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The Skeletal System Chapters 6-8
Skeletal Cartilage <ul><li>Skeleton made mostly of cartilage at birth and begins to form bone as person ages. </li></ul><u...
Skeletal Cartilage (con’t) <ul><li>Made of variety of cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Consists mostly of water, allowing it t...
 
Growth of Cartilage <ul><li>Two ways cartilage grows: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Appositional growth – cartilage- forming cells...
Growth of Cartilage (con’t) <ul><li>Cartilage growth ends during adolescence when skeleton stops growing </li></ul><ul><li...
Classification of Bones
There are 206 named bones of the skeleton.
Axial Skeleton <ul><li>Forms long axis of body </li></ul><ul><li>Bones of skull, vertebral column, and rib cage </li></ul>...
Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Upper and lower limbs and girdles (shoulders and hips) </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion and mani...
Shape and Sizes <ul><li>Many different </li></ul><ul><li>Each shape fulfills a special need </li></ul><ul><li>Classified b...
Different shape classification: <ul><li>Long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Longer than wide </li></ul><ul><li>Names for shape, n...
<ul><li>Flat bones </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, flattened, and curved </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, and sk...
 
Bone Function <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Storage </...
Bone Structure and Gross Anatomy <ul><li>Bones are organs </li></ul><ul><li>Contain osseous tissue, nerve tissue, cartilag...
Structure of a Long Bone <ul><li>Diaphysis (shaft) forms long part and is thick, compact bone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surro...
Long bone (con’t) <ul><li>Epiphyses are bone ends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At surface covered in articular (hyaline) cartila...
 
Long bone (con’t) <ul><li>Membranes </li></ul><ul><li>White, double-layered membrane, periosteum, covers the whole bone. <...
Structure of short, irregular, and  flat bones: <ul><li>In flat bones, the internal layer of spongy bone is called the dip...
 
Location of hematopoietic  tissue in bones: <ul><li>Spongy bone of long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Diplo ë  of flat bones </l...
Compact Bone
Osteon <ul><li>Osteon:  structural unit of compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder found running down bone </li></ul><ul><...
Haversian (central) Canal <ul><li>Canal that runs through the core of each osteon. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain blood vessels...
Volksmann’s (perforating) Canal: <ul><li>Lie at right angles to the bone axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect blood and nerve s...
 
Spongy Bone
Spongy bone (con’t) <ul><li>Consists of trabeculae </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like Swiss cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Align aroun...
Chemical Composition of Bones <ul><li>Contain organic and inorganic components </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Components: </li>...
Chemical composition (con’t) <ul><li>Inorganic hydroxypatites (mineral salts)    mostly calcium salts </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Bone Markings <ul><li>Bulges, depressions, holes, etc. found on bone surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Table 6.1 </li></ul>
Bone Development <ul><li>Osteogenesis (ossification):  process of bone tissue formation  </li></ul><ul><li>Bones can grow ...
Bone Homeostasis <ul><li>Recycle 5-7% of bone mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone – replaced every 3-4 years. </li></ul><u...
Repair Fractures (breaks) <ul><li>Classification of fractures: </li></ul><ul><li>Nondisplaced:  bone ends stay in position...
 
Repair (con’t) <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction:  realignment of broken ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed:  ...
Repair (4 phases): <ul><li>Hematoma formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-  vessels, periosteum, and tissues torn and hemorrhag...
Repair phases (con’t):  <ul><li>Bony callus formation </li></ul><ul><li>- new trabeculae appears in  fibrocartilage </li><...
Homeostatic Imbalances <ul><li>Osteomalacia (soft bones) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack adequate minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Painfu...
<ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Bone resorption outpaces bone deposit </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are porous and lighte...
<ul><li>Paget’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bone formation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes spotty weakening </li></ul>
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The Skeletal System - Chapter 6

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The Skeletal System - Chapter 6

  1. 1. The Skeletal System Chapters 6-8
  2. 2. Skeletal Cartilage <ul><li>Skeleton made mostly of cartilage at birth and begins to form bone as person ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Few cartilages found in adults and only found in areas where flexible tissue is needed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Skeletal Cartilage (con’t) <ul><li>Made of variety of cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Consists mostly of water, allowing it to spring back to original shape. </li></ul><ul><li>No nerves or vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by perichondrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girdle, resisting expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers nutrients to cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 types: hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Growth of Cartilage <ul><li>Two ways cartilage grows: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Appositional growth – cartilage- forming cells secrete new matrix on outside of old cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>2. Interstitial growth – cartilage-forming cells secrete new matrix on inside of old cartilage. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Growth of Cartilage (con’t) <ul><li>Cartilage growth ends during adolescence when skeleton stops growing </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is different from bone. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Classification of Bones
  7. 8. There are 206 named bones of the skeleton.
  8. 9. Axial Skeleton <ul><li>Forms long axis of body </li></ul><ul><li>Bones of skull, vertebral column, and rib cage </li></ul><ul><li>Protect, support, or carry other body parts </li></ul>
  9. 10. Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Upper and lower limbs and girdles (shoulders and hips) </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion and manipulation </li></ul>
  10. 11. Shape and Sizes <ul><li>Many different </li></ul><ul><li>Each shape fulfills a special need </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by shape </li></ul>
  11. 12. Different shape classification: <ul><li>Long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Longer than wide </li></ul><ul><li>Names for shape, not size </li></ul><ul><li>Short bones </li></ul><ul><li>Cube-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Can be rounded (sesame seed) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Flat bones </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, flattened, and curved </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, and skull </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrae and hip </li></ul>
  13. 15. Bone Function <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Cell Formation </li></ul>
  14. 16. Bone Structure and Gross Anatomy <ul><li>Bones are organs </li></ul><ul><li>Contain osseous tissue, nerve tissue, cartilage, muscle and epithelial tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Every bone has dense outer layer that appears smooth and solid called the compact bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces (trabeculae) are inside of compact bone; holds red/yellow bone marrow called spongy bone. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Structure of a Long Bone <ul><li>Diaphysis (shaft) forms long part and is thick, compact bone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds central medullary cavity (marrow cavity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In adults, medullary cavity houses yellow marrow. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Long bone (con’t) <ul><li>Epiphyses are bone ends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At surface covered in articular (hyaline) cartilage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between diaphysis and epiphysis is a epiphyseal line, which is what is left from the epiphyseal (growth) plate from childhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone lengthened from growth plate. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Long bone (con’t) <ul><li>Membranes </li></ul><ul><li>White, double-layered membrane, periosteum, covers the whole bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Structure of short, irregular, and flat bones: <ul><li>In flat bones, the internal layer of spongy bone is called the diploe. </li></ul><ul><li>Short, irregular and flat bones share design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin plate of periosteum – covered compact bone on outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endosteum – covers spongy bone on inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain marrow  no marrow cavity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Location of hematopoietic tissue in bones: <ul><li>Spongy bone of long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Diplo ë of flat bones </li></ul><ul><li>Red marrow is the sole marrow for newborns </li></ul><ul><li>As child ages, yellow marrow takes its place, pushing red marrow to heads of femur and humerus. </li></ul><ul><li>Red marrow is found in some flat and irregular bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Red marrow conducts hematopoiesis, or red blood cell formation. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Compact Bone
  21. 25. Osteon <ul><li>Osteon: structural unit of compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder found running down bone </li></ul><ul><li>Weight-bearing pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to growth rings in a tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each “ring” is called lamella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact bone sometimes called lamellar bone </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Haversian (central) Canal <ul><li>Canal that runs through the core of each osteon. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the osteon. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Volksmann’s (perforating) Canal: <ul><li>Lie at right angles to the bone axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect blood and nerve supply. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Spongy Bone
  25. 30. Spongy bone (con’t) <ul><li>Consists of trabeculae </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like Swiss cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Align around lines of stress to support bone </li></ul>
  26. 31. Chemical Composition of Bones <ul><li>Contain organic and inorganic components </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoid – organic part of matrix </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. Chemical composition (con’t) <ul><li>Inorganic hydroxypatites (mineral salts)  mostly calcium salts </li></ul><ul><li>Proper combination allows bones to be very durable and strong </li></ul><ul><li>Because bone salts last long after death, skeletal remains can last form centuries </li></ul>
  28. 33. Bone Markings <ul><li>Bulges, depressions, holes, etc. found on bone surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Table 6.1 </li></ul>
  29. 34. Bone Development <ul><li>Osteogenesis (ossification): process of bone tissue formation </li></ul><ul><li>Bones can grow in thickness throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Ossification for adults is mainly for repair </li></ul><ul><li>At week 8, human embryo’s skeleton is entirely fibrous membranes or cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>At week 8, bones begin to form replacing fibrous and cartilage structures. </li></ul><ul><li>During infancy and youth, long bones lengthen by interstitial growth at the growth plate. </li></ul>
  30. 35. Bone Homeostasis <ul><li>Recycle 5-7% of bone mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone – replaced every 3-4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone – replaced every 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In healthy adults, total bone mass remains constant (deposit and resorption are equal). </li></ul><ul><li>Bone deposit: occurs when bone is injured or needs added strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Body has 1200-1400g of Ca, mostly bone minerals. </li></ul>
  31. 36. Repair Fractures (breaks) <ul><li>Classification of fractures: </li></ul><ul><li>Nondisplaced: bone ends stay in position </li></ul><ul><li>Displaced: bone ends out of alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Complete: bone broken through </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete: bone isn’t broken through </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse: perpendicular to bone axis </li></ul><ul><li>Linear: parallel to axis </li></ul><ul><li>Open (compound): bone breaks through skin </li></ul><ul><li>Closed (simple): bone doesn’t break skin </li></ul><ul><li>Common types of fractures (Table 6.2) </li></ul>
  32. 38. Repair (con’t) <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction: realignment of broken ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed: doctor’s hands externally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open: surgery with pins and wires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immobilization: cast or brace </li></ul><ul><li>6-8 weeks of healing </li></ul>
  33. 39. Repair (4 phases): <ul><li>Hematoma formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- vessels, periosteum, and tissues torn and hemorrhage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- hematoma, mass or clotted blood, forms at fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swollen, painful, and inflamed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilaginous callus formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblast produce collagen fibers that connect the break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chondroblast secretes cartilage matrix </li></ul></ul>
  34. 40. Repair phases (con’t): <ul><li>Bony callus formation </li></ul><ul><li>- new trabeculae appears in fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li>- convert to bony callus of spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>- starts 3-4 weeks after injury and continues until 2-3 months later </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bone remodeling </li></ul>
  35. 41. Homeostatic Imbalances <ul><li>Osteomalacia (soft bones) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack adequate minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Painful </li></ul><ul><li>Rickets in children </li></ul>
  36. 42. <ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Bone resorption outpaces bone deposit </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are porous and lighter </li></ul><ul><li>Usually older women (postmenopausal) </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>Paget’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bone formation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes spotty weakening </li></ul>

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