Essay #1: Due Friday before noon.
Send it by email to firstname.lastname@example.org by the due
date. Make sure it is in MLA format and saved as a
Microsoft Word Document.
Discussion: Lao-Tzu "Thoughts from the Tao-te Ching”
Questions for Critical Reading
Introduce Essay #2: GOVERNMENT
Suggestions for Writing: Group discussion
Teams: If you are not sitting with your new team, please
move. If you are not on a new team, please stand.
You must change
at least half of
your team after
You may never
have a new team
more than 50%
of any prior
Please join a
no more than
four people per
The second essay consists of three class
discussions: Lao-Tzu; Machiavelli, and
the application of the two philosophers‟
ideas to A Game of Thrones.
Three Lao Tzus?
The first Lao Tzu was a man named Li Erh
or Li Tan, who came from the village of
Ch'üjen in the southern Chinese state of
Ch'u. Li Erh served as historian in charge of
the official records in the Chinese imperial
capital of Loyang. He was a peer of the
famous Chinese philosopher Confucius
(551–479 B.C.E. ), and he is reported to
have given an interview to Confucius
when he came to Loyang seeking
information on the Chou ritual.
Another man identified as the
. founder of Taoism was Lao Lai
Tzu, who also came from Ch'u.
He is said to be a person of
the same age as Confucius
and is credited with a fifteenchapter book explaining the
teachings of the Taoist school.
Nothing more is known about
the second Lao Tzu
According to a third
account, the original Lao
Tzu lived 129 years after the
death of Confucius. This
man went by the name of
Tan, the historian of Chou.
Actually, it is impossible to prove the historical
accuracy of any of these accounts. Lao Tzu is not
really a person's name and is only a
complimentary name meaning "old man." It was
common in this period to refer to respected
philosophers and teachers with words meaning
"old" or "mature." It is possible that a man who
assumed the pseudonym Lao Tzu was a historical
person, but the term Lao Tzu also was used as a
substitute title to the supreme Taoist classic, Tao te
ching (Classic of the Way and the Power).
What are the rhetorical
strategies of Lao-Tzu?
Look for examples of these
rhetorical strategies as you read
Format: resembles poetry, which suggests that
the reader must read metaphorically as well as
Aphorism (A compressed statement weighty with
Paradox (a self-contradictory statement): forces
the reader to consider several sides of an issue.
The resulting confusion yields a wider range of
possibilities than would arise from a self-evident
statement. (It encourages critical analysis).
Meet with your teams for 5-7 minutes to discuss
“Questions for Critical Reading” before we answer them
1. To what extent does Lao-tzu
concern himself with individual
1. How would you describe Lao-tzu‟s
attitude toward the people?
Q: What does LaoTzu imply in verse 3
when he states that
“The Master leads by
mind and filling their
Q: Why does Lao say
and everything will
fall into place” ?
Q: If everybody did
nothing, how does
the society develop
Q: What does Lao-tzu
mean when he uses the
word „world‟ in Verse 29?
Q: What does Lao Tzu
mean when he says a
master resides at the
center of the circle at
Q: What did Laotzu mean when he
there‟s no desire,
all things are at
Q: What does it
mean to “center”
Q: What does
when he says “All
streams flow to
the sea because
it is lower than
Q: Why don‟t our
accept the Tao
Q. In verse 80 is Lao-tzu
trying to say traveling is
Q: Does Lao-tzu
alone is the
answer. Are LauTzu‟s thoughts
reflecting advice upon
himself rather than a
Essay #2: GOVERNMENT
Essay #2 will be in response to either the excerpt
from Lao-Tzu, Machiavelli, or both.
Choose your topic from "Suggestions for Writing"
on pages 32-33, prompts 1-6, or on pages 50-51
It should be a least two pages long but not longer
than three pages (excluding a works cited page).
It should be formatted MLA style.
It is due next Friday before noon.
• Meet in your teams to
discuss prompt questions 1-6.
• If we don‟t finish this in class,
please do so on your own at
Suggestions for Writing
Ad hominem: "against the man"; attacking the arguer
rather than the argument or issue.
Appeal to tradition: a proposal that something should
continue because it has traditionally existed or been
done that way.
Argument: a process of reasoning and advancing proof
about issues on which conflicting views may be held;
also, a statement or statements providing support for a
Authority: a respectable, reliable source of evidence.
Begging the question: the arguer proves his conclusion
while assuming it to already be true. The premise for his
argument is based on the truth of his conclusion. In
other words, the argument assumes to be true what it is
supposed to be proving.
Claim: the conclusion of an argument; what the arguer
is trying to prove.
Credibility: the audience's belief in the arguer's
Deduction: reasoning by which we establish that a
conclusion must be true because the statements on
which it is based are true
Ethos: the qualities of character, intelligence, and goodwill in
an argument that contribute to an audience's acceptance of
Euphemism: a pleasant or flattering expression used in place of
one that is less agreeable but possibly more accurate.
Evidence: facts or opinions that support an issue or claim; may
consist of statistics, reports of personal experience, or views of
Fallacy: an error of reasoning based on faulty use of evidence
or incorrect inference.
False analogy: assuming without sufficient proof that if objects
or processes are similar in some ways, then they are similar in
other ways as well;
Read A World of Ideas: Government: Machiavelli "The
Qualities of the Prince” pages 35-50
Post #19 Questions (TBD based on teams) for Critical
Reading : (page 50)
Post #20 QHQ Machiavelli
Study Vocabulary (Test class 12)
Consider Essay #2: Which of the prompts about Lao-Tzu
would you choose?