The temperature of the earth is directly related to the energy input from the Sun. Some of the Sun’s energy is reflected by clouds. Other is reflected by ice. The remainder is absorbed by the earth.
If amount of solar energy absorbed by the earth is equal to the amount radiated back into space, the earth remains at a constant temperature.
However, if the amount of solar energy is greater than the amount radiated, then the earth heats up.
If the amount of solar energy is less than the amount radiated, then the earth cools down.
To a certain degree, the earth acts like a greenhouse. Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass of a greenhouse and warms the air and objects within the greenhouse. The same glass slows the heat from escaping, resulting in much higher temperatures within the greenhouse than outside it.
Likewise, the earth’s atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Sun’s energy back into space. Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon make up >99% of the earth’s atmospheric gases and are non-greenhouse gases. Water, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane make up <1% of the earth’s atmosphere, but are greenhouse gases, since they cause the earth to retain heat.
Air temperature, Humidity, Ocean heat content, Sea level, Sea surface temperature, Temp over oceans, temp Over land are increasing since 1900, this also shows the industrial revolution time where all nation where in search of economic development stared industries.
Methane is another extremely potent greenhouse gas, ranking right behind CO2. When organic matter is broken down by bacteria under oxygen-starved conditions (anaerobic decomposition) as in rice paddies, methane is producedThe high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland (nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide)In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Source: Planetsave (http://s.tt/12tkS)
Jagan global warming
Global Warming & Climate
By: Jagan s shettar
M’tech URP IDS
Natural Cycle of Tree..........
It is easy to cut a tree & to grow is very
What do you want?
What is global warming?
Causes for global warming
Earth’s Atmospheric Gases
Effect of global warming
•Possible Solutions to Global
•Global Warming Myths
• What climate is & what climate-
• Impacts of Climate Change
• Some of example climate
change and global warming
Global warming is defined as the overall warming of the planet, based on
average temperature over the entire surface.
Modern technology is based up on a number of manufacturing units
exploiting the natural resources.
Due to rapid industrialization and fast population growth we are suffering
from an unwanted danger of environment problem.
Science has given us atomic energy, comfortable communication
systems etc.. for the betterment of the society but at the same time the
life has become uncomfortable and tense full due to the presence of
same devices. The pollution is accompanied by the gradual rise in global
atmospheric temperature, which is known as global warming.
This study deals with Global warming effects and Climate change
Global warming is the increase in the average
measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air
and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its
Global warming is the warming of the earth through
carbon dioxide (CO2) being pumped into the
atmosphere from tailpipes and smokestacks. Then
the gases trap heat like the glass in a greenhouse
What is global warming?
Indicators that shows increase in global
Causes for global warming
Global Warming is caused by many things. The causes are split up into
two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes.
Natural causes are causes created by nature. One natural cause
is a release of methane gas from arctic tundra and wetlands.
Methane Stored in Water and Ice and from Arctic seabed‘s
Another natural cause is that the earth goes through a cycle of
climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000
Carbon Dioxide From power Plants
Pollution Emitted from Cars
Pollution from Trucks
Pollution from Aeroplanes
Methane emissions from animals, agriculture such as rice
Increase in usage of chemical fertilizers on croplands
Use of CFC’s
Human activities contribute for
Agricultural Deforestation Industrial Energy use
Fossil fuel usage and emission of
co2 from different country
“Hockey Stick” Controversy
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Direct temperature measurements
Mann et al. 1999
CO2 Concentration Vs. Temperature
Effect of global warming
Rise in sea levels worldwide
Scientists predict an increase in sea levels worldwide due to the melting
of two massive ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, especially on the
East coast of the U.S
More killer storms
Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that global
warming will significantly increase the intensity of the most extreme
Massive crop failures
According to recent research, there is a 90% chance that 3 billion people
worldwide will have to choose between moving their families to milder
climes and going hungry due to climate change within 100 years.
Widespread extinction of species
According to research published in Nature, by 2050, rising temperatures
could lead to the extinction of more than a million species.
Disappearance of coral reefs
A report on coral reefs from WWF says that in a worst case
scenario, coral populations will collapse by 2100 due to increased
temperatures and ocean acidification.
Effects on weather
Changes have been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and
type of precipitation.
Glacier retreat and disappearance
mountain glaciers and snow cover had decreased in both the northern and
southern hemispheres. This widespread decrease in glaciers and ice caps
had contributed to observed sea level rise.
The amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may decline, with adverse
consequences for ocean life
Sea level rise
There is strong evidence that global sea level rose gradually over the 20th
About one-third of the carbon dioxide
emitted by human activity has already
been taken up by the oceans. As carbon
dioxide dissolves in sea water, carbonic
acid is formed
What’s the difference between “global
warming” and “climate change”?
Is the increase of the Earth’s average surface
temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere.
Is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in
climate, including average temperature and
What climate is & what climate-change
Climate is the pattern of weather, meaning averages,
extremes, timing, spatial distribution of…
hot & cold
cloudy & clear
humid & dry
drizzles & downpours
snowfall, snowpack, & snowmelt
zephyrs, blizzards, tornadoes, & typhoons
When climate changes, the patterns change.
Global average temperature is just an index of the state of the global climate
as expressed in these patterns. Small changes in the index big changes in
Climate change is now becoming one of the major global
About 80% of greenhouse gas emissions from human
activities are related to the production and use of energy- and
particularly the burning of fossil fuels. The bulk of the
remaining 20% is associated with agriculture and changes in
There is an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s
surface, leading to wide spread impacts ranging from change
in rainfall patterns to extinction of certain species.
Temperature History of the Earth
Little ice age (1400-1840) – 1°C cooler
Medieval warm period (800-1300) – 1°C warmer
Cool/warm cycles occur ~1,500 years
Affect mostly Northeastern U.S. and North
Mostly due to changes in thermohaline
Dramatic shutdown of thermohaline circulation
occurred 8,200 years ago as a large lake in
Canada flooded the North Atlantic
Main Ocean Currents
Adapted from IPCC SYR Figure 4-2
Impacts of Climate Change
Impact of rise in
temperature of 1.8oC to 4oC
Climate Change Impact in India
Rann of Kutch – sea level rise
Mumbai-Salt water intrusion
Kerala –Productivity of Forest
Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching
Ganges – Sedimentation problem
Sunder bans-Sea level raise
Northwest India-reduction In rice yield
What climate change puts at risk
Climate governs …
availability of water
productivity of farms, forests, & fisheries
prevalence of oppressive heat & humidity
geography of disease
damages from storms, floods, droughts, wildfires
property losses from sea-level rise
expenditures on engineered environments
distribution & abundance of species
Indicates for climate change
There’s a consistent 50-year upward trend in every region except
Harm is already occurring
WHO estimates climate change already causing
≥150,000 premature deaths/yr in 2000
Some of example climate change and
Ice Sheets Melting?
GRACE (gravity measured by satellite) found
melting of Antarctica equivalent to sea level rise
of 0.4 mm/year (2 in/century)
Zwally, 2005 (satellite radar
confirmed Antarctica melting
Greenland ice melting on
exterior, accumulating inland
Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh
Experienced a number of crop failures in the last 15 years
Apple belt has moved 30 kilometers [northwards] over the last
Apple growers, says attributed poor production to reduced
snowfall and its changed timing.
Shift in Agriculture
Apple cultivation is affected in Kullu Valley
Apple belt has moved 30 KM nothwards
Forest resources were removed
Impact on Agriculture Effect on apple
Source: Journal of Ecological Anthropology Vol. 10 2006
Ganga under threat from warming
Himalayan source of the Ganga is drying up at a rate
of 40 yards a year, nearly twice as fast as two
decades ago, and that some of these glaciers might
disappear by 2030.
In the dry summer months, the Gangotri glacier
provides up to 70 percent of the water of the Ganga.
According to a UN climate report, the shrinking
glaciers also threaten Asia’s supply of fresh water.
Source: New Indian Express37
Mitigation of Global Warming
Reduce energy needs
Alternate energy sources
Storage of CO2 in Geological Formations
1. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
2. CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery
3. Deep saline formations – (a) offshore (b) onshore
4. CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery
Adapted from IPCC SRCCS Figure TS-7
3b 1 4
What’s being done now to
reduce our emissions?
Solar PowerWind Power Fuel-Efficiency44
CO2 Per Year
Solar and Wind
We can stop global warming!
What can you do
to help solve the
Simple Things To Do
Turn off your computer or the TV
when you’re not using it.
Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy.
Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or
Turn off the lights when you leave a room.
Use compact fluorescent bulbs.
Simple Things To Do
Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up
the air conditioning. Or use a fan.
Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning
up the heat.
Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on
your AC and furnace clean.
Walk short distances instead of asking for a
ride in the car.
Plant a tree. Recycle.
Global warming is affecting plants, animals, humans and
the earth. We need to learn how to conserve our use of
fossil fuels to minimize carbon dioxide production. This
will slow down the effects of global warming.
Global warming is happening
Most warming is probably the result of human activities
There will be positive and negative (mostly)
repercussions from global warming
The costs to mitigate global warming will be high
Global warming is the product of green house effect.
This global warming is predicted to lead a variety of
negative effects, to reduce this we need to develops
steps for the prevention such as organizing self
awareness programmers, planning exhibitions in
different parts of the countries to create awareness on
global warming. Apart from the plans to slow down the
global warming, adaptation schemes must move
forward fast. Constructing flood defenses, banning
buildings close to sea areas are some of the measures
we can adapt
Man proposes God disposes.
Book Tuffen, H. 2010. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?
Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society
By: George Christodoulou book on Causes Of Global Warming
Report on Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty, September 2009. Chaired
by Professor John Shepherd FRS. Provides a detailed assessment of the various methods of
geoengineering, and considers the potential efficiency and unintended consequences they may pose.