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CLASSICAL GREECE      ii- Polis
ii- Polis
PRINCIPAL TOPICSI.Η ΔΙΚΗ (Justice personified)II. Physical Picture of the PolisIII. Agrarian RevolutionIV. Political Revol...
Η ΔΙΚΗ(JUSTICE)
Η ΔΙΚΗ     1915 was a time            when people still(JUSTICE)    made classical               allusions
Η Δικαιοσὖνη   Τό τί;“[the] Justice.“What [is] it?”      Plato, Republic
Let me read you something, as we move to the fullest claims that will be made forthe role of the polis. Aristotle in his P...
JUSTICE IN MYTHDikē was the daughter of Zeus, along with her two sisters, Eunomia (good laws) and Eirene (peace-f., cf.,Ir...
An 1886 base-relief figure of Dikē Astraea in the Old Supreme Court Chamber at                            the Vermont Stat...
THE FIVE AGES OF MANACCORDING TO HESIODGolden -men lived among the gods. Peace and harmony. Humans didn’t have to work to ...
Justice ... is an element of the polis. The administration of justice, which meansdeciding what is just, is the regulation...
VALUESHOMER’S HEROES                    AGE OF THE POLIS individualism                 group loyalty áρετή (aretē, manly  ...
THE PHYSICALPICTURE OF THE     POLIS
THE PHYSICALPICTURE OF THE     POLIS[The Athenian] Acropolis, Leo von Klenze
ATHENS--THE UNTYPICAL POLISthe largest--1,000 mi2--about the size of Rhode Islandunlike most poleis, Athens had gained con...
συνοικισµóς (synoecism)                                  The Athenians ascribed the unification of Attica                 ...
THE IDEAL POLISa place where all the male adult citizens could come to a central place andhear a speaker (about 5,000)--Ar...
“FROGS AROUND APOND” -- SOCRATES, IN THE PHAEDO
DATING THE CREATION OF THEPOLISthere are no written records from the time when towns and villages evolvedinto poleisbut it...
AGRARIANREVOLUTION
AGRARIANREVOLUTION
former Classics prof at CA Central State, author of a critical bookon the Academy, Who Killed Homer? (2001) & many others“...
Now, at some time in...the Dark Ages, and Hanson would suggest...probablyaround the eighth century is the greatest transit...
Now, at some time in...the Dark Ages, and Hanson would suggest...probablyaround the eighth century is the greatest transit...
As Hanson points out, look at the difference between this and previous [types of landtenure]. People either rented the lan...
As Hanson points out, look at the difference between this and previous [types of landtenure]. People either rented the lan...
the olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were                                                     ...
Poseidon is greedy of earthly kingdomsand once claimed possession of Attica bythrusting his trident into the Acropolis atA...
...There are getting to be more and more people living on the land of Greece…. and that leads to adesire for expansion of ...
Chapter 5. The New Farm [00:42:26]Everything is farmed in a new way...intensive farming. Its not extensive...you[don’t]sca...
Well, one of the things farmers in history discovered is that its very hard todo well as a farmer if all you do is grow th...
At the end of the 5th century BC, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote:“The people of the Mediterranean began to emerge fr...
...if youre going to succeed as a farmer, youhave to have places to store what you produce,so that you will have it for ne...
...if youre going to succeed as a farmer, youhave to have places to store what you produce,so that you will have it for ne...
Another thing that you need to                                           understand about these farms...is that           ...
Now, of course, slavery is as old almost as the human race, it certainly wasalready present in the world of Homer, but it ...
Now, of course, slavery is as old almost as the human race, it certainly wasalready present in the world of Homer, but it ...
...when you only have one or two slaves, the master is working right alongsidethem, doing exactly the same work that they ...
As Hanson says, the new farmer is not just a different kind of farmer, but adifferent kind of person. He is a citizen in h...
POLITICALREVOLUTION
POLITICALREVOLUTION
Chapter 6. Politics [00:57:09]Now, Ive talked to you essentially about the economic aspect of this phenomenon….Thenext poi...
Chapter 6. Politics [00:57:09]Now, Ive talked to you essentially about the economic aspect of this phenomenon….Thenext poi...
There is somebody in that world called a basileus, a single individual who is understood tobe superior in some way to ever...
By definition, an aristocracy is plural not singular, so how do you make decisions in anaristocracy? The answer, typically...
By definition, an aristocracy is plural not singular, so how do you make decisions in anaristocracy? The answer, typically...
However, its interesting that these Greek communities from a very early timeseem to have been different from the Mycenaean...
Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy wil...
Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy wil...
Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy wil...
When democracy is invented it will have its moment and it will spread, and there will benumerous democracies but they will...
HOPLITEREVOLUTION
HOPLITEREVOLUTION
The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods inGreece (ca. 750–350 BC) was a formation in which the hopliteswo...
The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods inGreece (ca. 750–350 BC) was a formation in which the hopliteswo...
a classical Greek hoplite is an infantryman who         carries a hoplon         The word "hoplite" (Greek: ὁπλίτης hoplit...
...these successful farmers, who also will be the fighting men who fight for theirpolis as infantrymen when the infantry b...
ὁπλίτης                                                                  hoplite...these successful farmers, who also will...
πανοπλια
helmet         shield
helmet         shield
helmet         shield
helmet         shield
helmet         shield
helmetbreastplate                        shield              greaves
offensive weapons
bronze butt spike                                        iron tip                          spear                    offens...
Positioning the hoplon                         correct
Positioning the hoplon                          wrong!                           why?                         anybody...  ...
the auxiliaries
CLASS & SOLDIER TYPESthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield cou...
Funerary loutrophoros; on the right a bearded slave                                                 carries his masters sh...
CLASS & SOLDIER TYPESthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield cou...
CLASS, SOLDIER TYPES & POLIS TYPEthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor an...
offensive weaponsthe right side
φάλαγξ                           PhalanxPHALANGE FACTA CAESAR IMPETUM IN HOSTES FECIT--DE BELLO GALLICO
traditional   phalanxEpaminondas  phalanx at Leuctra,   371 BC
THE ADVANCE              παιάν              paean
STAGES OF A HOPLITE BATTLEformal declaration of war & explicit abrogation of existing truces & treatiespre-battle ritual  ...
If anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the ...
Φόβος                                                                               terror                                ...
ΦόβοςIf anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and...
If anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the ...
Nearly every major Greek author, philosopher or statesman, despite theireducation and often élite status, served their fel...
ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ Epilogue
ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ                          Epilogue              Question from one of Kagan’s students:If the hoplite phalanx was s...
ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ So the Greeks of the Archaic period began to venture forthalong the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. T...
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
Polis, Greece session 2
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Polis, Greece session 2

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Session 2 of the Ancient Greece class covers the period 800-600 BC. It explores the foundations of Classical Greece.

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Polis, Greece session 2

  1. 1. CLASSICAL GREECE ii- Polis
  2. 2. ii- Polis
  3. 3. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI.Η ΔΙΚΗ (Justice personified)II. Physical Picture of the PolisIII. Agrarian RevolutionIV. Political RevolutionV. Hoplite Revolution
  4. 4. Η ΔΙΚΗ(JUSTICE)
  5. 5. Η ΔΙΚΗ 1915 was a time when people still(JUSTICE) made classical allusions
  6. 6. Η Δικαιοσὖνη Τό τί;“[the] Justice.“What [is] it?” Plato, Republic
  7. 7. Let me read you something, as we move to the fullest claims that will be made forthe role of the polis. Aristotle in his Politics says this: "as man is the best of theanimals when perfected, so he is the worst of all when he is divided away from thelaw and justice." But he tells us, human justice can be found only in the polis,because he says, man is by nature a politicon zoon, an animal of the polis, and as Itold you, a man who is without a polis by nature is above or below the category ofman. Kagan, op. cit.
  8. 8. JUSTICE IN MYTHDikē was the daughter of Zeus, along with her two sisters, Eunomia (good laws) and Eirene (peace-f., cf.,Irene) She ruled over human justice, while her mother Themis ruled over divine justice. Her opposite was adikia ("injustice"): in reliefs on the archaic Chest of Cypselus preserved at Olympia, a comely Dikē throttled an ugly Adikia and beat her with a stickone of her epithets was Astraea (starry), referring to her appearance as the constellation VirgoDike lived upon earth during the Golden and Silver Ages, when there were no wars or diseases, mendid not yet know how to sail, they raised fine crops. They grew greedy, however, and Dikē wassickenedshe left earth for sky. After her departure, the human race declined into the Brazen (Bronze) Age,when diseases arose
  9. 9. An 1886 base-relief figure of Dikē Astraea in the Old Supreme Court Chamber at the Vermont State House.
  10. 10. THE FIVE AGES OF MANACCORDING TO HESIODGolden -men lived among the gods. Peace and harmony. Humans didn’t have to work to feed themselves, earthprovided in abundance. They lived to a very old age in youthful bodies, died peacefullySilver -Zeus replaces Chronos. Men lived for one hundred years under dominion of their mothers. After death,humans of this age became "blessed spirits" of the underworldBrazen -Men of the Bronze Age were hard. War was their purpose and passion. Not only arms and tools, but theirvery homes were forged of bronze. The men of this age were undone by their own violent ways and left no namedspirits but dwell in the "dank house of Hades"Heroic -”the fourth age was brazen too, but nobler and more generous, being begotten by the gods on mortalmothers. They fought gloriously in the siege of Thebes, the expedition of the Argonauts, and the Trojan War. Theybecame heroes, and dwell in the Elysian Fields”--Graves, The Greek MythsIron -Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age. During this age humans live an existence of toil and misery. Childrendishonor their parents, brother fights with brother and the social contract between guest and host is forgotten.During this age might makes right, and bad men use lies to be thought good Wikipedia
  11. 11. Justice ... is an element of the polis. The administration of justice, which meansdeciding what is just, is the regulation of the partnership which is the polis. Mancant live without the polis, justice exists only in the polis, the polis is somethingmore than a place, its more than the walls, its more than the ships, it is somekind of a thing that is spiritual it seems to me. Kagan
  12. 12. VALUESHOMER’S HEROES AGE OF THE POLIS individualism group loyalty áρετή (aretē, manly δική (dikē, justice) excellence) all the heroic values κλέος (kleos, glory) but subordinated τιµή (timē, honor, respect) ἄγον (āgon; struggle, competition)
  13. 13. THE PHYSICALPICTURE OF THE POLIS
  14. 14. THE PHYSICALPICTURE OF THE POLIS[The Athenian] Acropolis, Leo von Klenze
  15. 15. ATHENS--THE UNTYPICAL POLISthe largest--1,000 mi2--about the size of Rhode Islandunlike most poleis, Athens had gained control of the whole region of Atticaall who lived there, even in villages 60 miles from Athens, were Atheniancitizens [subject to qualifications, of course!]this was the famous συνοικισµóς (synoicism--literally, “together in the samehousehold”) of Attica, accomplished during the 8th and 7th centuriesall told, there are between 1,000 and 1,500 poleis, most of them much tinierAthens’ population? “at full bloom, 40-50,000 men, human beings, 125,-300,000”
  16. 16. συνοικισµóς (synoecism) The Athenians ascribed the unification of Attica to their greatest hero, Theseus….In the Athenian account of synoecism, Theseus created a political unity by proclamation, abolishing the governments of the other towns and villages and forging a single government in Athens. Later on, the unification of Attica was celebrated in a festival called the Synoikia, believed to have been instituted by Theseus. In making Theseus the founder of the polis, the Athenians followed the common Greek practice of attributing importantevents of the preliterate period to some great figure from the legendary past….theinhabitants of Attica cherished a belief that they were autochthonous (sprungfrom the land) and thus had always lived in Attica and shared a common kinship. Pomeroy & al. Ancient Greece; A Political, Social and Cultural History. 2008. pp. 181-182
  17. 17. THE IDEAL POLISa place where all the male adult citizens could come to a central place andhear a speaker (about 5,000)--AristotlePlato chose the “magical” number of 5,040 (factorial 7!)Plato also took notice of the fact that 5040 can be divided by 12 twice over.Indeed, Platos repeated insistence on the use of 5040 for various statepurposes is so evident that it is written, "Plato, writing under Pythagoreaninfluences, seems really to have supposed that the well-being of the citydepended almost as much on the number 5040 as on justice andmoderation."most poleis were well under 5,000 adult males--Kagan
  18. 18. “FROGS AROUND APOND” -- SOCRATES, IN THE PHAEDO
  19. 19. DATING THE CREATION OF THEPOLISthere are no written records from the time when towns and villages evolvedinto poleisbut it is easier to date the foundation of overseas Greek colonies the Greeks had traditional dates for their foundation in the 8th & 7th centuries archaeological evidence roughly supports these legendary dates and every colony was organized along the lines of a polisso the surmise is that they followed the patterns of their mainland µήτηρ πολις(mētēr polis mother state) who must have so developed in the 8th & 7th centuries
  20. 20. AGRARIANREVOLUTION
  21. 21. AGRARIANREVOLUTION
  22. 22. former Classics prof at CA Central State, author of a critical bookon the Academy, Who Killed Homer? (2001) & many others“...he is also a farmer and he was, I think, in the fifth generationthat had farmed the same piece of farmland in California, in theCentral Valley of California“that climate, that whole scene is very similar to theMediterranean climate that the Greek farmers were engaged in;so it had...proper analogous possibilities“… he came to the conclusion that much could be learned aboutthe development of the polis if one looked at the business of howone farms in these kinds of environments Victor Davis Hanson (1953-)“And I think that turns out to be a great key to understandingwhats happening, and everything you hear from me on thissubject I learned from Hanson.”--Donald Kagan
  23. 23. Now, at some time in...the Dark Ages, and Hanson would suggest...probablyaround the eighth century is the greatest transition. Somehow the oikos[household, family] obtains a chunk of land that is understood to belong to it.The Greek word for that is a kleros, and...now the family knows that it has thisland: it has it now, it will have it next year, the family will be able to pass it onfrom father to son…. and that changes everything! That kind of stability givespromise and is a basis for making every...necessary investment in the soil...inorder to make it better and more profitable for you.... As Hanson says, thusarose the kleros, or the idea of a privately held plot attached not [only] to anyone person, but rather in perpetuity to a single farm family or oikos. Kagan
  24. 24. Now, at some time in...the Dark Ages, and Hanson would suggest...probablyaround the eighth century is the greatest transition. Somehow the oikos[household, family] obtains a chunk of land that is understood to belong to it.The Greek word for that is a kleros, and...now the family knows that it has thisland: it has it now, it will have it next year, the family will be able to pass it onfrom father to son…. and that changes everything! That kind of stability givespromise and is a basis for making every...necessary investment in the soil...inorder to make it better and more profitable for you.... As Hanson says, thusarose the kleros, or the idea of a privately held plot attached not [only] to anyone person, but rather in perpetuity to a single farm family or oikos. Kagan
  25. 25. As Hanson points out, look at the difference between this and previous [types of landtenure]. People either rented the land from a large landowner or they were hired helpwho got nothing except a salary or a piece of what they did. Serfs were compelled towork the land, or in some places even slaves. Well, they have no incentive, [let alone the]capacity, to invest capital for the purpose of improving the [amount] and quality of thetheir crops, their trees, their vines. They would not be willing to take the risk withoutclear title to the land. That is the critical thing. Once they have it, and they plantpermanent crops, that changes the whole basis of society and the values, and theattitudes that go with it. In short, according to Hanson, it is the invention of the familyfarm that is the critical [event] in this very, very important moment in the history of thehuman race and there certainly is no example of it that I know of, apart from Greece,when it happens right about this period. [Of course,] none of this happens overnight.[These changes are taking place from about 900 to 700 BC] I would... guess at anincreasing pace as [time progressed]. Then...the population grows. For this thearchaeological evidence is very strong. There are...more and more people living on theland of Greece…. The more people you have, up to a point, thats good. There are morepeople who can work to increase the production. But beyond that point there are morepeople to feed than the [farming] can produce, and that leads to a [need to expand] ofthe land available for cultivation. Kagan
  26. 26. As Hanson points out, look at the difference between this and previous [types of landtenure]. People either rented the land from a large landowner or they were hired helpwho got nothing except a salary or a piece of what they did. Serfs were compelled towork the land, or in some places even slaves. Well, they have no incentive, [let alone the]capacity, to invest capital for the purpose of improving the [amount] and quality of thetheir crops, their trees, their vines. They would not be willing to take the risk withoutclear title to the land. That is the critical thing. Once they have it, and they plantpermanent crops, that changes the whole basis of society and the values, and theattitudes that go with it. In short, according to Hanson, it is the invention of the familyfarm that is the critical [event] in this very, very important moment in the history of thehuman race and there certainly is no example of it that I know of, apart from Greece,when it happens right about this period. [Of course,] none of this happens overnight.[These changes are taking place from about 900 to 700 BC] I would... guess at anincreasing pace as [time progressed]. Then...the population grows. For this thearchaeological evidence is very strong. There are...more and more people living on theland of Greece…. The more people you have, up to a point, thats good. There are morepeople who can work to increase the production. But beyond that point there are morepeople to feed than the [farming] can produce, and that leads to a [need to expand] ofthe land available for cultivation. Kagan
  27. 27. the olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Archeological evidence suggest that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2,500 BC Homer called it "liquid gold." In ancient Greece, athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal, magical, an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power indeed the importance of the olive industry in ancient economies cannot be overstatedOlive oil production in Klazomenai, an ancient city the tree is extremely hardy and its useful lifespan can be measuredof Ionia( now, near Urla, Izmir, Turkey) in centuries. Its wide and deep root system ensures its survival without additional watering, even in the water-sparse Mediterranean
  28. 28. Poseidon is greedy of earthly kingdomsand once claimed possession of Attica bythrusting his trident into the Acropolis atAthens, where a well of sea-waterimmediately gushed out and is still to beseen; when the South Wind blows youmay hear the sound of the surf far below.Later, during the reign of Cecrops,Athene came and took possession in agentler manner, by planting the first olivetree beside the well. Poseidon, in a fury,challenged her to single combat, and hadnot Zeus interposed and ordered them to submit the dispute to arbitration, Athene wouldhave accepted the challenge. Presently, then, they appeared before a divine court, consistingof their fellow-deities, who called upon Cecrops to give evidence. Zeus himself expressed noopinion, but while the other gods supported Poseidon, all the goddesses supported Athene.Thus, by a majority of one, the court decided that Athene had the better right to the land,because she had given the better gift….Whereupon she took up her abode in Athens, and called that city after herself. However, toappease Poseidon’s wrath, the women of Athens were deprived of the vote, and the men tobear their mother’s name as hitherto. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths. 1992. pp. 59-60
  29. 29. ...There are getting to be more and more people living on the land of Greece…. and that leads to adesire for expansion of the land available for cultivation.Now, there are a couple of ways that can go; one that was...important and again itssomething that Hanson emphasizes, is what he calls internal colonization. When you areengaged in agriculture, its natural to go first to...the most fertile soil. But now, when youneed more, you cant just say I only want the best bottom land there is. You move out tosomeplace that nobody bothered to farm before, because it wasnt profitable enough. So,marginal land is brought into play with hard work and ingenuity, and this is one of thethings that Hanson emphasizes that is so helpful. You must be a farmer to understandthese things — not everything that you try works. I think the picture he paints of farmingreminds us of the picture that Homer paints of human condition: [the image of] the twojars of Zeus. Most of the luck is bad; its hard to succeed, and with some combination ofluck, skill, determination and hard work all of that will decide which of these farmers willbe successful and which will not.There will be success and there will be failure. Hanson says, "[this was] the real beginningin the West of individual property holding on a large scale.” Hanson himself has a farmthat specializes in grapes for the purpose of producing raisins…. He points out that theknowledge of how to do this, of how to grow the kind of grapes you want, viticulture, andalso arboriculture, both of these, are learned from Asia. The Asians were ahead and theend of the isolation of Greece made possible [this cultural diffusion].... Kagan
  30. 30. Chapter 5. The New Farm [00:42:26]Everything is farmed in a new way...intensive farming. Its not extensive...you[don’t]scatter your stuff over wide fields.... Every piece of soil is necessary. A lot of it cantproduce the crop you would most like to grow. So, you find another crop that will growthere that can be useful.... So, you have varied crops...the ones that are [native to] aMediterranean climate. Everybody needs grain; bread is the stuff of life.... So ...you growit where you can, if not, you have to get it elsewhere. Olives, for the purposes that Imentioned to you the other day that is a very important one. Vegetables can be grownmany times in places where you could never grow wheat or grain. Fruits from the trees...Now, observe several things about them. [These crops] together will make up everythingyou need to live. All the food groups are represented there. I have left out meat and fish,of course, neither of them very [widely consumed] in this part of the world, … there weresheep and there were goats, even [though] beef would have been very [costly]. But whatyou need to understand about the Greeks is that they dont eat a lot of meat. Now, youmight say, how come no fish? I mean, theyre surrounded by water.... Well, guess what, itturns out fish dont live everywhere in the water and they dont live very much aroundGreece as it turns out. I dont mean no fish, but no sort of major schools of fish. This isnot the banks of Newfoundland and the Greeks do eat fish, but not a lot. So, their diet is alittle bit of that — some of their protein from that, then bread, olive oil, fruit, vegetables,cheese, milk, those kinds of things they can [manage]. Kagan
  31. 31. Well, one of the things farmers in history discovered is that its very hard todo well as a farmer if all you do is grow the crops, because people normallydont use what you grow in the form in which you grow it. Im thinking againof grapes and olives; they made mostly olive oil and wine….Now, if youre a poor farmer, you dont know what else to do. So, you send itoff to a middleman who does the turning of the grapes and the olives into theliquids that are necessary, and he takes a good bit of the profit. But thesefarmers didnt do that. They acquired the equipment necessary; grape andolive presses which allowed them to purify and to make the final product, andthat made for more success than they otherwise would have had…. Kagan
  32. 32. At the end of the 5th century BC, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote:“The people of the Mediterranean began to emerge frombarbarism when they learnt to cultivate the olive and the vine.”The time period to which Thucydides was most likely referring was between3000 BC and 2000 BC [before the period we’ve just been considering] whenviticulture emerged in force in the areas of Asia Minor, Crete, Greece and theCyclades of the Aegean Sea. It was during this period that grape cultivationmoved from being just an aspect of local consumption to an importantcomponent of local economies and trade. Wikipedia
  33. 33. ...if youre going to succeed as a farmer, youhave to have places to store what you produce,so that you will have it for next year when youneed it.... if you have a surplus...you can sell it.Probably in the early days, this was largely aquestion of barter. You could trade it in forthose things that you didnt make yourself andneeded. But in any case, it is a profit, but its nogood if its going to spoil. So its important torealize the role of ceramics; they need to makestorage jars that could be sealed very well andpreserve the stuff for a very long time, andindeed, they did that. KaganAs the result of its relative durability, pottery is alarge part of the archaeological record of AncientGreece, and because there is so much of it (some100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpusvasorum antiquorum) it has exerted adisproportionately large influence on ourunderstanding of Greek society.…the shards ofpots discarded or buried in the first millenniumBC are still the best guide we have to thecustomary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. Wikipedia domestic amphora transport amphora
  34. 34. ...if youre going to succeed as a farmer, youhave to have places to store what you produce,so that you will have it for next year when youneed it.... if you have a surplus...you can sell it.Probably in the early days, this was largely aquestion of barter. You could trade it in forthose things that you didnt make yourself andneeded. But in any case, it is a profit, but its nogood if its going to spoil. So its important torealize the role of ceramics; they need to makestorage jars that could be sealed very well andpreserve the stuff for a very long time, andindeed, they did that. KaganAs the result of its relative durability, pottery is alarge part of the archaeological record of AncientGreece, and because there is so much of it (some100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpusvasorum antiquorum) it has exerted adisproportionately large influence on ourunderstanding of Greek society.…the shards ofpots discarded or buried in the first millenniumBC are still the best guide we have to thecustomary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. Wikipedia domestic amphora transport amphora
  35. 35. Another thing that you need to understand about these farms...is that they are...really small. Maybe a typical farm is ten acres; that is a very small farm. We are talking not about the emergence of an agricultural aristocracy, we are talking about the emergence of an agricultural community of small family farms. One of the things that come with the development of this kind of agriculture as the polis is coming into being is slavery. Phlyax scene: a master and his slave.From a Silician red-figured calyx-krater ca. 350 BC–340 BC
  36. 36. Now, of course, slavery is as old almost as the human race, it certainly wasalready present in the world of Homer, but it [seems] in the Dark Agesthere were few slaves because owning slaves requires wealth. You cant haveslaves without wealth, because you must feed them at the very least, …deadslaves are no good to you. If a slave dies you must buy a new [one], andwhile hes alive you must feed him. So, [in] a very poor society, youre notgoing to see much slavery, but it is true, that as the family farm Ive beendescribing comes into being, a way is found to use slaves [profitably].The reason is, if you are just engaged in a single crop farming, well youplant it, you take care of it, and then when the time comes, you reap it.What do you do in between? Well, theres not much to do. So, you have tofeed the slave all year round to work only a small part of the time, thats notvery profitable. But [at] Hansons farm, as I like to think of it, there is workto do all year round, because different crops need attention at differenttimes...and some of them need very hard work, so theres plenty of work tobe done. At these small farms, you should imagine [the family] had one ortwo slaves. [Only at the silver mines of Laurium or the shipyards do you seelarge gangs of slaves] Kagan
  37. 37. Now, of course, slavery is as old almost as the human race, it certainly wasalready present in the world of Homer, but it [seems] in the Dark Agesthere were few slaves because owning slaves requires wealth. You cant haveslaves without wealth, because you must feed them at the very least, …deadslaves are no good to you. If a slave dies you must buy a new [one], andwhile hes alive you must feed him. So, [in] a very poor society, youre notgoing to see much slavery, but it is true, that as the family farm Ive beendescribing comes into being, a way is found to use slaves [profitably].The reason is, if you are just engaged in a single crop farming, well youplant it, you take care of it, and then when the time comes, you reap it.What do you do in between? Well, theres not much to do. So, you have tofeed the slave all year round to work only a small part of the time, thats notvery profitable. But [at] Hansons farm, as I like to think of it, there is workto do all year round, because different crops need attention at differenttimes...and some of them need very hard work, so theres plenty of work tobe done. At these small farms, you should imagine [the family] had one ortwo slaves. [Only at the silver mines of Laurium or the shipyards do you seelarge gangs of slaves] Kagan
  38. 38. ...when you only have one or two slaves, the master is working right alongsidethem, doing exactly the same work that they are doing, and also instructing themand telling them whats what. If you want to really understand this in a practicalsense, its more as though these guys are hired hands. I mean, they live in thehouse, they get fed, probably with everybody else, they work with the master; thedifference being that they are slaves rather than free men.One of the funny things is that the emergence of this family farm gives rise to thepolis character as a land in which there is a citizenry, which is to say free menwho rule themselves. So, the polis will see the invention of freedom in this way,and oddly enough, it is accompanied by the growth of slavery at the same time.Both slavery and freedom come along at the same time in the Greek world….As Hanson points out, only in early Greece did independent agrarians have freetitle to their land, own slaves, and ultimately...come to have control of their owncommunities. Although the political development came late in the process, it didcome. Kagan
  39. 39. As Hanson says, the new farmer is not just a different kind of farmer, but adifferent kind of person. He is a citizen in his political role, he is a soldier but he isa soldier not in the pay or the hire of a king, or of an aristocracy; he is a citizensoldier who has participated in the decision that says it is time to go to war andwho will play an active role in making decisions about his states policy andbehavior. He is independent in a way that nobody who was not a king or anaristocrat in the past has ever been — a new kind of man, the backbone of thepolis as it emerges. I dont want to overstate this. There is still an aristocracy madeup of the old guys and they dont just disappear and there will be a long stretch inwhich there will be some degree of conflict between these new independentfarmers and the old established aristocracy, and never does that aristocracy goaway, thats old. Im simply emphasizing whats new in the situation and its verynew indeed. Kagan
  40. 40. POLITICALREVOLUTION
  41. 41. POLITICALREVOLUTION
  42. 42. Chapter 6. Politics [00:57:09]Now, Ive talked to you essentially about the economic aspect of this phenomenon….Thenext point is... politics.In the world of Mycenae there was a despotism of sorts, some kind of a lord, a king, forlack of a better name, a monarch who fundamentally rules and everybody is subject tohim. He has an aristocracy around him, he has a lot of helpers, but hes the boss and thatswhat you see in the world everywhere else.After that, if you examine as best we can the cities of the Dark Ages and ask what kind ofgovernment...would these communities have had, you probably wouldnt do badly if youlooked at the Odyssey for the best clues you could find. Of course, they wont be perfect,theres a mixed character of the world of Homer, but still, if you look at the world ofOdysseus, his home, whats going on in Ithaca, there are some valuable clues. Kagan
  43. 43. Chapter 6. Politics [00:57:09]Now, Ive talked to you essentially about the economic aspect of this phenomenon….Thenext point is... politics.In the world of Mycenae there was a despotism of sorts, some kind of a lord, a king, forlack of a better name, a monarch who fundamentally rules and everybody is subject tohim. He has an aristocracy around him, he has a lot of helpers, but hes the boss and thatswhat you see in the world everywhere else.After that, if you examine as best we can the cities of the Dark Ages and ask what kind ofgovernment...would these communities have had, you probably wouldnt do badly if youlooked at the Odyssey for the best clues you could find. Of course, they wont be perfect,theres a mixed character of the world of Homer, but still, if you look at the world ofOdysseus, his home, whats going on in Ithaca, there are some valuable clues. Kagan
  44. 44. There is somebody in that world called a basileus, a single individual who is understood tobe superior in some way to everybody else. However, hes not very superior to everybodyelse. He has all of these noblemen around him, all of whom claim to be basileis. A fairerway to put this would be that this is largely an aristocratic society. That was our conclusionafter we looked at the poems of Homer, and thats what continues, even after the world ofMycenae.People who had power by virtue of their wealth, by virtue of their personal physicalstrength maybe, by virtue of their descent, birth always was a critical criterion in the daysof the aristocracies. You would have aristocracies who would have the practical, the defacto control of things. Kagan
  45. 45. By definition, an aristocracy is plural not singular, so how do you make decisions in anaristocracy? The answer, typically, is a council. I use the word council, the Greek word isboulē (βουλή), and not assembly, which in Greek comes to be called ecclesia (εκκλησια) ,because an ecclesia is understood to be a gathering of the entire adult male population,and a boulē is understood to be not a gathering of the whole, but rather a smaller groupwho has some degree of authority, and I suggest that in the earliest days they had all theauthority that mattered. Kagan
  46. 46. By definition, an aristocracy is plural not singular, so how do you make decisions in anaristocracy? The answer, typically, is a council. I use the word council, the Greek word isboulē (βουλή), and not assembly, which in Greek comes to be called ecclesia (εκκλησια) ,because an ecclesia is understood to be a gathering of the entire adult male population,and a boulē is understood to be not a gathering of the whole, but rather a smaller groupwho has some degree of authority, and I suggest that in the earliest days they had all theauthority that mattered. Kagan
  47. 47. However, its interesting that these Greek communities from a very early timeseem to have been different from the Mycenaean by virtue of the fact that themen who fought in the army always seemed to have had to be consulted when itcame to a question of war, and so you always had an assembly, even in anaristocratic state. But decisions in general were made by aristocrats. Moreover,the law was interpreted, spoken, and to the degree it had to be enforced by thearistocrats working through a council in their community. These councils mighthave been elective from within the aristocracy or they could have been simply thewhole aristocracy, depending on the size of the community. You cant have afunctioning council if it gets to be too big. Kagan
  48. 48. Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy will be able to hold on for a very long time and to suppressany attempt to change things. Other times, and this will be...very significant, thedissatisfied people in the society, mainly these farmers Im talking about, will gettogether...and engage in what amounts to a kind of a revolution or at least a coup, andbring about a different kind of a monarchy which the Greeks called a tyranny.When these tyrannies take place, they last for different periods of time, but when thetyrant is removed, what follows after that...is never again in that town a one-man ruleof any kind. Either what is established after the tyranny is an oligarchy [but notice I didntsay an aristocracy]. An oligarchy means “rule of the few”, but what changes is it is nolonger the rule of those few who are born in the right place, it will be based upon thewealth of those people and that means that the newly wealthy, or the newly...reasonablywell-off will participate in their government and the form of government which isoligarchy will be throughout the classical period the most characteristic form ofgovernment in Greek city states. [emphasis added, jbp] Kagan
  49. 49. Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy will be able to hold on for a very long time and to suppressany attempt to change things. Other times, and this will be...very significant, thedissatisfied people in the society, mainly these farmers Im talking about, will gettogether...and engage in what amounts to a kind of a revolution or at least a coup, andbring about a different kind of a monarchy which the Greeks called a tyranny.When these tyrannies take place, they last for different periods of time, but when thetyrant is removed, what follows after that...is never again in that town a one-man ruleof any kind. Either what is established after the tyranny is an oligarchy [but notice I didntsay an aristocracy]. An oligarchy means “rule of the few”, but what changes is it is nolonger the rule of those few who are born in the right place, it will be based upon thewealth of those people and that means that the newly wealthy, or the newly...reasonablywell-off will participate in their government and the form of government which isoligarchy will be throughout the classical period the most characteristic form ofgovernment in Greek city states. [emphasis added, jbp] Kagan Harmodius & Aristogeton kill the tyrant Hipparchus
  50. 50. Thats where you start; thats the Dark Ages….the results will be different in every state.Sometimes the old aristocracy will be able to hold on for a very long time and to suppressany attempt to change things. Other times, and this will be...very significant, thedissatisfied people in the society, mainly these farmers Im talking about, will gettogether...and engage in what amounts to a kind of a revolution or at least a coup, andbring about a different kind of a monarchy which the Greeks called a tyranny.When these tyrannies take place, they last for different periods of time, but when thetyrant is removed, what follows after that...is never again in that town a one-man ruleof any kind. Either what is established after the tyranny is an oligarchy [but notice I didntsay an aristocracy]. An oligarchy means “rule of the few”, but what changes is it is nolonger the rule of those few who are born in the right place, it will be based upon thewealth of those people and that means that the newly wealthy, or the newly...reasonablywell-off will participate in their government and the form of government which isoligarchy will be throughout the classical period the most characteristic form ofgovernment in Greek city states. [emphasis added, jbp] Kagan
  51. 51. When democracy is invented it will have its moment and it will spread, and there will benumerous democracies but they will never be the majority of the poleis. The typical poliswill be a kind of a Hanson farmer outfit, where people from that class and up, willparticipate in politics, will be the governing bodies in their state. They will be the ones whocontinue to fight in that infantry that is decisive for the state, and they will be the oneswho make decisions, and the people poorer than them will be excluded. So, its veryimportant to realize that these family farmers, who are successful, do not necessarily leadto democracy. Indeed it is an unusual outcome when they end up with democracy. Kagan
  52. 52. HOPLITEREVOLUTION
  53. 53. HOPLITEREVOLUTION
  54. 54. The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods inGreece (ca. 750–350 BC) was a formation in which the hopliteswould line up in ranks in close order. The hoplites would locktheir shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers wouldproject their spears out over the first rank of shields. Thephalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spearpoints to the enemy, making frontal assaults much moredifficult. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to beactively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than justthose in the front rank). Wikipedia
  55. 55. The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods inGreece (ca. 750–350 BC) was a formation in which the hopliteswould line up in ranks in close order. The hoplites would locktheir shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers wouldproject their spears out over the first rank of shields. Thephalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spearpoints to the enemy, making frontal assaults much moredifficult. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to beactively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than justthose in the front rank). Wikipedia
  56. 56. a classical Greek hoplite is an infantryman who carries a hoplon The word "hoplite" (Greek: ὁπλίτης hoplitēs; pl. ὁπλίται hoplitai) derives from "hoplon" (ὅπλον, plural hopla ὅπλα), the type of the shield used by the soldiers this type of warfare develops contemporaneously‘όπλον with the rise of the polis and the formation knownHoplon as the phalanx
  57. 57. ...these successful farmers, who also will be the fighting men who fight for theirpolis as infantrymen when the infantry becomes the critically important part ofthe army. These men, the combination of their independence, their wealth — theydo have wealth, they amount to something -- and their role as soldiers makesthem demand a larger voice in the government of the state, in the decisions thataffect them so closely. They will be finding different ways to insist on theirinclusion and the results will be different in every state. Kagan
  58. 58. ὁπλίτης hoplite...these successful farmers, who also will be the fighting men who fight for theirpolis as infantrymen when the infantry becomes the critically important part ofthe army. These men, the combination of their independence, their wealth — theydo have wealth, they amount to something -- and their role as soldiers makesthem demand a larger voice in the government of the state, in the decisions thataffect them so closely. They will be finding different ways to insist on theirinclusion and the results will be different in every state. Kagan Defensive equipment
  59. 59. πανοπλια
  60. 60. helmet shield
  61. 61. helmet shield
  62. 62. helmet shield
  63. 63. helmet shield
  64. 64. helmet shield
  65. 65. helmetbreastplate shield greaves
  66. 66. offensive weapons
  67. 67. bronze butt spike iron tip spear offensive weapons δόρυξίφος doryxiphossword
  68. 68. Positioning the hoplon correct
  69. 69. Positioning the hoplon wrong! why? anybody... anybody...
  70. 70. the auxiliaries
  71. 71. CLASS & SOLDIER TYPESthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield could fight as hoplitesthe poorer men came to war as peltasts (slingers), archers, or javelinthrowers; or else they served as servants. They also were the most likely tobe the scavengers of the battle field, looking for booty among the fallen
  72. 72. Funerary loutrophoros; on the right a bearded slave carries his masters shield and helm,CLASS & SOLDIER TYPES 380–370 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athensthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield could fight as hoplitesthe poorer men came to war as peltasts (slingers), archers, or javelinthrowers; or else they served as servants. They also were the most likely tobe the scavengers of the battle field, looking for booty among the fallen
  73. 73. CLASS & SOLDIER TYPESthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield could fight as hoplitesthe poorer men came to war as peltasts (slingers), archers, or javelinthrowers; or else they served as servants. They also were the most likely tobe the scavengers of the battle field, looking for booty among the fallenthe wealthiest came as cavalry
  74. 74. CLASS, SOLDIER TYPES & POLIS TYPEthe polis never supplied panoplies so only those wealthy enough to buy thebronze armor and shield could fight as hoplitesthe poorer men came to war as peltasts (slingers), archers, or javelinthrowers; or else they served as servants. They also were the most likely tobe the scavengers of the battle field, looking for booty among the fallenthe wealthiest came as cavalryAristotle, in the Politics, remarked that if the predominant arm of the poliswas cavalry it was most likely an aristocratic state; hoplites, an oligarchy; anavy, democracy
  75. 75. offensive weaponsthe right side
  76. 76. φάλαγξ PhalanxPHALANGE FACTA CAESAR IMPETUM IN HOSTES FECIT--DE BELLO GALLICO
  77. 77. traditional phalanxEpaminondas phalanx at Leuctra, 371 BC
  78. 78. THE ADVANCE παιάν paean
  79. 79. STAGES OF A HOPLITE BATTLEformal declaration of war & explicit abrogation of existing truces & treatiespre-battle ritual selection of appropriate site public sacrifice of a domesticated animal and brief harangue by the commandershock collision between phalanxes until one or the other breakscessation of the killingpost mortem accord combination of Hanson & Kagan
  80. 80. If anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the urgency for group solidarity in the confinesof the phalanx gave positive momentum to ideas of civic responsibility andegalitarianism, and formed the emotional and spiritual substructure of much ofarchaic Greek sculpture, painting and literature. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 55
  81. 81. Φόβος terror in battleIf anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the urgency for group solidarity in the confinesof the phalanx gave positive momentum to ideas of civic responsibility andegalitarianism, and formed the emotional and spiritual substructure of much ofarchaic Greek sculpture, painting and literature. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 55
  82. 82. ΦόβοςIf anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the urgency for group solidarity in the confinesof the phalanx gave positive momentum to ideas of civic responsibility andegalitarianism, and formed the emotional and spiritual substructure of much ofarchaic Greek sculpture, painting and literature. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 55
  83. 83. If anything, the sheer terror of hoplite battle, the courage needed to stare at awall of spears across the plain, and the urgency for group solidarity in the confinesof the phalanx gave positive momentum to ideas of civic responsibility andegalitarianism, and formed the emotional and spiritual substructure of much ofarchaic Greek sculpture, painting and literature. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 55
  84. 84. Nearly every major Greek author, philosopher or statesman, despite theireducation and often élite status, served their fellow citizens in the front line ofbattle: Archilochus, Tyrtaeus, Aeschylus, Miltiades, Themistocles, Aristides,Sophocles, Pericles, Socrates, Thucydides, Alcibiades, Xenophon, Demosthenesand others too numerous to mention at some time wore a breastplate and killedanother human--something historians and literary critics should always keep inmind when they assess the character and ideology of Greek politics, art,philosophy and literature. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, pp. 55-56
  85. 85. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ Epilogue
  86. 86. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ Epilogue Question from one of Kagan’s students:If the hoplite phalanx was so stunningly successful againstthe armies of other nations, why didn’t they simply adopt the tactic instead of hiring Greek mercenaries?
  87. 87. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ So the Greeks of the Archaic period began to venture forthalong the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Theirpoleis often experimented with the political form which they called τυραννεια (tyranny). But, that’s another story...

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