Basic Videography and Editing
Prepared for KQED
October 17, 2013
Jim Foust jfoust@bgsu.edu
Basic Video Stuff
 Aspect ratio—the shape of the video screen
 4:3 or 16:9 most common

 Frame size (resolution)
 Give...
A Little About Compression
Makes video files smaller
 By altering resolution, frame rate, pixels, etc.
 Often measured b...
Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds
Shooting Soundbites
 Eyes at top third (or thereabouts)
 Lead space in direction they’re looking (frame to left or right...
Soundbite Framing
Headroom
POOR

BETTER
Examples
Soundbite Framing Grid
Soundbite Framing Examples

Story Example: Dangerous Curve
Story Example: Bee Swarm
Depth of Field

The range of distance in a given shot in which objects
are in acceptable focus.
Depth of Field

Aperture: the more open (the lower the number) the
smaller the depth of field.
Depth of Field

Subject distance: the closer the subject is to the
camera, the smaller the depth of field.
Depth of Field

Focal length: the more “zoomed in” the smaller the
depth of field.
Video Example
Basic Aesthetics
 Separation of subject from background
 Using depth of field
 Being aware of the background
Avoid bric...
Lighting
 Be aware of light situation
 Don’t shoot against windows or other strong light sources
 Use natural light to ...
Sound—Technical
 Use Lav whenever possible
 Beware of background noise
 NEVER unrelated background noise
Sound—Content
 Set expectations beforehand
 Tell interviewee a little about finished product

 Consider “Tell me about....
Equipment
AC Adapter/Charger

Camera
Batteries

USB Card Reader

SD Card
Equipment
Lav Mic
Nice long
cable

Removable (and losable) wind
screen

LR-44 watch
battery inside

Power switch: remember to turn
O...
Recommended Accessories
 Camera light
 Monopod
 KQED Tripod (currently in limbo)
 Headphones
Pre-Shoot Checklist
 Batteries charged
 SD Card ready
 Lav mic working
 Do a test shoot
Camera Controls: Left Side

Powered Image Stabilization:
press and hold for more
aggressive image stabilization

Zoom Cont...
Camera Controls: Right Side

Record Button

Mode Switch:
Set to M
Camera Controls: Behind Door

SD Card Slot

Display Button:
toggles how much
info you see on
display

Record/Play: toggles...
Make sure you’re in VIDEO Mode

Should see video cam Icon here

If not, press the
video camera icon
here to go to video
mo...
Accessing and Checking Video Settings

Access and check by pressing FUNC
Basic Camera Settings
 Auto white balance
 FUNC > WB > AWB (can just check it)

 Auto Focus (usually)
 FUNC > Focus > ...
A Simple SOT
 Green Room Video
Editing
Basic Editing Process
1.

Start editing project in FCP

2.

Import Video from camera/card

3.

Trim individual vid...
Editing
 Jump Cuts Example
 Me with Jump Cuts
 Me with Dissolve
 Me with White Flash
Story Types
Soundbite(s)
Soundbite(s) with B-roll
Nat Sound Piece (soundbites, nat, music)
Nat Sound Piece 2
Voice Over (V...
Shooting B-Roll
Shot Types
The Case Against Zooms and Pans
Some Simple Sequences
Bad Sequence
Soundbite Framing Grid
Sound...
Kqed brown bag
Kqed brown bag
Kqed brown bag
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Kqed brown bag

  1. 1. Basic Videography and Editing Prepared for KQED October 17, 2013 Jim Foust jfoust@bgsu.edu
  2. 2. Basic Video Stuff  Aspect ratio—the shape of the video screen  4:3 or 16:9 most common  Frame size (resolution)  Given as two numbers with width first  640 x 480; 320 x 240 (4:3)  1920 x 1080; 1280 x 720; 960 x 540; 480 x 270 (16:9)  Higher numbers = higher quality  Sometimes shortened to height and i or p for interlaced or progressive (720p)  Frame Rate—number of still pix per second  30 “normal” for TV; 20 or less jittery
  3. 3. A Little About Compression Makes video files smaller  By altering resolution, frame rate, pixels, etc.  Often measured by bitrate Higher bitrate = higher quality = larger file  Common Formats AVI, MOV MPEG FLV (Flash video) h264
  4. 4. Rule of Thirds
  5. 5. Rule of Thirds
  6. 6. Rule of Thirds
  7. 7. Shooting Soundbites  Eyes at top third (or thereabouts)  Lead space in direction they’re looking (frame to left or right third)  Not looking into camera, but looking slightly off camera (both eyes should be visible; both ears if possible) NO PROFILES!  Shoot in medium shot—head and shoulders Can be exceptions (wider shots) for artistic purpose As you go wider, eyes move slightly more toward top of frame, but always in vicinity of top third  Beware of distracting backgrounds  Only one person in frame  Beware of shooting from high or low angle
  8. 8. Soundbite Framing
  9. 9. Headroom POOR BETTER
  10. 10. Examples Soundbite Framing Grid Soundbite Framing Examples Story Example: Dangerous Curve Story Example: Bee Swarm
  11. 11. Depth of Field The range of distance in a given shot in which objects are in acceptable focus.
  12. 12. Depth of Field Aperture: the more open (the lower the number) the smaller the depth of field.
  13. 13. Depth of Field Subject distance: the closer the subject is to the camera, the smaller the depth of field.
  14. 14. Depth of Field Focal length: the more “zoomed in” the smaller the depth of field. Video Example
  15. 15. Basic Aesthetics  Separation of subject from background  Using depth of field  Being aware of the background Avoid brick walls, etc.  Moving subject away from the background  Ideally, in event-specific stories, the background should have something to do with story
  16. 16. Lighting  Be aware of light situation  Don’t shoot against windows or other strong light sources  Use natural light to your advantage  Move person around so window shines on them
  17. 17. Sound—Technical  Use Lav whenever possible  Beware of background noise  NEVER unrelated background noise
  18. 18. Sound—Content  Set expectations beforehand  Tell interviewee a little about finished product  Consider “Tell me about. . .” rather than actually asking questions  Remember that the story will have to stand on its own without narrative/questions
  19. 19. Equipment AC Adapter/Charger Camera Batteries USB Card Reader SD Card
  20. 20. Equipment
  21. 21. Lav Mic Nice long cable Removable (and losable) wind screen LR-44 watch battery inside Power switch: remember to turn ON when recording and OFF when done, or it will drain battery.
  22. 22. Recommended Accessories  Camera light  Monopod  KQED Tripod (currently in limbo)  Headphones
  23. 23. Pre-Shoot Checklist  Batteries charged  SD Card ready  Lav mic working  Do a test shoot
  24. 24. Camera Controls: Left Side Powered Image Stabilization: press and hold for more aggressive image stabilization Zoom Control Power Button
  25. 25. Camera Controls: Right Side Record Button Mode Switch: Set to M
  26. 26. Camera Controls: Behind Door SD Card Slot Display Button: toggles how much info you see on display Record/Play: toggles camera between record and playback mode
  27. 27. Make sure you’re in VIDEO Mode Should see video cam Icon here If not, press the video camera icon here to go to video mode
  28. 28. Accessing and Checking Video Settings Access and check by pressing FUNC
  29. 29. Basic Camera Settings  Auto white balance  FUNC > WB > AWB (can just check it)  Auto Focus (usually)  FUNC > Focus > AF  Auto Exposure  FUNC > Exposure > A  Digital Effects OFF  FUNC > Digital Effects > Off
  30. 30. A Simple SOT  Green Room Video
  31. 31. Editing Basic Editing Process 1. Start editing project in FCP 2. Import Video from camera/card 3. Trim individual video clips 4. Assemble clips on timeline 5. Export finished project
  32. 32. Editing  Jump Cuts Example  Me with Jump Cuts  Me with Dissolve  Me with White Flash
  33. 33. Story Types Soundbite(s) Soundbite(s) with B-roll Nat Sound Piece (soundbites, nat, music) Nat Sound Piece 2 Voice Over (VO) Narrative story (with reporter voice) not often used online.
  34. 34. Shooting B-Roll Shot Types The Case Against Zooms and Pans Some Simple Sequences Bad Sequence Soundbite Framing Grid Soundbite Framing Examples

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