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Envision South Asia-Civil Society Organisations


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South Asia has a vibrant Civil Society Organisations (CSOs). But collective action among the CSOs is still very limited to area/sector.

In order to evolve shared vision CSOs need to follow strategic direction. This presentation allows reflection in frameworks to enbable collective and shared vision- Avanish Kumar

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Envision South Asia-Civil Society Organisations

  1. 1. Shared En Vision : South Asia Dr. Avanish Kumar, India Email: Alternative En Vision Framework
  2. 2. Progress on MDGs Asia <ul><li>Least Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Most Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Water Supply Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Cover </li></ul><ul><li>$ 1Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>HIV Prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Source: UNESCAP </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development Context South Asia 2007 Human Development Index Maldives (95), Sri Lanka (102), Bhutan (132), India (134), Pakistan (141), Nepal (144), Bangladesh (146) and Afghanistan (18 1 ) + trend : 4 out of 8 South Asian nations made positive gains moving up the rungs, while the others remained stable. The highest gains : Countries moving up by 2 rungs- Maldives and Bangladesh Countries moving up by 1 rungs- Bhutan and Pakistan <ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Countries Above India - Bhutan and Bangladesh (65.7 years each), Pakistan (66.2 years), Nepal (66.3 years), Maldives (71.1 years) and Sri Lanka (74 years) </li></ul><ul><li>India’s record on life expectancy is made worse by the low rates of survival of young persons. </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of dying before the age of 40 is among the highest in India, with 15.5% of the cohort loosing their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>3 times the level of mortality in Sri Lanka where only 5.5% of the population fail to cross the 40-age mark. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan fared the worst where the chances of survival over 40 was worst—with almost 40% of the persons dying before attaining this age. </li></ul></ul>Underweight Children India’s record was among the worst, with 46% of the children underweight, next to that of Bangladesh where the share of underweight children was a notch higher at 48%. Bhutan have been able to reduce its share of under-weight children to less than half the levels of India . PPP per capita Income India’s PPP per capita income of $2,753 was sizably lower than Sri Lanka ($4,243), Bhutan ($4,837) and Maldives ($5,196). Nepal ranked lowest in this category with its PPP per capita income of $1,049,being lower than that of Afghanistan ($1,054). Disparity in the earnings between male and female workers. The ratio of female to male incomes in India was 32%, which was lower than Nepal (61%), Sri Lanka (56%), Maldives (54%), Bangladesh (51%) and Bhutan (39%). The only nations that had a worse ratio were Afghanistan (24%) and Pakistan (18%). Adult literacy India’s 66% adult literacy was relatively better with the country ranking third in South Asia, but much below Maldives (97%) and Sri Lanka (90.8%). Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh had a literacy rate in the 50%-plus range. Long-term prospects of moving up the rungs on this indicator are not very bright given the low gross enrolment rate . As in the case of other indicators, India’s gross enrolment rate of 61% fell short to that of Sri Lanka ( 68.7%) and Maldives (68.7%).
  4. 4. ? How to create c omplimentary, c ohesive and c umulative impact towards promoting development … that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  5. 5. Heterogeneous South Asia CSOs <ul><li>Civil society vary widely according to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and scale of operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sector of activity and approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious orientation, their function (service providers social movements, networks, or apex organizations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships to donors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational sophistication, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation Skills </li></ul></ul>Diaspora/specific interest groups Membership Foundations, donors, government, as well as individual Individual donations, fundraising events,concerts Source of Funds/ support Vertical & hierarchical /network of tightly organized cells/charismatic leaders Middle class –national movement, religious community Mobilization through media, religious organizations/ violence Empowerment of national /religious groups National/Religious Groups Sum Total Ranges form vertical & hierarchal to informal network Ranges from bureaucratic and corporate to small groups Loose horizontal coalition Forms Organization Workers, farmers, employers Professional staff Activists, committed individuals (displaced persons) Social Composition Service provision, lobbying Service provision, advocacy, research Protests, demonstration events Activities Protection & Promotion of members Interests Climate Change, Development & Humanitarian Relief Emancipation of the poor & marginalized Mission Sum Total Social Organization NGOs Advocacy/Social Movements
  6. 6. Contextualizing South Asia CSOs Partnership Adopted form Ostrom High Medium Low Key Activities Dispersion - extent to which members live in geographic (political) proximity to one another Homogeneity - extent to which overlaps in knowledge, interest, status Multiple Function - extent to which social relationships serve economic and emotions Reciprocity - extent to which resource/support are both given and received
  7. 7. Contextualizing Mutli-stakeholder Incentives Adopted from Olson Environment Equity Key Incentives (Two CSOs working on different Theme) Purposive incentives - Accomplishment of a significant goal for the common good Solidarity incentives - Intangible rewards available only to coalition members Material incentives -Rewards of money, products, jobs, collective platform
  8. 8. <ul><li>… why incur costs when the benefit is provided to all regardless of who participates/contributes? </li></ul>Sustainable Participation Costs of participation with respect to time Benefits C Less cost high benefits A ? High cost, equal benefits B End
  9. 9. Policy Assumptions Homogeneous Management Capability CSOs “ Whose Brain & Brawn” Homogeneous demands of products/services Community “ Stomach of Poor” Homogeneous Supply of public facilities/Services Government “ Regulator to Implementer” Assumptions Stakeholders
  10. 10. Alternate Framework En Vision
  11. 11. Existing Policy Framework *PRSP : Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers Target Common issues at South Asia Step One Maldives Sir Lanka Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Afghanistan Countries Agenda 21 National Conservation Strategy Vision 2020 PRSPs* National Development Plan
  12. 12. Strategy to Evolve Common Framework <ul><li>In Yoga Sutras, Patanjali lists the processes of Chitta Vrtti (modification of the mind/vision) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Pramana : evidences or values required to envision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pratrayaksa : Direct Evidence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anumana : Inference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agama : :Testimony or reliable source of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Step Two
  13. 13. Comprehensive Reflection Framework Personnel, Politics, Provinces Participating Stakeholders Step Three Creation of Scientific Realities Long-term Goal Convergence of short term Objectives En Vision Consensus on Ethical Principles Current Challenges of the Area/People Strength &Weakness of stakeholders (partners)
  14. 14. Proposed (Activity/Output) Framework How Step Four Profit (Corporate Green House) Common Outcomes (How it will affect future) - Prevent People (Community) Policies (Government) Common Strategies (How are our Principles, Projects, Personnel in place) -Personalize Common Issues/Theme (How it affects) - Predict What
  15. 15. Emerging Organizational Convergence Framework Institutional Arrangements of Partners Affirmative Action Level One Level Two Level Three Growth Environment TechnologyOtpion Public Policies Step Five
  16. 16. En Vision * South Asia Cross Cutting: Good Governance for Inclusive (social/spatial) Growth * En Vision : Environment lead Vision Step Six Maldives Sir Lanka Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Afghanistan Countries <ul><li>Economic Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Developmental Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy Environment for Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Rational use of renewable natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of non-renewable natural resource </li></ul><ul><li>Social Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Social Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Social Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Identify </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ You may say that I'm a dreamer But I'm not the only one I hope someday you'll join us And the world will be as one” - John Lennon En vision South Asia