Define performance & choosing a measurement approach

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  • Define performance & choosing a measurement approach

    1. 1. Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: Overview Defining Performance Determinants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    2. 2. Defining Performance Performance is: • Behavior • What employees do Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    3. 3. Defining Performance Performance is NOT: • Results or Outcomes • What employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    4. 4. Behaviors labeled as Performance are: 1. Evaluative – Negative – Neutral – Positive 1. Multidimensional – Many different kinds of behaviors – Advance or hinder organizational goals Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    5. 5. Behaviors are Not always – Observable – Measurable Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    6. 6. Results/Consequences may be used – To infer behavior – As proxy for behavioral measure Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    7. 7. Determinants of Performance Performance = Declarative Knowledge X Procedural Knowledge X Motivation Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    8. 8. A. Declarative Knowledge • Information about – – – – Facts Labels Principles Goals • Understanding of task requirements Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    9. 9. B. Procedural Knowledge • Knowing – What to do – How to do it Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 • Skills – – – – – Cognitive Physical Perceptual Motor Interpersonal Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    10. 10. C. Motivation • Choices – Expenditure of effort – Level of effort – Persistence of effort Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    11. 11. Implications for Addressing Performance Problems • Managers need information to accurately identify source(s) of performance problems • Performance management systems must – Measure performance AND – Provide information on SOURCE(s) of problems Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    12. 12. Factors Influencing Determinants of Performance: • Individual characteristics – Procedural knowledge – Declarative knowledge – Motivation • HR practices • Work environment Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    13. 13. Performance Dimensions: Types of multi-dimensional behaviors: • Task performance • Contextual performance – Pro-social behaviors – Organizational citizenship Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    14. 14. Task performance Activities that • transform raw materials • help with the transformation process – Replenishing – Distributing – Supporting Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    15. 15. Contextual performance Behaviors that • contribute to organization’s effectiveness and • provide a good environment in which task performance can occur Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    16. 16. Differences Between Task and Contextual Performance • Task Performance • Varies across jobs • Likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by • Abilities • Skills Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 • Contextual Performance • Fairly similar across jobs • Not likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by • Personality Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    17. 17. Why Include Task & Contextual Performance Dimensions in PM system? 1. 2. 3. 4. Global competition Teamwork Customer service Supervisor views Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    18. 18. Job Performance in Context A performer (individual or team) TRAIT Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 In a given situation Engages in certain behaviors That produce various results BEHAVIOR RESULTS Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    19. 19. Approaches to Measuring Performance • Trait Approach – Emphasizes individual traits of employees • Behavior Approach – Emphasizes how employees do the job • Results Approach – Emphasizes what employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    20. 20. Trait Approach • Emphasis on individual • Evaluate stable traits • Cognitive abilities • Personality • Based on relationship between traits & performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    21. 21. Trait Approach (continued) • Appropriate if • Structural changes planned for organization • Disadvantages • Improvement not under individual’s control • Trait may not lead to • Desired behaviors or • Desired results Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    22. 22. Behavior Approach Appropriate if • Employees take a long time to achieve desired outcomes • Link between behaviors and results is not obvious • Outcomes occur in the distant future • Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Not appropriate if • above conditions are not present Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    23. 23. Results Approach Advantages: • Less time • Lower cost • Data appear objective Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver
    24. 24. Results Approach (continued) Most appropriate when: • • • • Workers skilled in necessary behaviors Behaviors and results obviously related Consistent improvement in results over time Many ways to do the job right Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

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