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Study on Phonetic Variation of Modern Japanese Loanwords

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VIII. Congress of the International Society for Dialectology and Geolinguistics (SIDG), 14 – 18 September 2015, Famagusta, North Cyprus.

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Study on Phonetic Variation of Modern Japanese Loanwords

  1. 1. Study on Phonetic Variation of Modern Japanese Loanwords Keiichi Takamaru and Akemi Yamashita
  2. 2. Aim of this study • To analyze the variants of pronunciation of loanwords as seen in a nationwide recording survey. • To elucidate the differences in the pronunciation of loanword according to generation and region. 2 SIDG2015
  3. 3. Loanwords in Japanese • Loanwords are written by katakana. • Katakana is a syllable-based phonetic writing system of Japanese language. • Loanwords are basically pronounced according to the katakana notation. SIDG2015 3 1 49%2 34% loanwords 9% 4 8% (NINJAL 2006:38) Gairaigo (loanwords): European origin after the arrival of Christian missionaries in the 16th century
  4. 4. Writing of loanwords in Katakana • The katakana notation of loanwords have some variations. • Example: violin • Common notation of katakana: バイオリン (ba-i-o-ɾi-N) • Another notation: ヴァイオリン (va-i-o-ɾi-N) • Both notations are accepted. SIDG2015 4
  5. 5. Pronunciation of Loanwords • The pronunciation can also vary. • Pronunciation of original language can influence pronunciation of loanwords. • Japanese has dialectal differences within its phonological system. • It may influence pronunciation of loanwords. SIDG2015 5
  6. 6. Nationwide recording survey • Illustrations or Katakana of loanwords are shown to respondents. • The respondents would pronounce the loanwords in their usual way. • Pronunciation is recorded with IC recorders. • There were 32 target loanwords. SIDG2015 6
  7. 7. • Illustrations or Katakana of loanwords are shown to respondents. SIDG2015 7 632.What do you call this? You use this when you sleep in the Western style room. (beddo, betto) (translated words in English) 11 words 32 words Nationwide recording survey
  8. 8. • Illustrations or Katakana of loanwords are shown to respondents. SIDG2015 8 ・・・ (fight) (film) (office) (fence) (folk dance) (gesture) 21 words 32 words Nationwide recording survey
  9. 9. The respondents • The Number of respondents are 201. SIDG2015 9
  10. 10. 6 3 3 11 3 2 3 3 7 3 4 3 5 3 7 35 3 3 3 3 33 3 32 4 3 3 5 2 3 7 3 25 3 3 4 36 3 3 0 3 0 6 4 6 5 4 3 2 1 area SIDG2015 10 Hokkaido & Tohoku region Kanto region Chubu region Kinki region Chugoku & Shikoku region Kyushu & Okinawa region
  11. 11. Analyzing the recorded speeches • Two or more researchers listened to speech samples under the same conditions. • Praat* was used for analyzing sounds to confirm the results when there was disagreement on the listening observation. • Loanwords are classified into 2 groups: 1. Showed a newer type of pronunciation 2. Showed a older type of pronunciation SIDG2015 11 *Praat http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/
  12. 12. Overview of the analysis • Group 1: Showed newer pronunciation • 3 typical variations: 1. ʃiː → siː 2. tsɯː → tɯː 3. tʃi → ti • Approaching to original pronunciation • Ratio of newer pronunciation is not so high. SIDG2015 12 waɴ tsɯːsɯriː waɴ tɯːɵɯriː tsɯːrisɯto tɯːrisɯto eː biː ʃiː eː biː siː bitamiɴ ʃiː bitamiɴ siː ʃiɴgaː siɴgaː pɯras(ɯ)tʃikk(ɯ) pɯlas(ɯ)tikk(ɯ)
  13. 13. Group 1: newer type of pronunciation • By region SIDG2015 13 East West
  14. 14. Group 1: newer type of pronunciation • By gender SIDG2015 14
  15. 15. Group 1: newer type of pronunciation • By generation SIDG2015 15
  16. 16. Overview of the analysis • Group 2: Showed older type of pronunciation • 6 typical variations: 1. diː → deː tiː → teː 2. fV → ɸɯV 3. fo → ho 4. wi → ɯi we → ɯe 5. dʒe → dze 6. devoicing of word-final voiced double consonant SIDG2015 16 keːdeːdeː keːdiːdiː aidea aidia ɸɯaito faito ɸɯirɯmɯ firɯmɯ ɸɯens(ɯ) fens(ɯ) hoːkɯ foːkɯ ɯis(ɯ)kiː wis(ɯ)kiː ɯedeɴg(ɯ) wediɴg(ɯ) eɴdzerɯ eɴdʒerɯ dzes(ɯ)tʃaː dʒes(ɯ)tʃaː dzeː aːrɯ dʒeː aːrɯ bakk(ɯ) bagg(ɯ) betto beddo enɯ teːteː enɯ tiːtiː piː teː eː piː tiː eː ʃiteːkaɴkak(ɯ) ʃitiːkaɴkak(ɯ) ais(ɯ) teː ais(ɯ) tiː
  17. 17. SIDG2015 17 Correspondence analysis
  18. 18. SIDG2015 18 Western Part Eastern Part Correspondence analysis [1] Senior fV → ɸɯV and so on [2] Eastern Part devoicing wV → ɯV [3] Eastern & Senior diː → deː tiː → teː
  19. 19. • /ɸɯV/ is used by Senior. • ɸɯirɯmɯ (film), oɸɯisɯ (office), ɸɯens(ɯ) (fence), ɸɯaito (fight) SIDG2015 19
  20. 20. • Largely observed in Eastern part of Japan • ɯis(ɯ)kiː, ɯedeɴg(ɯ) • bakk(ɯ), betto SIDG2015 20 East West
  21. 21. • /diː/→ /deː/ and /tiː/→ /teː/ are used by Senior in eastern part of Japan SIDG2015 21
  22. 22. Conclusions • Newer-type Pronunciation: • Frequently in capital region, male, middle-aged • Phonemes which are difficult to articulate are not adopted even by young people. • Older-type pronunciation: • Not difficult to articulate for Japanese • Changed (or changing) approaching to original • Lexicalization of old-type loanwords • Dialectal characteristics • Difficulty of articulation of the phoneme SIDG2015 22
  23. 23. References • Inoue, Fumio (2010) “P.T.A. no chi, te, thi, henka” Kotoba no sanpomichi 146. Nihongo-gaku Vol.28-9.Meiji shoin • Hayano, Shingo (1996) “Gairaigo hatsuon no henka–/ti/, /di/ ni tsuite–” Shutoken no gengoseitai–Kanto. • Housou Yougo Iinkai (2012, 2015) “gairaigo no hyouki ni tsuite” housou kenkyu to chousa • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2006) “Loanword and modern society”, Shin Kotoba shiriizu 19. • Okada, Shohei (2014) “How is “Twitter” rendered in katakana?: When Japanese speakers make loanwords, which do they make much of the original pronunciation and of Japanese Pronunciation” Bulletin of the Faculty of Education. Humanities and Social Sciences, Niigata University. • Ozaki, Yoshimitsu (2010) “Gairaion wa genzai donokurai fukyu shiteiruka?” Takakuteki Approach niyoru gendai nihongo no dotai no kaimei kenkyukai. SIDG2015 23
  24. 24. Loanwords shown by illustrations • (355) bed • (356) ink • (357) whisky • (358) wedding cake • (359) plastic • (360) handbag • (361) idea • (362) JR (Japan Railway) • (363) violin • (364-1) KDD (Kokusai Denshin Dewa Corporation) • (364-2) NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) 24 (translated words in English) SIDG2015
  25. 25. Loanwords shown by Katakana • (278) ABC • (279) fight • (280) film • (281) office • (282) fence • (283) folk dance • (284) gesture • (285) angel • (286) producer • (287) one, two, three • (289) iced tea • (290) PTA • (291) weak team • (292) (sense of) city • (293) (a big) shepherd • (294) blue sheet • (295) blue seat • (296) blue seal • (297) (for) tourist • (298) (best) singer • (299) vitamin C 25 (translated words in English) SIDG2015

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