,combin ing of seminar and discussions with lectures, team teaching panel discussion and projects sponsored by the faculty members for im provement of learning in various spheres. 4. Quality teachers can be developed through skilled and competent teacher education pro fessionals who have passion for profession. Thereshould beno compromise withthe stan dards and norms. 5. TheadmissionproceduresofB.Ed.should be completely systematised and steps should be taken to make it full proof against temper ing and meddling as far as possible. 6. Novel ideas die because of non- incubation.Personalized teacher education, wholistic teacher education, specialized teacher education, and rarely found because wedon'thavethecapacitytotoleraterepeated failures arising out of experimentation. One- shot success is afairy tale and not the reality of life. The society and its institutions must havethecapacitytotolerategenuinemistakes committed inadvertentlyduringthecourseof innovation. 7. The teacher education department should be organised on the basis on the basis of evedence obtainable from reseraching such areas as follows, "Teacher Behaviour" devel oping conceptual framework and a theory of institution". Innovative practices of teaching such as microteaching, simulation and inter action analysis procedures. 8. Irrespective of geographical and cultural con text,educationisneededforallandtherefore, it should be anational priority instead of leav ingthesubjectinthedomainofstates.Forthis education should be shifted to the central list oftheconstitutionfromtheconcurrentlist.In ordertomakeitlocallyrelevant,thefinancial and administrative arrangement be jointly shared, both, by the Centre and States. This would hopefully loose the chains of political interference in the university system. 9. Libraries are need to be enriched with com plete and comprehensive refrence section equippedwithallavailablejournalsforuseby all the reserachers. 10. Thereis aneed oftechnological revolutionin teacher education.There is a shift from bach elor of teaching to bachelor of learning, that too, bachelor of e-learning. There are propos alsfore-TeacherEducation.SmartClassrooms are emerging, wherein, we have e-learning and e-testing.TermslikeWi-Fi,iPad,e-Book, e-Reader, e-News Letter,Webinar are widely used. Every fault of Teacher Education is attrib- uted to the National Council of Teacher Education.Rather than finding faults let us try to meet the gaps between our policies and programmes, vision and mission, wish and will. The foregoing analysis highlights the malaise plaguing the Indian Teacher Education System. It calls for revolutionary changes. There should be open forums and public debates on TeacherEducationpolicy,ratherthanleavingittosome selected committees and commissions. 1. Vallikkad, Santosh(2009). Information Communication Technology For Teacher education, Kanishka Publisher, New Delhi 2. Goel D.R., Goel Chayya.Teacher Education in India; Currents Problems & Concerns R E F E R E N C E