Jagan global warming


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Global warming

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  • The temperature of the earth is directly related to the energy input from the Sun.  Some of the Sun’s energy is reflected by clouds.  Other is reflected by ice. The remainder is absorbed by the earth. 
  •  If amount of solar energy absorbed by the earth is equal to the amount radiated back into space, the earth remains at a constant temperature.
  •  However, if the amount of solar energy is greater than the amount radiated, then the earth heats up.
  •  If the amount of solar energy is less than the amount radiated, then the earth cools down. 
  • To a certain degree, the earth acts like a greenhouse.  Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass of a greenhouse and warms the air and objects within the greenhouse. The same glass slows the heat from escaping, resulting in much higher temperatures within the greenhouse than outside it. 
  • Likewise, the earth’s atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Sun’s energy back into space.  Nitrogen,  Oxygen and  Argon  make up >99% of the earth’s atmospheric gases  and are non-greenhouse gases.  Water,  Carbon Dioxide,  and Methane  make up <1% of the earth’s atmosphere,  but are greenhouse gases, since they cause the earth to retain heat. 
  • Air temperature, Humidity, Ocean heat content, Sea level, Sea surface temperature, Temp over oceans, temp Over land are increasing since 1900, this also shows the industrial revolution time where all nation where in search of economic development stared industries.
  • Methane is another extremely potent greenhouse gas, ranking right behind CO2. When organic matter is broken down by bacteria under oxygen-starved conditions (anaerobic decomposition) as in rice paddies, methane is producedThe high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland (nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide)In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
  • Source: Planetsave (http://s.tt/12tkS)
  • Jagan global warming

    1. 1. Global Warming & Climate Change By: Jagan s shettar 2nd SEM M’tech URP IDS Natural Cycle of Tree.......... It is easy to cut a tree & to grow is very difficult........ What do you want? 1
    2. 2. Discussion on  What is global warming?  Causes for global warming  Greenhouse Effect  Earth’s Atmospheric Gases  Effect of global warming •Possible Solutions to Global Warming •Global Warming Myths •Conclusion • What climate is & what climate- change means • Impacts of Climate Change • Some of example climate change and global warming 2
    3. 3. Introduction  Global warming is defined as the overall warming of the planet, based on average temperature over the entire surface.  Modern technology is based up on a number of manufacturing units exploiting the natural resources.  Due to rapid industrialization and fast population growth we are suffering from an unwanted danger of environment problem.  Science has given us atomic energy, comfortable communication systems etc.. for the betterment of the society but at the same time the life has become uncomfortable and tense full due to the presence of same devices. The pollution is accompanied by the gradual rise in global atmospheric temperature, which is known as global warming.  This study deals with Global warming effects and Climate change 3
    4. 4.  Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation.  Global warming is the warming of the earth through carbon dioxide (CO2) being pumped into the atmosphere from tailpipes and smokestacks. Then the gases trap heat like the glass in a greenhouse What is global warming? 4
    5. 5. Earth’s Temperature Sun 5
    6. 6. Balancing of earth temperature Sun 6
    7. 7. Absorption is more than radiation Sun 7
    8. 8. Radiation is more than absorption Sun Radioactive Cooling 8
    9. 9. How Global Warming Works Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 9
    10. 10. Greenhouse EffectSun 10
    11. 11. Greenhouse gases  Carbon dioxide (CO2)  Methane (CH4)  Nitrous oxide (N2O)  Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)  Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)  Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 11
    12. 12. Earth’s Atmospheric Gases Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) >99% Methane (CH4) <1% Non- Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Argon (Ar) Water vapor (H2O) 12
    13. 13. Indicators that shows increase in global warming 13
    14. 14. Causes for global warming Global Warming is caused by many things. The causes are split up into two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes. Natural Causes  Natural causes are causes created by nature. One natural cause is a release of methane gas from arctic tundra and wetlands.  Methane Stored in Water and Ice and from Arctic seabed‘s  Another natural cause is that the earth goes through a cycle of climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000 years. Man-made Causes  Carbon Dioxide From power Plants  Pollution Emitted from Cars  Pollution from Trucks  Pollution from Aeroplanes  Methane emissions from animals, agriculture such as rice paddies,  Increase in usage of chemical fertilizers on croplands  Population growth  Use of CFC’s 14
    15. 15. Human activities contribute for Global warming 13% 14% 24% 49% Agricultural Deforestation Industrial Energy use 15
    16. 16. Fossil fuel usage and emission of co2 from different country 16
    17. 17. “Hockey Stick” Controversy 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 -0.8 Year -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 TemperatureChange(C) Direct temperature measurements Mann et al. 1999 17
    18. 18. 170 220 270 320 370 0200000400000600000 Time (YBP) CO2(ppm)Antarctica 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SST(°C)TropicalPacific CO2 Concentration Vs. Temperature 18
    19. 19. Effect of global warming  Rise in sea levels worldwide  Scientists predict an increase in sea levels worldwide due to the melting of two massive ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, especially on the East coast of the U.S  More killer storms  Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that global warming will significantly increase the intensity of the most extreme storms worldwide  Massive crop failures  According to recent research, there is a 90% chance that 3 billion people worldwide will have to choose between moving their families to milder climes and going hungry due to climate change within 100 years.  Widespread extinction of species  According to research published in Nature, by 2050, rising temperatures could lead to the extinction of more than a million species.  Disappearance of coral reefs  A report on coral reefs from WWF says that in a worst case scenario, coral populations will collapse by 2100 due to increased temperatures and ocean acidification. 19
    20. 20. Effects on weather  Changes have been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation. Glacier retreat and disappearance  mountain glaciers and snow cover had decreased in both the northern and southern hemispheres. This widespread decrease in glaciers and ice caps had contributed to observed sea level rise. Acidification Oxygen depletion  The amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may decline, with adverse consequences for ocean life Sea level rise  There is strong evidence that global sea level rose gradually over the 20th century About one-third of the carbon dioxide emitted by human activity has already been taken up by the oceans. As carbon dioxide dissolves in sea water, carbonic acid is formed 20
    21. 21. What’s the difference between “global warming” and “climate change”? GLOBAL WARMING Is the increase of the Earth’s average surface temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CLIMATE CHANGE Is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in climate, including average temperature and precipitation. 21
    22. 22. What climate is & what climate-change means  Climate is the pattern of weather, meaning averages,  extremes, timing, spatial distribution of…  hot & cold  cloudy & clear  humid & dry  drizzles & downpours  snowfall, snowpack, & snowmelt  zephyrs, blizzards, tornadoes, & typhoons  When climate changes, the patterns change.  Global average temperature is just an index of the state of the global climate as expressed in these patterns. Small changes in the index big changes in the patterns. 22
    23. 23. Climate change  Climate change is now becoming one of the major global environmental challenges  About 80% of greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are related to the production and use of energy- and particularly the burning of fossil fuels. The bulk of the remaining 20% is associated with agriculture and changes in land use.  There is an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface, leading to wide spread impacts ranging from change in rainfall patterns to extinction of certain species. 23
    24. 24. Temperature History of the Earth  Little ice age (1400-1840) – 1°C cooler  Medieval warm period (800-1300) – 1°C warmer than today  Cool/warm cycles occur ~1,500 years  Affect mostly Northeastern U.S. and North Atlantic  Mostly due to changes in thermohaline circulation  Dramatic shutdown of thermohaline circulation occurred 8,200 years ago as a large lake in Canada flooded the North Atlantic 24
    25. 25. Main Ocean Currents Adapted from IPCC SYR Figure 4-2 25
    26. 26. Impacts of Climate Change Forests Biodiversity Agriculture Coastlines Impact of rise in temperature of 1.8oC to 4oC 26
    27. 27. Climate Change Impact in India  Rajasthan- Drought  Rann of Kutch – sea level rise  Mumbai-Salt water intrusion  Kerala –Productivity of Forest  Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching  Ganges – Sedimentation problem  Sunder bans-Sea level raise  Northwest India-reduction In rice yield 27
    28. 28. What climate change puts at risk  Climate governs …  availability of water  productivity of farms, forests, & fisheries  prevalence of oppressive heat & humidity  geography of disease  damages from storms, floods, droughts, wildfires  property losses from sea-level rise  expenditures on engineered environments  distribution & abundance of species 28
    29. 29. Indicates for climate change There’s a consistent 50-year upward trend in every region except Oceania.29
    30. 30. Harm is already occurring 30
    31. 31. Harm is already occurring WHO estimates climate change already causing ≥150,000 premature deaths/yr in 2000 31
    32. 32. Some of example climate change and global warming  Ice Sheets Melting?  GRACE (gravity measured by satellite) found melting of Antarctica equivalent to sea level rise of 0.4 mm/year (2 in/century)  Zwally, 2005 (satellite radar altimetry)  confirmed Antarctica melting  Greenland ice melting on exterior, accumulating inland (higher precipitation) 32
    33. 33. Melting Glaciers – Mt. Kilimanjaro 33
    34. 34. Drought in Africa Lake Faguibine Lake Chad 34
    35. 35.  Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh Experienced a number of crop failures in the last 15 years  Apple belt has moved 30 kilometers [northwards] over the last 50 years  Apple growers, says attributed poor production to reduced snowfall and its changed timing.  Shift in Agriculture  Apple cultivation is affected in Kullu Valley  Apple belt has moved 30 KM nothwards  Forest resources were removed Impact on Agriculture Effect on apple cultivation 35
    36. 36. Source: Journal of Ecological Anthropology Vol. 10 2006 36
    37. 37. Ganga under threat from warming  Himalayan source of the Ganga is drying up at a rate of 40 yards a year, nearly twice as fast as two decades ago, and that some of these glaciers might disappear by 2030.  In the dry summer months, the Gangotri glacier provides up to 70 percent of the water of the Ganga.  According to a UN climate report, the shrinking glaciers also threaten Asia’s supply of fresh water. Source: New Indian Express37
    38. 38. Source: New Indian Express38
    39. 39. Potential Worldwide Precipitation Changes -50 -20 -10 -5 5 10 20 50 39
    40. 40. Global Warming: Shifting Gears 40
    41. 41. Possible Solutions to Global Warming 41
    42. 42. Mitigation of Global Warming  Conservation  Reduce energy needs  Recycling  Alternate energy sources  Nuclear  Wind  Geothermal  Hydroelectric  Solar  Fusion? 42
    43. 43. Storage of CO2 in Geological Formations 1. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs 2. CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery 3. Deep saline formations – (a) offshore (b) onshore 4. CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery Adapted from IPCC SRCCS Figure TS-7 3a 2 3b 1 4 43
    44. 44. What’s being done now to reduce our emissions? Solar PowerWind Power Fuel-Efficiency44
    45. 45. 2007 Goal: Reductions in CO2 Per Year BillionsofMetricTonsCarbon 45
    46. 46. 2007 Reductions in CO2 Per Year GigatonCarbon Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind Power Biofuels Carbon capture and storage BillionsofMetricTonsCarbon Our Goal 46
    47. 47. We can stop global warming! What can you do to help solve the problem? 47
    48. 48. Simple Things To Do Turn off your computer or the TV when you’re not using it. Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy. Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. Use compact fluorescent bulbs. 48
    49. 49. Simple Things To Do Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. Or use a fan. Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning up the heat. Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean. Walk short distances instead of asking for a ride in the car. Plant a tree. Recycle. 49
    50. 50. Global Warming Myths 50
    51. 51. Volcanoes Put Out More CO2 Than Fossil Fuel Burning 0 2 4 6 8 10 Carbon(109metrictons) Fossil FuelVolcanoes51
    52. 52. Global Warming Has Stopped? -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year MeanTemperature(°C) 1365.2 1365.4 1365.6 1365.8 1366.0 1366.2 1366.4 1366.6 1366.8 SolarIrradiance(W/m2) 2010 52
    53. 53. Conclusion  Global warming is affecting plants, animals, humans and the earth. We need to learn how to conserve our use of fossil fuels to minimize carbon dioxide production. This will slow down the effects of global warming.  Global warming is happening  Most warming is probably the result of human activities  There will be positive and negative (mostly) repercussions from global warming  The costs to mitigate global warming will be high 53
    54. 54. Conclusion  Global warming is the product of green house effect. This global warming is predicted to lead a variety of negative effects, to reduce this we need to develops steps for the prevention such as organizing self awareness programmers, planning exhibitions in different parts of the countries to create awareness on global warming. Apart from the plans to slow down the global warming, adaptation schemes must move forward fast. Constructing flood defenses, banning buildings close to sea areas are some of the measures we can adapt  Man proposes God disposes. 54
    55. 55.  Reference  http://www.defenders.org  http://search-ebooks.eu/g/global-warming-doc  http://quemark.com/what-is-global-warming.html  Planetsave (http://s.tt/12tkS)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_global_warming  http://climate.nasa.gov/effects  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming  http://www.bigmelt.com/introduction-to-global-warming.  http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/  http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2010/finalwebsite/background/globalwarming/definition  http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/definition-for-global-warming.html  http://in.news.yahoo.com/photos/tornado-cuts-thro-from-mid-west-to-gulf-of-mexico-slideshow/wrecked- car-seen-amid-debris-following-tornado-where-photo-011308454.html  www.OceansArt.us  http://www.indiaclimateportal.org/fast-facts  http://www.thehcf.org/emaila6.html  http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-global-warming-full-report#ixzz1o7r5JJve  http://www.thehcf.org/emaila4.html  http://www.bestglobalwarmingarticles.com  Bibliography  Book Tuffen, H. 2010. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century? Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society  By: George Christodoulou book on Causes Of Global Warming  Report on Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty, September 2009. Chaired by Professor John Shepherd FRS. Provides a detailed assessment of the various methods of geoengineering, and considers the potential efficiency and unintended consequences they may pose. 55
    56. 56. THANK YOU 56