The Women's Empowerment in Agricultre Index (English)
Construction of the Women’sEmpowerment in Agriculture Indexand pilot results
Purpose• Design, develop, and test an index to measure the greaterinclusion of women in agricultural sector growth thathas occurred as a result of US Government interventionunder the Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative• What is “greater inclusion”?The concept of InclusiveAgricultural Sector Growth is broad and multi-dimensional• Feed the Future defines it as:“the empowerment ofwomen in their roles and engagement throughout thevarious areas of the agriculture sector, as it grows, inboth quantity and quality”
What is empowerment?• Similar to Kabeer (2001), we defineempowerment as the expansion of people’sability to make strategic life choices, withintheir households and their communities,particularly in contexts where this ability hasbeen limited
Why focus on women?• Women are important in agriculture, account for 43% ofthe agricultural labor force worldwide (SOFA 2011)• Yet women consistently have less resources than men:land, education, access to extension and credit, inputs--resulting in yield gaps of between 20-25%• Closing the gap in access to resources could increaseagricultural productivity—with benefits for families andthe next generation
What is new about the WEAI?• An aggregate index in two parts:– Five domains of empowerment (5DE): assesses whetherwomen are empowered in the 5 domains of empowerment inagriculture– Gender Parity Index (GPI): reflects the percentage ofwomen who are as empowered as the men in their households• It is a survey-based index, not based on aggregate statistics orsecondary data, constructed using interviews of the primary maleand primary female adults in the same household
Innovations in survey design andimplementation• Index components designed to be applicable across countriesand cultures• Men and women from the same household are interviewed• The survey questionnaire modules focus on men’s and women’sempowerment in agriculture• The index applies to women in households with male adults--aswell as those with only female adults.
Scope of the WEAI• Focus is strictly on empowerment in agriculture, distinctfrom:– Economic status– Education– Empowerment in other domainsThis enables clear analysis of external determinates ofempowerment in agriculture.• WEAI is international; Local adaptation possible.
How is the Index constructed?Five domains ofempowerment(5DE)A direct measure ofwomen’s empowermentin 5 dimensionsGender parityIndex (GPI)Women’sachievement’s relativeto the primary malein hhWomen’sEmpowermentin AgricultureIndex(WEAI)WEAI is made up of two sub indicesAll range from zero to one;higher values = greater empowerment
FivedomainsofempowermentA woman’s empowerment score shows her own achievements
Who is empowered?A woman who has achieved‘adequacy’ in 80% or more ofthe weighted indicatorsis empowered
• The 5DE is based on the Alkire Foster methodology andreflects:– Incidence of Empowerment - The percentage of women who areempowered– Adequacy among the Disempowered - The weighted share ofindicators in which disempowered women enjoy adequate achievements• Based on each woman’s empowerment profile• Identifies who is empowered• Shows how women are disempowered• Rigorous properties5DE MethodologyAlkire and Foster 2011. J of Public Economics.
Gender Parity Index (GPI)Reflects two things:1.The percentage of women who enjoy gender parity. Awoman enjoys gender parity if– she is empowered or– if her empowerment score is equal to or greater than the empowermentscore of the primary male in her household.2. The empowerment gap - the average percentage shortfall thata woman without parity experiences relative to the male in herhousehold.The GPI adapts the Foster Greer Thorbecke Poverty Gap measure to reflect gender parity.
5DE = He + Hd × AeHe is the percentage of empowered womenHd is the percentage of disempowered womenAe is the average absolute empowerment score among thedisempoweredGPI = I – (HGPI × IGPI)HGPI is percentage of gender parity-inadequate householdsIGPI is the average empowerment gap between women and menliving in households that lack gender parityFormula
The Pilots• Tested feasibility in a real-world setting before scale-up• An innovation in the measurement and monitoring ofwomen’s empowerment in agriculture—not the final wordon it!• Representative of the zone of influence (not nationally)
Country choiceThree Feed the Future countries in different regions anddifferent socio-cultural contexts, focused on the zone ofinfluence:• Bangladesh, Guatemala, Uganda• Split roughly 20/80 between single female and dual adulthouseholds• ~350 households/625 individuals eachCollaborators:• Data Analysis and Technical Assistance, Ltd. (Bangladesh),• Vox Latina (Guatemala),• Associates Research Uganda Limited (Uganda).
Bangladesh• Southern part of the country– 25 villages from 5 rural districts(Khulna, Madaripur, Barguna,Patuakhali and Jessore)– 18 households randomly selectedfrom each village (14 dual adult; 4female adult only)• Sample size: 450 households(800 individuals)
Guatemala• Western highlands, largeindigenous population– 25 villages from 28 targetedmunicipalities from 5departamentos (Quetzaltengo,San Marcos, Huehuetenango, ElQuiché and Totonicapán)– 14 households randomly selectedfrom each village (11 dual adult; 3female adult only)• Sample size: 350 households(626 individuals)
Uganda• Northern, Central, and Eastern– 25 Local Councils in 25 Parishes in 5preselected rural districts: Kole andAmuru (North), Masaka and Luwero(Central) and Iganga (Eastern)– 14 households randomly selectedfrom each LC (11 dual adult; 3 femaleadult only)• Sample size: 350 households (625individuals)
Case studiesCase studies consisted of interviewson five domains with narratives toexplain answers, describe “lifestories,” and get concepts ofempowerment from men and womenthemselves“Being empowered, it means thatthe woman can do things too, notjust the man”~ Woman, Guatemala aged 63
Lilian, UgandaEmpowerment Score = 83%Has achieved parity with herhusband Wilson
• 39% of women are empowered• Disempowered women have adequateachievements in 58.4% of domains• 59.8% of women enjoy gender parity• Households without gender parity have a25.2% empowerment gap between thewoman and manBangladesh Pilot resultsOverall, theWEAIscore is 0.762
Bangladesh: How to increase empowerment?Proportion of women notempowered and who haveinadequate achievements byindicator in Bangladeshsample
Bangladesh: How to increase empowerment?Policies need tofocus onimprovingwomens controlover income
• 28.7% of women are empowered• Disempowered women have adequateachievements in 56.5% of domains• 35.8% of women have gender parity• 29.1% empowerment gapGuatemala PilotresultsOverall, theWEAIscore is 0.702
Guatemala: How to increase empowerment?Womensachievements areworse than mens inevery indicatorImproving genderparity is extremelyimportant
• 43.3% of women are empowered• Disempowered women have adequateachievements in 62.8% of domains• 54.4% of women have gender parity• 22.4% empowerment gapUganda Pilot resultsOverall, theWEAIscore is 0.800
Uganda: How to increase empowerment?Policies need to focus ontime use, where womenhave greater burdensthan men
Empowerment, wealth and education• Wealth – clear association with empowerment in Uganda, but animperfect proxy in Bangladesh and Guatemala:– 76% in top three quintiles are disempowered in Guatemala• Education – significant influence in Guatemala and Uganda butinsignificant for men and women in Bangladesh:– In Uganda, 35% of women with less than primary schooling are empowered vs.45% with primary education– 31% of women with less than primary education were empowered inBangladesh vs. 33% with primary schoolingThe new survey questions used for theWEAI show that having moneyor being educated does not guarantee that women are empowered.
Innovations in the Index1) Captures empowerment directly:– Not through proxies – education, income etc.– The results show what has been missing from our view ofempowerment to date2) Three ways to change it:– Empower women– Increase the adequacy among disempowered women– Increase gender parity
How will WEAI be used?1. As a monitoring indicator for FTF to evaluate whetherprograms are having intended effect on womensempowerment2. As a diagnostic tool to help identify areas in which womenand men are disempowered, so that programs and policies canbe targeted to those areas3. Conducting more research: testing new indicators/assessingvalidity in different contexts, etc.
4WEAI Dissertation Fellowships Awarded• To strengthen understanding and evidence of theWEAI• To expand understanding of WEAI dynamics throughcomplementary qualitative and ethnographic work• To support promising researchers interested ingender and agriculture
• For more information, please refer to theWEAI Resource Center: http://www.ifpri.org/book-9075/ourwork/program/weai-resource-center• Or contact Hazel Malapit: email@example.com
Source:Alkire, S., Meinzen-Dick, R., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A. R.,Seymour, G. and A. Vaz. 2012. “TheWomen’s Empowermentin Agriculture Index,” Poverty, Health & Nutrition Division,International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI DiscussionPaper No. 01240, December 2012.http://www.ifpri.org/publication/women-s-empowerment-agriculture-indexPresentation prepared by:Hazel Malapit and Chiara Kovarik