Pal gov.tutorial2.session3.xml schemas

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Pal gov.tutorial2.session3.xml schemas

  1. 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial II: Data Integration and Open Information Systems Session3 XML Schemas Dr. Ismail M. Romi Palestine Polytechnic University PalGov © 2011 1
  2. 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  3. 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  4. 4. Tutorial Map Topic h Intended Learning Objectives Session 1: XML Basics and Namespaces 3A: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: XML DTD’s 3 2a1: Describe tree and graph data models. Session 3: XML Schemas 3 2a2: Understand the notation of XML, RDF, RDFS, and OWL. Session 4: Lab-XML Schemas 3 2a3: Demonstrate knowledge about querying techniques for data models as SPARQL and XPath. Session 5: RDF and RDFs 3 2a4: Explain the concepts of identity management and Linked data. Session 6: Lab-RDF and RDFs 3 2a5: Demonstrate knowledge about Integration &fusion of Session 7: OWL (Ontology Web Language) 3 heterogeneous data. Session 8: Lab-OWL 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 9: Lab-RDF Stores -Challenges and Solutions 3 2b1: Represent data using tree and graph data models (XML & Session 10: Lab-SPARQL 3 RDF). Session 11: Lab-Oracle Semantic Technology 3 2b2: Describe data semantics using RDFS and OWL. Session 12_1: The problem of Data Integration 1.5 2b3: Manage and query data represented in RDF, XML, OWL. Session 12_2: Architectural Solutions for the Integration Issues 1.5 2b4: Integrate and fuse heterogeneous data. Session 13_1: Data Schema Integration 1C: Professional and Practical Skills Session 13_2: GAV and LAV Integration 1 2c1: Using Oracle Semantic Technology and/or Virtuoso to store Session 13_3: Data Integration and Fusion using RDF 1 and query RDF stores. Session 14: Lab-Data Integration and Fusion using RDF 3D: General and Transferable Skills 2d1: Working with team. Session 15_1: Data Web and Linked Data 1.5 2d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 15_2: RDFa 1.5 2d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. 2d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 16: Lab-RDFa 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  5. 5. Session ILO’s:After completing this session students will be able to: •Manage data represented in XML. •Represent data using tree and graph data models. •Build Well-Formed XML Document. PalGov © 2011 5
  6. 6. Session4: XML SchemasSession Overview:<Benefits of XML Schemas /><How to create and use XML Schemas/><How to document your XML Schemas/> PalGov © 2011 6
  7. 7. XML Schema• The term XML Schema is used to refer to the specific W3C XML Schema technology.• W3C XML Schemas, much like DTDs, enable you to describe the structure of an XML document.• XML Schema definitions are also commonly referred to as XSDs. PalGov © 2011 7
  8. 8. Benefits of XML Schemas XML Schemas are created using basic XML, while DTDs utilize a separate syntax. XML Schemas fully support the Namespace Recommendation. XML Schemas enable you to validate text element content based on built-in and user-defined data types. XML Schemas enable you to more easily create complex and reusable content models. XML Schemas enable the modeling of programming concepts such as object inheritance and type substitution. PalGov © 2011 8
  9. 9. Do We Still Need DTDs?• XML Schemas provide better features for describing documents—as well as a more common syntax—they provide no ENTITY functionality.• In many XML documents and applications, the ENTITY declaration is important.• DTD can be embedded in the xml document.• DTD supported by the SGML. PalGov © 2011 9
  10. 10. XML SchemasXML Schema divided into three parts: An introduction to XML Schema concepts at: www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/ A document that defines all of the structures used in XML Schemas at: ww.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/ A document that describes XML Schema data types at www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/ PalGov © 2011 10
  11. 11. The XML Schema Document• Most XML Schemas are stored within a separate XML document.• XML Schemas function very similarly to external DTDs• XML document contains a reference to the XML Schema that defines its vocabulary.• An XML document that adheres to a particular XML Schema vocabulary is called an XML Schema instance document. PalGov © 2011 11
  12. 12. XSD Example<?xml version=‖1.0‖?><schema xmlns=‖http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema‖xmlns:target=‖http://www.example.com/name‖targetNamespace=‖http://www.example.com/name‖elementFormDefault=‖qualified‖> <element name=‖name‖> <complexType> <sequence> <element name=‖first‖ type=‖string‖/> <element name=‖middle‖ type=‖string‖/> <element name=‖last‖ type=‖string‖/> </sequence> <attribute name=‖title‖ type=‖string‖/> </complexType> </element></schema> PalGov © 2011 12
  13. 13. The <schema> ElementThe <schema> element is the root element of every XML Schema:<?xml version="1.0"?><xs:schema>......</xs:schema> PalGov © 2011 13
  14. 14. The <schema> Element….Cont The <schema> element may contain some attributes. A schema declaration often looks something like this:<?xml version="1.0"?><xs:schema xmlns:xs= “http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema” targetNamespace= “http://www.w3schools.com” xmlns= “http://www.w3schools.com” elementFormDefault= "qualified"> ... ... </xs:schema> PalGov © 2011 14
  15. 15. The XML schema Namespace• You can use any of the following <schema>: <schema xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema”> <xs:schema xmlns:xs=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema”> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema”> PalGov © 2011 15
  16. 16. • Indicates that the elements and data types used in the schema come from the ―http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" namespace.• It also specifies that the elements and data types that come from the ―http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" namespace should be prefixed with xs: or xsd: PalGov © 2011 16
  17. 17. Target Namespaces• The primary purpose of XML Schemas is to declare vocabularies.• These vocabularies can be identified by a namespace that is specified in the target namespace attribute.• When declaring a target namespace, it is important to include a matching namespace declaration. <xs:schema xmlns:xs=‖http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema‖ targetNamespace=‖http://www.example.com/name‖ xmlns=‖http://www.example.com/name‖> Indicates the Indicates that the elements defined by this default namespace. schema come from this target namespace. PalGov © 2011 17
  18. 18. Element and Attribute Qualification<schema xmlns=‖http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema‖ xmlns:target=‖http://www.example.com/name‖ targetNamespace=‖http://www.example.com/name‖ elementFormDefault=‖qualified‖>elementFromDefault = ―qualified‖ or ―unqualified‖attributeFromDefault ― qualified‖ or ―unqualified‖• qualified: if it has an associated namespace.• unqualified: if it hasn’t associated namespaces PalGov © 2011 18
  19. 19. Simple <element> Declarations<xs:element name="xxx" type="yyy"/> xxx: the name of the element • The name must follow the rules for XML names. yyy: the data type of the element. XML Schema has a lot of built-in data types. The most common types are: – xs:string – xs:decimal – xs:integer – xs:boolean – xs:date – xs:time PalGov © 2011 19
  20. 20. Example• Here are some simple XML elements: <lastname>Jones</lastname> <age>36</age> <dateborn>1970-03-27</dateborn>• Here are the corresponding simple element definitions: <xs:element name="lastname" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="age" type="xs:integer"/> <xs:element name="dateborn" type="xs:date"/> PalGov © 2011 20
  21. 21. Cardinality• Cardinality represents the number of occurrences of a specific element within a content model.<element name=‖first‖ type=‖string‖ minOccurs=‖x‖ maxOccurs=‖y‖/>• x : minimum number of occurrence, default =1• y : maximum number of occurrence, unbound: open occurrence PalGov © 2011 21
  22. 22. Default and Fixed Values Simple elements may have a default value OR a fixed value specified. Default value is automatically assigned to the element when no other value is specified. In the following example the default value is "red":<xs:element name="color" type="xs:string" default="red"/> Fixed value is also automatically assigned to the element, and you cannot specify another value. In the following example the fixed value is "red":<xs:element name="color" type="xs:string" fixed="red"/> PalGov © 2011 22
  23. 23. <complexType> DeclarationsA complex element is an XML element that contains other elements and/or attributes.There are four kinds of complex elements: empty elements elements that contain only other elements elements that contain only text elements that contain both other elements and textNote: Each of these elements may contain attributes as well! PalGov © 2011 23
  24. 24. empty elements• A complex XML element, "product", which is empty: <product pid="1345"/> PalGov © 2011 24
  25. 25. elements that contain only other elements• A complex XML element, "employee", which contains only other elements: <employee> <firstname>John</firstname> <lastname>Smith</lastname> </employee> PalGov © 2011 25
  26. 26. elements that contain only text• A complex XML element, "food", which contains only text: <food type="dessert“ Ice cream</food> PalGov © 2011 26
  27. 27. elements that contain both other elements and text• A complex XML element, "description", which contains both elements and text:<description> It happened on <date lang="norwegian">03.03.99</date> ....</description> PalGov © 2011 27
  28. 28. How to Define a Complex Element• Look at this complex XML element, "employee", which contains only other elements: <employee> <firstname>John</firstname> <lastname>Smith</lastname> </employee> PalGov © 2011 28
  29. 29. The "employee" element can be declared directly by naming the element, like this: <xs:element name="employee"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="firstname" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="lastname“ type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element>• If you use the method described above, only the "employee" element can use the specified complex type.• Note that the child elements, "firstname" and "lastname", are surrounded by the <sequence> indicator. This means that the child elements must appear in the same order as they are declared. PalGov © 2011 29
  30. 30. <attribute> Declarations• The syntax for defining an attribute is:<xs:attribute name="xxx" type="yyy"/> – Where xxx is the name of the attribute and yyy specifies the data type of the attribute. – Simple elements can’t have attributes PalGov © 2011 30
  31. 31. Summary• XML Schema is used to refer to the specific W3C XML Schema technology.• W3C XML Schemas, much like DTDs, enable you to describe the structure of an XML document. PalGov © 2011 31
  32. 32. Refrences• Hunter, H, Rafter, J., Fawcett, J., Vlist, E., Ayers, D., Duckett, J., Watt, A., McKinnon,L., (2007), "Beginning XML", 4th Ed.,Wiley Publishing Inc: Indiana, USA.• Ray, E., (2003), "Learning XML", 2nd Ed., O’Rreilly Media Inc.: USA.• Amiano, M., DCruz, C., Ethier, K., Thomas, M., (2006), XML: Problem - Design – Solution", Wiley Publishing Inc: Indiana, USA.• http://www.w3.org• http://www.w3schools.com• http://www.xml.com• http://www.xml.org PalGov © 2011 32
  33. 33. <e-Gov> Thank you </e-Gov> PalGov © 2011 33

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