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Air Pressure & AirAir Pressure & Air
circulationcirculation
The answer is blowin’ in the windThe answer is blowin’ in the ...
Layers of the atmosphere:Layers of the atmosphere:
temperature shiftstemperature shifts
Pressure/ measurementPressure/ measurement
 Sea level average= 15 lbs per sq inch orSea level average= 15 lbs per sq inch...
Birth of the windsBirth of the winds
 Weather systems travel with windWeather systems travel with wind
movements:movement...
Pressure gradientsPressure gradients
HIGH
low
corioliscoriolis
Friction: only with surfaceFriction: only with surface
windswinds
 Friction bends the surface winds from aFriction bends ...
Cyclones are patterns of windCyclones are patterns of wind
flowflow
 Cyclonic circulation Pattern: upward andCyclonic cir...
Circulation patterns/ pressureCirculation patterns/ pressure
systems: Northern Hemispheresystems: Northern Hemisphere
Isobar mapIsobar map
Global scale winds:Global scale winds:
World wind & pressure beltsWorld wind & pressure belts
 World wind & pressure belt...
GLOBAL WINDSGLOBAL WINDS
Global prevailing windsGlobal prevailing winds
3 cell circulation pattern:3 cell circulation pattern:
equatorial, polar & Ferrell cellsequatorial, polar & Ferrell cells
Global flows - continuedGlobal flows - continued
 Hadley ( Equatorial) cells & world wind beltsHadley ( Equatorial) cells...
Rossby WavesRossby Waves
Polar Jet StreamPolar Jet Stream
Air masses – enabling redistributionAir masses – enabling redistribution
of energyof energy
 Classified by latitude / sur...
Global air masses, source regionsGlobal air masses, source regions
North American Source regionsNorth American Source regions
Wind / pressure systemsWind / pressure systems
 Global pressure belts – High & lowGlobal pressure belts – High & low
pres...
Monsoons & monsoonal typeMonsoons & monsoonal type
windswinds
 Monsoons - SEASONAL CHANGES IN PRESSURE &Monsoons - SEASON...
Today’s weatherToday’s weather
Monsoon windsMonsoon winds
Local windsLocal winds
 Convectional flows ( on-shore, off-shore)Convectional flows ( on-shore, off-shore)
 Mountain/val...
On shore & off Shore BreezesOn shore & off Shore Breezes
Indications of wind directionIndications of wind direction
Seasonal shift of pressure/windSeasonal shift of pressure/wind
patternspatterns
 ASIA Pacific N.Amer. Atl. EurASIA Pacifi...
January: Northern HemisphereJanuary: Northern Hemisphere
pressure systems Enc.pressure systems Enc.
BritannicaBritannica
July, northern hemishpereJuly, northern hemishpere
Southern hemisphereSouthern hemisphere
 Variations are less extreme because ofVariations are less extreme because of
the ...
RECAP: Additional wind flows-RECAP: Additional wind flows-
override prevailing winds for a timeoverride prevailing winds f...
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Airpressureback

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Airpressureback

  1. 1. Air Pressure & AirAir Pressure & Air circulationcirculation The answer is blowin’ in the windThe answer is blowin’ in the wind
  2. 2. Layers of the atmosphere:Layers of the atmosphere: temperature shiftstemperature shifts
  3. 3. Pressure/ measurementPressure/ measurement  Sea level average= 15 lbs per sq inch orSea level average= 15 lbs per sq inch or  1013mb1013mb  101,320 pascals101,320 pascals  Barometer- mercury or aneroidBarometer- mercury or aneroid  Wind direction – wind vanesWind direction – wind vanes  Directional arrows/ speedDirectional arrows/ speed
  4. 4. Birth of the windsBirth of the winds  Weather systems travel with windWeather systems travel with wind movements:movements:  A. Surface level air movements:A. Surface level air movements:  1. Pressure gradients1. Pressure gradients  2. coriolis force2. coriolis force  3. Friction3. Friction  Isobars – curved lines outlining pressureIsobars – curved lines outlining pressure regionsregions  B. Upper level winds - geostrophic ( noB. Upper level winds - geostrophic ( no
  5. 5. Pressure gradientsPressure gradients HIGH low
  6. 6. corioliscoriolis
  7. 7. Friction: only with surfaceFriction: only with surface windswinds  Friction bends the surface winds from aFriction bends the surface winds from a straight path, and a diagonal path isstraight path, and a diagonal path is formedformed High low
  8. 8. Cyclones are patterns of windCyclones are patterns of wind flowflow  Cyclonic circulation Pattern: upward andCyclonic circulation Pattern: upward and inward in the Northern Hemisphere (LOW)inward in the Northern Hemisphere (LOW)  Anticyclonic: Downward and outward inAnticyclonic: Downward and outward in the Northern Hemisphere (HIGH)the Northern Hemisphere (HIGH)  Reversed in the Southern HemisphereReversed in the Southern Hemisphere
  9. 9. Circulation patterns/ pressureCirculation patterns/ pressure systems: Northern Hemispheresystems: Northern Hemisphere
  10. 10. Isobar mapIsobar map
  11. 11. Global scale winds:Global scale winds: World wind & pressure beltsWorld wind & pressure belts  World wind & pressure belts:World wind & pressure belts:  zones –zones –  natural: Equatorial low, (ITCZ)natural: Equatorial low, (ITCZ) subtropical highs, subpolar lowssubtropical highs, subpolar lows ( outbreak) & Polar Highs( outbreak) & Polar Highs  Induced zones – products of the naturalInduced zones – products of the natural beltsbelts
  12. 12. GLOBAL WINDSGLOBAL WINDS
  13. 13. Global prevailing windsGlobal prevailing winds
  14. 14. 3 cell circulation pattern:3 cell circulation pattern: equatorial, polar & Ferrell cellsequatorial, polar & Ferrell cells
  15. 15. Global flows - continuedGlobal flows - continued  Hadley ( Equatorial) cells & world wind beltsHadley ( Equatorial) cells & world wind belts (polar & mid latitude)(polar & mid latitude)  Modifiers:Modifiers: Surface winds – convective: valley,Surface winds – convective: valley, Mountain,Mountain,  Upper level wind systems – Rossby waves, &Upper level wind systems – Rossby waves, &  jet streams (polar ( ~250 mph) westerlyjet streams (polar ( ~250 mph) westerly  ----subtropical jet ( westerly winds)----subtropical jet ( westerly winds)  Tropical easterly jet ( summer in N.Tropical easterly jet ( summer in N. Hemisphere)Hemisphere)
  16. 16. Rossby WavesRossby Waves
  17. 17. Polar Jet StreamPolar Jet Stream
  18. 18. Air masses – enabling redistributionAir masses – enabling redistribution of energyof energy  Classified by latitude / surface conditionsClassified by latitude / surface conditions of originof origin  Arctic/Antarctic ,cA(AArctic/Antarctic ,cA(A  Polar mP,cPPolar mP,cP  Tropical cT, mTTropical cT, mT  Equatorial) mEEquatorial) mE
  19. 19. Global air masses, source regionsGlobal air masses, source regions
  20. 20. North American Source regionsNorth American Source regions
  21. 21. Wind / pressure systemsWind / pressure systems  Global pressure belts – High & lowGlobal pressure belts – High & low pressure air masses give rise to windpressure air masses give rise to wind systems: global circulation.systems: global circulation.  Regional pressure belts give rise toRegional pressure belts give rise to regional wind systems: (Mistral, Bora,regional wind systems: (Mistral, Bora, chinook), Santa Anachinook), Santa Ana
  22. 22. Monsoons & monsoonal typeMonsoons & monsoonal type windswinds  Monsoons - SEASONAL CHANGES IN PRESSURE &Monsoons - SEASONAL CHANGES IN PRESSURE & WINDSWINDS  California coastal pressure changes,California coastal pressure changes,  El Nino- not a wind system per se, just generates them.El Nino- not a wind system per se, just generates them.  Monsoonal winds ( seasonal, shifting),Monsoonal winds ( seasonal, shifting),  SEASONAL CHANGES BY LATITUDE: winter – highSEASONAL CHANGES BY LATITUDE: winter – high pressure in high latitude lands, creates cool dry northerlypressure in high latitude lands, creates cool dry northerly windswinds  summer – STH over the oceans, low latitudes- bringssummer – STH over the oceans, low latitudes- brings rains to the east coasts of continents, dry air to the westrains to the east coasts of continents, dry air to the west coast of continents.coast of continents.
  23. 23. Today’s weatherToday’s weather
  24. 24. Monsoon windsMonsoon winds
  25. 25. Local windsLocal winds  Convectional flows ( on-shore, off-shore)Convectional flows ( on-shore, off-shore)  Mountain/valley breezes ( also known as)Mountain/valley breezes ( also known as)  drainage winds : Mountain, valleydrainage winds : Mountain, valley  ( Katabiatic-( Katabiatic-  ---Chinook (Foehn - Switzerland),---Chinook (Foehn - Switzerland), (Mistral France),( Bora – Adriatic (Croatia)(Mistral France),( Bora – Adriatic (Croatia)  Santa Ana ( Western U.S.)Santa Ana ( Western U.S.)
  26. 26. On shore & off Shore BreezesOn shore & off Shore Breezes
  27. 27. Indications of wind directionIndications of wind direction
  28. 28. Seasonal shift of pressure/windSeasonal shift of pressure/wind patternspatterns  ASIA Pacific N.Amer. Atl. EurASIA Pacific N.Amer. Atl. Eur  Winter: Icel.LWinter: Icel.L  Siberian H Aleutian L HawiianHSiberian H Aleutian L HawiianH  Summer:Summer:  Asiatic L Hawaiian H Azores HAsiatic L Hawaiian H Azores H
  29. 29. January: Northern HemisphereJanuary: Northern Hemisphere pressure systems Enc.pressure systems Enc. BritannicaBritannica
  30. 30. July, northern hemishpereJuly, northern hemishpere
  31. 31. Southern hemisphereSouthern hemisphere  Variations are less extreme because ofVariations are less extreme because of the dominance of water in the hemispherethe dominance of water in the hemisphere
  32. 32. RECAP: Additional wind flows-RECAP: Additional wind flows- override prevailing winds for a timeoverride prevailing winds for a time  Surface winds – convective: valley,Surface winds – convective: valley, Mountain, Upper level – Rossby waves,Mountain, Upper level – Rossby waves,  jet streams (polar ( -250 mph) westerlyjet streams (polar ( -250 mph) westerly  ----subtropical jet ( westerly winds)----subtropical jet ( westerly winds)  Tropical easterly jet ( summer in N.Tropical easterly jet ( summer in N. Hemisphere)Hemisphere)  GIVE VARIETY TO LOCAL WEATHERGIVE VARIETY TO LOCAL WEATHER PATTERNSPATTERNS

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