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Water resources


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Water resources

  1. 1. Water resources: surface and subsurface AE 315 A.Y. 2013-2014 July 04, 2013
  2. 2. Introduction to water resources  Water is spread on two third of the earth but most of the water is not useful for direct human consumption
  3. 3. Ice poles and glaciers = 2.14 %
  4. 4. Ocean and seas = 97.24 %
  5. 5. Freshwater = 0.62 %
  6. 6. 1.5 % of the total freshwater comes from……….. SURFACE WATER
  7. 7. Giving us and idea that most of the freshwater came from………. GROUNDWATER
  8. 8. In which, to much dependence in groundwater resources leads to…
  9. 9. Land subsidence  Gradual settling or sudden sinking of the Earth's surface owing to subsurface movement of earth materials (U.S. Geological Survey)
  10. 10. Water resources are replenished by precipitation in various forms like rain, snow, hail, dew etc. Rainfall is the main source and forms the major constituent of the hydrological cycle. Water gets evaporated from the various exposed bodies of water depending upon the climatic factors like temperature, R.H. and the wind speed.
  11. 11. RH or the relative humidity is the ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air to the maximum amount of vapor that air can hold at that given temperature. Lesser the RH of the air, higher the rate of evaporation as there is more deficits to be met with
  12. 12. An example is that a dew is formed at night when the temperature of the air falls down, and at that reduced temperature, the extra moisture (more than its capacity at that temperature comes out and is condensed in the form of dew).
  13. 13. Another is that trees extract the subsoil water and during their breathing process, they exhale water vapors into the atmosphere. This process is known as transpiration and the combined process of evaporation and transpiration is known as ‘evapotranspiration’.
  14. 14. QUESTIONS?
  15. 15. CASE STUDY NO. 4