Measuring Results and Behavior {Lecture Notes}

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Measuring Results and Behavior {Lecture Notes}

  1. 1. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Measuring Results and Behaviors:Measuring Results and Behaviors: OverviewOverview Measuring Results Measuring Behaviors
  2. 2. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Measuring Results: OverviewMeasuring Results: Overview • Accountabilities • Objectives • Performance Standards
  3. 3. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Key questionsKey questions • Where should each individual focus efforts? • What are the expected objectives? • How do we know how well the results were achieved?
  4. 4. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver AccountabilitiesAccountabilities  Broad areas of a job for which employee is responsible for producing results
  5. 5. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver ObjectivesObjectives  Statements of important and measurable outcomes
  6. 6. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Performance StandardsPerformance Standards  Yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives
  7. 7. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Determining AccountabilitiesDetermining Accountabilities Collect information about job (Job Description) Determine importance of task or cluster of tasks • % of employee’s time spent performing task • Impact on unit’s mission if performed inadequately • Consequences of error
  8. 8. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Determining ObjectivesDetermining Objectives • Purpose: to identify – Outcomes • Limited number • Highly important – When achieved • dramatic impact on overall organization success
  9. 9. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Characteristics of Good ObjectivesCharacteristics of Good Objectives • Specific and Clear • Challenging • Agreed Upon • Significant • Prioritized • Bound by Time • Achievable • Fully Communicated • Flexible • Limited in Number
  10. 10. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Determining Performance StandardsDetermining Performance Standards Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives, such as: • Quality – How well the objective is achieved • Quantity – How much, how many, how often, at what cost • Time – Due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly
  11. 11. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Standards must include:Standards must include: • A verb • The desired result • A due date • Some type of indicator – Quality and/or – Quantity
  12. 12. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Characteristics ofCharacteristics of Good Performance StandardsGood Performance Standards • Related to Position • Concrete, Specific, Measurable • Practical to Measure • Meaningful • Realistic and Achievable • Reviewed Regularly
  13. 13. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Measuring Behaviors: OverviewMeasuring Behaviors: Overview • Identify competencies • Identify indicators • Choose measurement system
  14. 14. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Identify CompetenciesIdentify Competencies Measurable clusters of KSAs – Knowledges – Skills – Abilities That are critical in determining how results will be achieved
  15. 15. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Types of CompetenciesTypes of Competencies • Differentiating – Distinguish between superior and average performance • Threshold – Needed to perform to minimum standard
  16. 16. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Identify IndicatorsIdentify Indicators Observable behaviors Used to measure extent to which competencies are present – or not
  17. 17. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Necessary Components forNecessary Components for Describing CompetenciesDescribing Competencies • Definition • Description of specific behaviors – When competency demonstrated – When competency not demonstrated • Suggestions for developing the competency
  18. 18. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Choose Measurement SystemChoose Measurement System • Comparative system – Compares employees with each other • Absolute system – Compares employees with pre-specified performance standard
  19. 19. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Comparative SystemsComparative Systems • Simple rank order • Alternation rank order • Paired comparisons • Forced distribution
  20. 20. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Advantages of Comparative SystemsAdvantages of Comparative Systems • Easy to explain • Straightforward • Better control for biases and errors found in absolute systems – Leniency – Severity – Central tendency
  21. 21. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Disadvantages of Comparative SystemsDisadvantages of Comparative Systems • Rankings may not be specific enough for – Useful feedback – Protection from legal challenge • No information on relative distance between employees • Specific issues with forced distribution method
  22. 22. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Absolute SystemsAbsolute Systems • Essays • Behavior checklists • Critical incidents • Graphic rating scales
  23. 23. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver EssaysEssays • Advantage: – Potential to provide detailed feedback • Disadvantages: – Unstructured and may lack detail – Depends on supervisor writing skill – Lack of quantitative information; difficult to use in personnel decisions
  24. 24. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Behavior checklistsBehavior checklists • Advantage: – Easy to use and understand • Disadvantage: – Scale points used are often arbitrary – Difficult to get detailed and useful feedback
  25. 25. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Critical incidentsCritical incidents Two kinds of measurement – Report of specific employee behavior • Allows focus on specific behavior • Very time-consuming – Examples of behavior illustrative of core competencies • Easier to use • Describes behavior desired
  26. 26. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Graphic rating scalesGraphic rating scales • Clear meaning for each response category • Consistent interpretation by outside readers • Supervisor and employee should have same understanding of rating
  27. 27. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Graphic rating scales:Graphic rating scales: BARS improvementBARS improvement • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) – Use critical incidents as anchors – Involves multiple groups of employees in development • Identify important job elements • Describe critical incidents at various levels of performance • Check for inter-rater reliability
  28. 28. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Measuring PerformanceMeasuring Performance • Several types of methods • Differ in terms of: – Practicality (time and effort) – Usefulness (quantifiable)
  29. 29. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver SummarySummary • Measuring Results – Identify accountabilities – Set objectives – Determine standards of performance • Measuring Behaviors – Identify competencies – Identify indicators – Choose measurement system

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