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Supply chain management ops 405


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Supply chain management ops 405

  1. 1. Supply ChainManagement
  2. 2. Discussion• Supply Chain Management• Information Technology: A Supply Chain Enabler• Supply Chain Integration• Suppliers
  3. 3. Discussion (cont.)• E-Procurement• Distribution• Supply Chain Management Software• Measuring Supply Chain Performance• Global Supply Chain
  4. 4. Supply Chain All facilities, functions, activities, associated with flow and transformation of goods and services from raw materials to customer, as well as the associated information flows An integrated group of processes to “source,” “make,” and “deliver” products
  5. 5. Supply Chain Illustration
  6. 6. Supply Chain for Denim Jeans
  7. 7. Supply Chain for Denim Jeans(cont.)
  8. 8. Supply Chain Processes
  9. 9. Supply Chain for Service Providers • More difficult than manufacturing • Does not focus on the flow of physical goods • Focuses on human resources and support services • More compact and less extended
  10. 10. Value vs. Supply Chain• Value chain • every step from raw materials to the eventual end user • ultimate goal is delivery of maximum value to the end user• Supply chain • activities that get raw materials and subassemblies into manufacturing operation• Terms are used interchangeably
  11. 11. Supply Chain Management (SCM)• Managing flow of information through supply chain in order to attain the level of synchronization that will make it more responsive to customer needs while lowering costs• Keys to effective SCM • information • communication • cooperation • trust
  12. 12. Supply Chain Uncertainty• One goal in SCM: • Factors that contribute to • respond to uncertainty in uncertainty customer demand without • inaccurate demand forecasting creating costly excess • long variable lead times inventory • late deliveries• Negative effects of • incomplete shipments uncertainty • product changes batch ordering • lateness • price fluctuations and discounts • incomplete orders • inflated orders• Inventory • insurance against supply chain uncertainty
  13. 13. Bullwhip EffectOccurs when slight demand variability is magnified as information moves back upstream Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  14. 14. Information Technology: A Supply Chain Enabler• Information links all aspects • Bar code and point-of-sale of supply chain • data creates an instantaneous• E-business computer record of a sale • replacement of physical • Radio frequency identification business processes with (RFID) electronic ones • technology can send product• Electronic data interchange data from an item to a reader (EDI) via radio waves • a computer-to-computer • Internet exchange of business • allows companies to documents communicate with suppliers, customers, shippers and other businesses around the world, instantaneously
  15. 15. E-business and Supply Chain• Cost savings and price reductions• Reduction or elimination of the role of intermediaries• Shortening supply chain response and transaction times• Gaining a wider presence and increased visibility for companies• Greater choices and more information for customers
  16. 16. E-business and Supply Chain(cont.)• Improved service as a result of instant accessibility to services• Collection and analysis of voluminous amounts of customer data and preferences• Creation of virtual companies• Leveling playing field for small companies• Gaining global access to markets, suppliers, and distribution channels
  17. 17. Supply Chain Evolution at NabiscoSource: F. Keenan, “Logistics Gets a Little Respect,” Business Week (November 20, 2000), pp. 112–115.
  18. 18. Supply Chain Evolution at Nabisco (cont.) Source: F. Keenan, “Logistics Gets a Little Respect,” Business Week (November 20, 2000), pp. 112–115.
  19. 19. Supply Chain Evolution at Nabisco (cont.)Source: F. Keenan, “Logistics Gets a Little Respect,” Business Week (November 20, 2000), pp. 112–115.
  20. 20. RFID Capabilities
  21. 21. RFID Capabilities (cont.)
  22. 22. Build-to-order cars over the Internet
  23. 23. E-automotive Supply ChainSupply Chain Automotive E-Automotive Processes Past• Customer sales  Push—sell from  Pull—build-to-order inventory stock• Production  Goal of even and  Focus on customer stable production demand, respond with supply chain flexibility  Fast, reliable, and• Distribution  Mass approach customized to get cars to specific customer location• Customer  Shared by dealers and relationship  Dealer-owned manufacturers
  24. 24. E-automotive Supply Chain (cont.) Supply Automotive Chain E-Automotive PastProcesses• Managing  Large car  Small inventories with uncertainty inventory at shared information and dealers strategically placed parts• Procurement  Batch-oriented; inventories dealers order  Orders made in real time based on based on available-to- allocations promise information  Complex  Simplified products based on• Product products don’t better information about design match customer what customers want needs
  25. 25. Supply Chain Integration• Information sharing among supply chain members • Reduced bullwhip effect • Early problem detection • Faster response • Builds trust and confidence• Collaborative planning, forecasting, replenishment, and design • Reduced bullwhip effect • Lower Costs (material, logistics, operating, etc.) • Higher capacity utilization • Improved customer service levels
  26. 26. Supply Chain Integration (cont.)• Coordinated workflow, production and operations, procurement • Production efficiencies • Fast response • Improved service • Quicker to market• Adopt new business models and technologies • Penetration of new markets • Creation of new products • Improved efficiency • Mass customization
  27. 27. Collaborative Planning,Forecasting, and Replenishment • Process for two or more companies in a supply chain to synchronize their demand forecasts into a single plan to meet customer demand • Parties electronically exchange • past sales trends • point-of-sale data • on-hand inventory • scheduled promotions • forecasts
  28. 28. Suppliers• Procurement • purchase of goods and services from suppliers• On-demand (direct response) delivery • requires supplier to deliver goods when demanded by customer• Continuous replenishment • supplying orders in a short period of time according to a predetermined schedule• Cross-enterprise teams coordinate processes between company and supplier
  29. 29. Outsourcing• Sourcing • selection of suppliers• Outsourcing • purchase of goods and services from an outside supplier• Core competencies • what a company does best• Single sourcing • a company purchases goods and services from only a few (or one) suppliers
  30. 30. Original Equipment Maintenance Manufacturer Repair and Corporate (OEM) Operation (MPO) Services
  31. 31. E-Procurement• Direct purchase from suppliers over the Internet• Direct products go directly into production process a product, indirect products not• E-marketplaces • web sites where companies and suppliers conduct business-to-business activities• Reverse auction • a company posts orders on the Internet for suppliers to bid on
  32. 32. Online Sourcing/ Procurement Process
  33. 33. Online Sourcing/ Procurement Process (cont.)
  34. 34. Online Sourcing/ Procurement Process (cont.)
  35. 35. Relationship between Facilities and Functions along the Wal-Mart Supply Chain Source: Adapted from Garrison Wieland for “Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain,” Harvard Business Review 70(2; March–April 1992), pp. 60–71.
  36. 36. Distribution Encompasses all channels, processes, and functions, including warehousing and transportation, that a product passes on its way to final customer Often called logistics Logistics  transportation and distribution of goods and services Driving force today is speed Particularly important for Internet dot-coms
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Distribution Centers (DC) and Warehousing DCs are some of the largest business facilities in the United States Trend is for more frequent orders in smaller quantities Flow-through facilities and automated material handling Postponement  final assembly and product configuration may be done at the DC
  39. 39. Warehouse Management Systems Highly automated system that runs day-to-day operations of a DC Controls item putaway, picking, packing, and shipping Features  transportation management  order management  yard management  labor management  warehouse optimization
  40. 40. A WMS
  41. 41. Vendor-Managed Inventory Manufacturers generate orders, not distributors or retailers Stocking information is accessed using EDI A first step towards supply chain collaboration Increased speed, reduced errors, and improved service
  42. 42. Collaborative Logistics and Distribution Outsourcing Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment create greater economies of scale Internet-based exchange of data and information Significant decrease in inventory levels and more efficient logistics Companies focus on core competencies
  43. 43. Transportation• Rail • low-value, high-density, bulk products, raw materials, intermodal containers • not as economical for small loads, slower, less flexible than trucking• Trucking • main mode of freight transport in U.S. • small loads, point-to-point service, flexible • More reliable, less damage than rails; more expensive than rails for long distance
  44. 44. Transportation (cont.)• Air • most expensive and fastest, mode of freight transport • lightweight, small packages <500 lbs • high-value, perishable and critical goods • less theft• Package Delivery • small packages • fast and reliable • increased with e-Business • primary shipping mode for Internet companies
  45. 45. Transportation (cont.)• Water • low-cost shipping mode • primary means of international shipping • U.S. waterways • slowest shipping mode• Intermodal • combines several modes of shipping-truck, water and rail • key component is containers• Pipeline • transport oil and products in liquid form • high capital cost, economical use • long life and low operating cost
  46. 46. Internet Transportation Exchanges Bring together shippers and carriers Initial contact, negotiations, auctions Examples  
  47. 47. SCM Software• Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) • software that integrates components of a company by sharing and organizing information and data • SAP was first ERP software • • web enabled modules that allow collaboration between companies along the supply chain
  48. 48. Linking Supply Chain with SAP
  49. 49. Measuring Supply Chain Performance• Key performance indicators • inventory turnover • cost of annual sales per inventory unit • inventory days of supply • total value of all items being held in inventory • fill rate • fraction of orders filled by a distribution center within a specific time period
  50. 50. Key Performance Indicators Cost of goods sold Inventory turns = Average aggregate value of inventory Average aggregate value of inventory = == (average inventory for item i) X (unit value item i) Average aggregate value of inventory Days of supply = (Costs of goods sold)/(365 days)
  51. 51. Key Performance Indicators: Example1. Cost of goods sold: $425 million2. Production materials and parts: $4,629,0003. Work-in-process: $17,465,0004. Finished goods: $12,322,0005. Total average aggregate value of inventory (2+3+4): $34,416,000 $425, 000, 000 Inventory turns = = 12.3 $34,416,000 $34,416,000 Days of supply = = 29.6 ($425,000,000)/(365)
  52. 52. Other Measures of Supply Chain Performance• Process Control • used to monitor and control any process in supply chain• Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) • establish targets to achieve “best in class” performance
  53. 53. SCOR Model Processes Make DeliverPlan Source Transform Provide productsDevelop a course Procure goodsof action that best product to a to meet demand, and services tomeets sourcing, finished state to including order meet plannedproduction and meet planned management,delivery or actual or actual transportationrequirements demand demand and distribution Return Return products, post-delivery customer support
  54. 54. SCOR: Customer FacingPerformance Performance DefinitionAttribute MetricSupply Chain Delivery Percentage of orders delivered on timeDelivery performance and in full to the customerReliability Fill rate Percentage of orders shipped within24 hours of order receipt Perfect order Percentage of orders delivered on time fulfillment and in full, perfectly matched with order with no errorsSupply Chain Order fulfillment Number of days from order receipt toResponsiveness lead time customer deliverySupply Chain Supply chain Number of days for supply chain toFlexibility response time respond to an unplanned significant change in demand without a cost penalty Production Number of days to achieve an unplanned flexibility 20% change in orders without a cost penalty
  55. 55. SCOR: Internal FacingPerformance Performance DefinitionAttribute MetricSupply Chain Supply chain Direct and indirect cost to plan, source and deliver management cost products and servicesCost Cost of goods sold Direct cost of material and labor to produce a product or service Value-added Direct material cost subtracted from revenue and productivity divided by the number of employees, similar to sales per employee Warranty/returns Direct and indirect costs associated with returns processing cost including defective, planned maintenance and excess inventorySupply Chain Cash-to-cash cycle Number of days that cash is tied up as working time capitalAssetManagement Inventory days of Number of days that cash is tied up as inventory supplyEfficiency Asset turns Revenue divided by total assets including working capital and fixed assets
  56. 56. Global Supply Chain To compete globally requires an effective supply chain Information technology is an “enabler” of global trade Nations form trading groups No tariffs or duties
  57. 57. Obstacles to Global Chain Transactions• Increased documentation for invoices, cargo insurance, letters of credit, ocean bills of lading or air waybills, and inspections• Ever changing regulations that vary from country to country that govern the import and export of goods• Trade groups, tariffs, duties, and landing costs• Limited shipping modes• Differences in communication technology and availability
  58. 58. Obstacles to Global Chain Transactions (cont.)• Different business practices as well as language barriers• Government codes and reporting requirements that vary from country to country• Numerous players, including forwarding agents, custom house brokers, financial institutions, insurance providers, multiple transportation carriers, and government agencies• Since 9/11, numerous security regulations and requirements
  59. 59. Duties and Tariffs Proliferation of trade agreements Group members charge uniform tariffs Member nations have a competitive advantage within the group Trade specialists include freight forwarders, customs house brokers, export packers, and export management and trading companies
  61. 61. Landed Cost• Total cost of producing, storing, and transporting a product to the site of consumption or another port• Value added tax (VAT) • an indirect tax assessed on the increase in value of a good at any stage of production process from raw material to final product• Clicker shock • Occurs when an ordered is placed with a company that does not have the capability to calculate landed cost
  62. 62. Web-based International Trade Logistic Systems• International trade logistics web-based software systems reduce obstacles to global trade • convert language and currency • provide information on tariffs, duties, and customs processes • attach appropriate weights, measurements, and unit prices to individual products ordered over the Web • incorporate transportation costs and conversion rates • calculate shipping costs online while a company enters an order • track global shipments
  63. 63. Recent Trends in Globalization for U.S. Companies• Two significant changes • passage of NAFTA • admission of China in WTO• Electronic Industry • 70% of cost is in components • major supply chains have moved to China• Proliferation of counterfeit parts
  64. 64. Effects of 9/11 on Global Chains• Increase security measures • added time to supply chain schedules • Increased supply chain costs• 24 hours rules for “risk screening” • extended documentation • extend time by 3-4 days• Inventory levels have increased 5%• Other costs include: • new people, technologies, equipment, surveillance, communication, and security systems, and training necessary for screening at airports and seaports around the world