Traditional begg philosophy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Traditional begg philosophy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. TRADITIONAL BEGG PHILOSOPHY INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. EVOLUTION OF THE BEGG’S APPLIANCE. Begg: After graduating from the Melbourne university in 1923, he went to study with Dr.Angle in California. In 1924,coincidentally with Dr.Begg’s arrival in California,Dr.Angle was developing the edgewise mechanism. Dr.Angle took ribbon archwire which was normally inserted vertically from the incisal and turned it on it’s edge-”edgewise” to insert it horizontally. In november 1925,Dr.Begg sailed back to Australia and started practicing orthodontics in Adelaide in 1926. {edgewise mechanism-non-extraction principle}. For 2 years, Dr.Begg faithfully followed Dr.Angle’s teaching of retaining the full complement of teeth.However in many of his patients,he was not satisfied with post treatment profile www.indiandentalacademy.com and faced with serious relapses of the treatment results.
  3. 3. In february 1928 he began to routinely remove teeth and reduce the mesiodistal width by proximal stripping. He knew from experience and his appreciation of the role,attrition is meant to play in the development of man’s dentition that seeks reduction was often necessary to permit the proper repositioning of the teeth to enhance FUNCTION,STABILITY AND ESTHETICS. Dr.Begg realised that edgewise mechanism was not designed to rapidlyclose extraction spaces and for quickly reducing deep overbites. To facilitate such changes,he began using .020inch round platinised gold rather than rectangular archwire in 1929. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. In 1931/32 he started using .018inch round stainless steel wire bending the vertical loops,intermaxillary circles right into the archwire.however he soon realises that if round archwires were engaged in edgewise brackets,indiscriminate and often undesired root moving forces could be created. This prolonged the anterior biteopening and taxed loss of anchorage. In 1933,about 2 years after switching over to round wire,he began treating some cases with ribbon arch bracket.he realised that these relatively narrow brackets with vertically facing slots allowed the teeth to move under very light forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Dr.Begg described a treatment approach based on the following hypotheses which were backed to some extent by his own researches. They were: 1.Theory of attritional occlusion 2.Theory of differential forces 3.The employment of a modified form of ribbon arch bracket and light gauge round archwire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. THE THEORY OF ATTRITIONAL OCCLUSION Dr.Begg founded the concept of correct occlusion based on his studies on the skulls of australian aboriginals.. .He found that the dentitions displayed a considerable amount of attrition ,both occlusally and interproximally. .The dento-alveolar height was maintained by continuous eruption and proximal contact by mesial tooth migration.,facilitated by cuspal wear. .The incisor relationship became edge to edge thereby reducing the chance of lower incisor imbrication through overbite obstruction… The total reduction in arch length resulting from attrition amounted approximately to one bicuspid width either side of both dental arches by the time the aboriginal was 20 years of age… These findings accord with the studies of miss Corisande smyth with her study of anglo-saxon skulls… According to sir Arthur keith,in bronze-age Britain,skulls showerd edge-toedge incisor relationship waswww.indiandentalacademy.com common..
  7. 7. Normal occlusion in young adult of present day Normal occlusion in primitive times. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. But in the present age,due to the refined and pre-cooked food,less dental attrition was observed.The absence of attrition along with the presence of mesial tooth migration does not relieve the dental overcrowding ,particularly in the lower incisor region where the modern overbite prevents their escape into edge-to-edge relationship with the uppers. Dr.Begg used the findings from his study of australian aboriginal occlusions as a justification to extraction.He argues that if in this present era tooth material is not lost through attrition ,it would be rweasonable to cause a commensurate reduction artificially.through extraction. However,care should be taken to restrict the employment of extraction within logical limits.. Thus the extraction approach in orthodontic treatment came into existence . Surely,there will be exceptions to the extraction approach just as there were to the non-extraction approach. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Theory of differential forces. The theory of differential forces in it’s original form was described by dr.Begg in an article AJO{1956} his observation was based to a large extent on the work of Storey and Smith. The range of light pressures which would cause the teeth to move at an optimum rate with minimal disturbance of the supporting tissues. Pressures below this range would produce a slow rate of response while those above incurred a reaction within the bone support,referred as “undermining resorption”. Applying these principles to the begg technique,the force of the intermaxillary elastics used inn stage I of treatment ,was kept light so that the upper labial segment was retracted while the lower anchor molars has negligible mesial movement.later,if it was required that the residual extraction spaces should be closed largely by the mesial movement of the posterior teeth, the elastic forces are increased so that the anterior segment with their relatively small root area received an excess of force sufficient to delay their movement,while the posteriors moved forward. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. a.A force of less than 150 grams causes no distal bodily movement of canine. b.A force of 150 -200 grams is optimum to move canine distally. c.A force of 300-500 grams causes the molars to move easily.this high force is resisted by the tissues investing the canine root,thus affording anchorage for mesial movement of molars. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Concept of undermining resorption According to the concept of undermining resorption,excessive orthodontic forces ,when exerted on teeth cause the periodontal membrane and toothinvesting bone to be compressed.this causes the occlusion of bloodvessels and the blood supply is cut off in these areas.This inadequate blood supply causes necrosis of the compressed parts of the periodontal membrane and bone..This leads to no tooth movement until phagocytic action removes the necrosed tissues and until new living tissues form.this excessive force also causes pain and loosens teeth. The effect of this process is that teeth do not move continually but intermitently and much slower than when lighter orthodontic force is used. On the other hand,if lighter and appropriate orthodontic force is applied ,the periodontal blood vessels are not occluded so that the bone on the side of pressure is continually and rapidly resorbed and new bone is simultaneously formed on the side of negative pressure without any discomfort and loosening of teeth. heavy force – internmittent movement. light force - continual www.indiandentalacademy.com tooth movement. flow of uninterrupted
  12. 12. THE MEANING OF DIFFERENTIAL ORTHODONTIC FORCE. In physics and mechanics ,differential is defined as the difference of two or more motions or pressures.the orthodontic force values used in this technique cause: 1. Minimum discomfort 2. Minimum loosening of teeth. 3. Minimum damage to tooth investing tissues. 4. Rapid tooth movement 5. Easily controllable forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. The meaning of optimum orthodontic force The optimum orthodontic force means that force which moves teeth the most rapidly with least discomfort to the patient ,and with least damage to the teeth and other investing tissues. The forces that are most favourable for tooth movement on the standpoint of rapidity and tissue tolerance are according to storey and smith much lower than that exerted by edge wise archwire. According to Halderson,Johns and Moyers ,the force exerted by edgewise archwire is of very high value of over 2 pounds or 900 grams which causes a pathogenic tissue response. hence, they advocated the use of light round wires as 1.It takes as much advantage of tipping movements as is possible. 2.It utilises forces much lighter than are possible with a standard edgewise wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Materials ,appliances necessary for the begg technique. The spring quality of the firstmade steel was a great improvement compared to the rectangular gold platinum wire.however,it was either too soft or too brittle. In 1940’s dr.Begg met Arthur.J.Wilcock who was directing metallurgical research in the university of Melbourne.after many years of research,Mr.Wilcock finally produced a cold drawn heattreated wire that combined the balance between resilience and hardness with the unique property of zero stress relaxation that dr.begg was seeking.this unusualwire permitted dr.begg to open deep anterior overbite while controlling archform and providing molar stability. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. however dr.begg had the same problem controlling the mesiodistalinclination of teeth with ribbon arch brackets that dr.begg had experienced 30 years back. Dr.Begg attempted to modify the ribbon-arch bracket by soldering horizontal band spurs to the labial and buccal surfaces of the bands.when the tooth required mesiodistal tipping,the archwire was permitted to contact the horizontal band spur.the archwire was then deflected towards the bracket with a lockpin or steel ligature.the resultant flexing of the archwire provided a degree of mesiodistal axial control or movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. LOCKPINS 1.One-point safety lockpin:  first stage of treatment with .016 inch archwire. Shoulder on labial surface of the head strikes bracket to prevent impingement of pin and the archwire. Beveled undersurface of head leaves adequate space for tipping. 2.Second stage lockpin: Safety shoulder prevents binding on archwires . The bodyof the pinis dimensioned to open 256-500 bracket slot to 0.020 inch to accept larger archwires during stageII. 3.Hook lockpin: Used on all teeth that do not require mesiodistal uprighting www.indiandentalacademy.com during stage III.
  17. 17. ADJUNCTS TO LIGHT WIRE TECHNIQUE ELASTICS:{LATEX OR RUBBER}: Which will exert a force equal to between 60 and 70 grams when they are new and first placed. ELASTIC TIE MATERIAL: To provide force to rotate or erupt teeth.The elastomeric materialis more esthetic howeverwhen extremely light pressure is desired ,the elastic thread is generally used. STAINLESS STEEL LIGATURE WIRES OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS. ELASTOMERIC RINGS {1.5 TO 2mm} are used to connect the cuspid brackets to intermaxillary hooks to keep the six upper and lower anterior teeth in contact. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. LINGUAL BUTTONS: used as points of engagement for the following:rubber elastics,ligature wires,specially shaped sections of archwire material and orthodontic elastic thread MOLAR HOOKS WITH BALL ENDS:makes the placing of elastics simple for the patient. KESLING TOOTH SPACING SPRINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. BRACKET PLACEMENT Brackets are centred mesiodistally on the labial and buccal surfaces of the teeth with the base of the archwire slots 4 mm from the incisal edges or cusp tips. For lateral incisors,the brackets are set close to the incisal edge,{3.5 mm},to provide the desired esthetic shortening of these teeth in relation to their neighbours. The lingual buttons should be positioned directly opposite the areas of archwire engagement on the opposite side of the teeth.This is necessary to permit free mesiodistal tipping and uprighting of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. BUCCAL TUBE PLACEMENT Molar buccal tubes are oriented parallel to a line bisecting the crown mesiodistallyas viewed from the occlusal and parallel to the occlusal surface as viewed from the buccal. Mandibular molar tubes are attached as far gingivally as possible to keep the archwire away from the occlusal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. THREE STAGES OF TREATMENT. Begg’s technique is divided into 3 separate and distinct stages that must not be allowed to overlap.it is chiefly with the object of preventing anchorage failure that the technique is divided into 3 distinct stages of tooth movement, 1.STAGE I 2.STAGE II 3.STAGE III www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. OBJECTIVES OF STAGE I: 1.crowding and irregularity of all teeth are corrected. 2.spaces between anterior teeth are closed. 3.rotations of all teeth are overcorrected to rotations that are the reverse of but less than the original rotations. 4.open the anterior overbite. 5. Anteroposterior occlusal relations of all teeth are overcorrected in class I and class II malocclusions until the posterior teeth reach almost classIII occlusal relations. 6.the contours of both the dental arches are brought to good proportions. 7.the upper and lower extraction spaces becomes more smaller. 8.correct posterior crossbites. www.indiandentalacademy.com 9.the axial relations of the anchor molars are corrected in this stage.
  23. 23. STAGE I In order to reduce deep overbite of anterior teeth,anchorage bends are made in the upper and lower 0.016 inch diameter round archwires mesial to the molar tubes so that the anterior parts of the archwires lie gingivally to the anterior teeth. When rectangular edgewise archwires are used for bitreopening,aconsiderable amount of bite opening is obtained by tipping back of the upper and lower molar anchor teeth with elevation of their mesial marginal ridges due to heavy forces. After completion of treatment,the elevated mesial marginal ridge settle back in their sockets resulting in relapse of anterior overbite.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. However ,in contrast, with the use of round arch wires,due to the light forces employed, only rapid movements of the upper and lower anterior teeth ocuurs gingivally .. There is no movement of the molars.Hence the deep overbite is www.indiandentalacademy.com eliminated and the results are stable..
  25. 25. STAGE I THE ARCH FORM OF THE ARCH-WIRE IN STAGE I IS GENERALLY EXPANDED OVER IT’S ENTIRE WIDTH TO COUNTERACT THE LINGUAL MOVEMENT OF THE ANCHOR MOLARS ANCHOR MOLARS ,ESPECIALLY THOSE IN THE MANDIBLE TEND TO TIP LINGUSALLY AS A RESULT OF VERTICAL COMPONENT OF FORCE FOUND IN CLASS ii INTERMAXILLARY ELASTICS. IN THIS TECHNIQUE,NO TEETH SHOULD BE HELD FIRM..SO THAT THEY CAN RESPOND TO GENTLE TOOTH –MOVING FORCES.. ELIMINATION OF ANTERIOR CROWDING: VERTICAL LOOPS BETWEEN CROWDED ANTERIOR TEETH ARE USED WITH BRACKET AREAS MODIFIED FOR DESIRED OVERCORRECTIONS. ARCH LENGTH DESIGNED SAO THAT INTERMAXILLARY CIRCLES REST AGAINST MESIAL SURFACE OF CUSPID BRACKETS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. CLOSURE OF ANTERIOR SPACES: PLAIN ARCHWIRE WITH ELASTIC FROM CUSPID PIN TAIL TO CUSPID PIN TAIL. CORRECTION OF ROTATION: 1.OVERCORRECTION OF BRACKET AREAS BETWEEN ANTERIOR VERTICAL LOOPS. 2.USE OF ELASTIC THREAD . 3.USE OF ROTATING SPRINGS. CORRECTION OF POSTERIOR CROSSBITES: 1.MODIFY ARCHWIDTH OF ONE OR MORE ARCHWIRES. 2.WEARING OF CROSS ELASTICS.-USUALLY BILATERALLY. 3.RAPID MAXILLARY OVER EXPANSION PRIOR TO THE BEGINNING OF STAGE 1 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. STAGE II OBJECTIVES OF THE SECOND STAGE: 1.maintain all corrections achieved during first stage. 2.close any remaining posterior spaces. all tooth movements that should be performed in the second stage of treatment are carried out simultaneously and must be completed in both dental arches before proceeding to stage III. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. STAGE II ARCH WIRE: THE FUNCTION OF ARCHWIRES IN STAGE II IS TO MAINTAIN THE CORRECTIONS ALREADY ACHIEVED AND TO STABILISE THE TEETH AGAINBST ANY ADVERSE RECIPROCAL FORCES. TO ACHIEVE THIS HEAVIER {0.020 INCH} UPPER AND LOWER ARCHWIRES ARE USED.. THE ANCHOR BENDS PLACED IN THE HEAVIER ARCHWIRE MUST BE LESS THAN THAT OF THE LIGHTER WIRES. WEARING OF ELASTICS DURING STAGE II: THE WEARING OF HORIZONTAL ELASTICS CREATES A ROTATIONAL FORCE ON THE MOLARS .TO PREVENT THIS,THE DISTAL ENDS OF THE ARCHWIRES CAN BE GIVEN A SLIGHT AMOUNT OF TOE-IN. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. TOOTH RELATIONSHIPS AT THE START OF STAGE III SINCE SOME % OF MANY CORRECTION ACHIEVED IN THE FIRST 2 STAGES IS LOST IN STAGE III ,IT IS BETTER TO OVERDO ALL OF THEM BY 15% 1.EDGE-EDGE INCISORS –ALL UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIORS RETROCLINED.2.CANINES DISTALLY TIPPED AND SECOND PREMOLAR MESIALLY TIPPED. 3.MOLARS UPRIGHT. 4.IN ANTERIOR OVERBITE: POSITIVE OVERBITE. 5.ALL SPACES CLOSED ,ROTATIONS AND MIDLINE DEVIATIONS OVERCORRECTED. ALL THE TEETH SHOULD BE WELL-ALKIGNED AND OCCLUDING IN SLIGHT MESIO-OCCLUSION. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. OBJECTIVES OF THIRD STAGE: 1.MAINTAIN ALL CORRECTIONS ACHIEVED FIRST AND SECOND STAGES. Posterior spaces kept closed by bending the distal ends of the archwires around the buccal tubes. Archform and overbite correction maintained by using heavier {0.018 to 0.025 inch} main arch wires. 2.ACHIEVE DESIRED AXIAL INCLINATIONS OF ALL TEETH. Changes in the mesiodistalinclination of teeth by the use of individual root-tipping springs. Lingual or labial root torque is applied to the anterior teeth through the application of torqueing auxillaries. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. ARCHFORMS ALL THE FORCES OF STAGE III AUXILIARIES ARE EXPRESSED THROUGH BASE ARCHWIRE HENCE IT CALLS FOR A STIFFER ARCHWIRE {0.020 INCH} IN STAGEIII TO RESIST DISTORTING FORCES FROM AUXILLIARIES. THE MAXILLARY BASE ARCHWIRE INCORPORATES THE FOLLOWING: 1.INTERMAXILLARY CIRCLE 2.ANCHOR BENDS 3.MOLAR VERTICAL OFFSET 4.HORIZONTAL MOLAR OFFSET 5.V-BEND 6.CONSTRICTION: TO COUNTERACT THE WIDENING EFFECT OF THE MAXILLARY TORQUEING AUXILIARY. 7.TOE-IN 8.CINCHIN/LINGUAL LIGATION.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. MANDIBULAR ARCHFORMS THE MANDIBULAR ARCHWIRE INCORPORATES THE FOLLOWING: 1.IDEAL ARCHFORM WITH PROPER ANTERIOR CURVATURE 2.GOOD CANINE CONTOURING 3.REDUCED ANCHOR BENDS 4.GABLE BEND DISTAL TO CANINE. 5.2-4MM EXPANSION IN POSTERIOR SEGMENT TO COUNTERACT LINGUAL TIPPING BY CLASSII ELASTIC USE. 6.MILD VERTICAL &HORIZONTAL MOLAR OFFSET.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. AUXILIARIES USED IN STAGE III 1.UPRIGHTING SPRING 2.TORQUEING AUXILIARY UPRIGHTING SPRING: IT WAS FIRST DEVELOPED BY DR.BEGG.IIN 1961. IT HAS 3 PARTS: 1.ACTIVE ARM WITH TERMINAL PART AS HOOK. 2.HELIX CAN BE 2-3 FULL HELIX ,0.5-1MM INTERNAL DIAMETER. 3.STEM/LEG-RETENTIVE ARM. SELF-RETAINING UPRIGHTING SPRING WITH 3 FULL COILS TO PROIVIDE GENTLE,CONTINUOUS FORCE NECESSARY TO UPRIGHT TEETH WITHOUT REQUIRING REACTIVATION. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. TORQUEING AUXILIARY BY THE END OF STAGE II ,IT BECOMES QUITE OBVIOUS WHETHERINCISOR ROOT TORQUEING IS NECESSARY OR NOT.DR.BEGG HAD SEPARATED ROOT MOVING FORCES FROM CROWN MOVING FORCES AND FOR THIS HE HAD DESIGNED SPUR TORQUING AUXILIARY . IT CAN BE 2,,4,6 SPUR AND USED FOR LABIAL OR PALATAL ROOT TORQUE.WHEN FORMED IT HAS THE FOLLOWING FEATURES.: 1.VERTICAL LOOPS 2.INTER SPUR SPAN 3.CUSPID CONTOURING 4TERMINAL HOOK. MATERIAL USED: 0.014 SPECIAL + WIRE .. DESIGN: 4 SPUR OCTAGON WITH ONE SIDE MISSING AND SIZE OF A 50 PAISE COIN. THE LENGTH OF THE SPUR IS 5MM ON AN AVERAGE. THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE SPUR AND THE HORIZONTAL LEG IS 2530 DEGREES. www.indiandentalacademy.com THE MESIAL LEG OF EACH TORQUING SPUR IS MADE 0.5MM -1MM
  35. 35. IS IT NECESSARY TO USE EXTRAORAL ANCHORAGE? With the Begg technique,the dental arches are as a result of applying differential arch wire and rubber ligature force values ,taken so far back in the jaws that ample allowance is made for that inevitable forward movement of the dental arches which occurs when the axial inclinations of the teeth are being corrected in the latter part of treatment. Therefore,extraoral anchorage never has to be used with the light round archwire technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. THE CORRECTION OF MIDLINE DISCREPANCY THE CORRECTION OF MIDLINE DISCREPANCY USING THE EDGEWISE TECHNIQUE WITH THE ANTERIOR INTERMAXILLARY CROSS ELASTICS IS DIFFICULT AND TIME-CONSUMING.. HOWEVER WITH THE BEGG TECHNIQUE,MOST CENTER LINE DISCREPANCIES AUTOMATICALLY DISAPPEAR BY THE TIME THE SECOND STAGE HAS BEEN COMPLETED.AND THE REST ARE CORRECTED DURING THE MESIODISTAL TOOTH UPRIGHTING DURING STAGE III. IT IS THE FORCES FROM THE HORIZONTAL SPACE-CLOSING ELASTICS THAT ARE CHIEFLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EASE WITH WHICH MOST CENTER LINE DISCREPANCIES CAN BE CORRECTED. DURING THE USE OF HORIZONTAL ELASTICS AIDED BY CLASS II ELASTICS,THE EXTRACTION SPACE WILL BE CLOSED ON ONE SIDE SOONER THAN ON THE OTHER SIDE.HENCE ,THE MIDLINE WILL BE SITUATED FARTHER AROUND TO THAT SIDE.THEN,THE SPACE –CLOSING ELASTIC ON THE SIDE WHERE THE EXTRACTION SPACE IS NOT YET CLOSED GRADUALLY PULLS THE CENTER AROUND TOWARD THIS STILL UNCLOSED SIDE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. STAGE MODELS. THE IMPORTANCE OF STAGE MODELS AS TOLD BY DR.A ROCKE,: 1.TO CHECK THE ARCH CONTOUR AND WIDTH. 2.TO CHECK THE INCLINATION OF UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIOR TEETH. 3.SELF-DISCIPLINE TO TO COMPLETE EACH STAGE BEFORE PROCEEDING TO THE NEXT. 4.TO DETERMINE THE TEETH MOVEMENT. 5.TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ANCHORAGE MAINTAINED IN THE TREATMENT. 6.VISUAL AID FOR PATIENTS AND PARENTS. 7.VISUAL AID FOR REFERRING DENTISTS THE POSSIBILITY OF ANTERIOR TORQUING.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. BEGG TECHNIQUE-TIME SAVING PROCEDURE. THE LIGHT ROUND ARCHWIRE DIFFERENTIAL FORCE TREATMENT TECHNIQUE: 1.GIVES SUPERIOR FINAL TREATMENT RESULTS 2.GIVES LESS PATIENT DISCOMFORT 3.THE OVERALL TREATMENT TIME IS MATERIALLY SHORTENED 4.FEWER INTERIM APPLIANCE ADJUSTMENTS ARE REQUIRED 5.CHAIRSIDE TIME IS GREATLY RTEDUCED. Most other methods involve 25 or more adjustments of appliances which must be worn from 2 to 4 years with patient visits spaced at 2 to 3 week intervals.In cioontrast,begg technique normally requires an appliance to be worn for 10-20 months ,with far fewer adjustments and with patient visits spaced at 6 week intervals.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. CONCLUSION The development of dr.Begg’s different way of orthodontic therapy was not the resulkt of a single discovery but rather ,the product of a long tedious ,well-organised trial and error process. When correctly applied,his light archwire technique can produce universal tooth movement with light optimum forces,least discomfort to patients ,minimum loosening of teeth and least injury to tooth investing tissues. Dr.Begg’s theory does not depend upon cephalometrics to establish angulations nor does it require complicated engineering formulae for moving teeth. Because the begg technique,requires shorter time,it does not mean that it is a “snap” method requiring less orthodontic skill or ingenuity. www.indiandentalacademy.com .
  40. 40. CONCLUSION Inspite of the fact that dr.Begg was born to an industrial executive,and that he could have very well made a fortune in business,he chose to bring smiles in people’s lives around the world. The successful use of a given appliance will be based on an understanding of the underlying principles.These can be taught; but the exact practical application requires a measure of the art of the craftsman,or craft of the artist which are qualities of the individual and cannot be taught. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. REFERENCES 1.BEGG ORTHODONTIC THEORY AND TECHNIQUE : BEGG AND KESLING. 2.BEGG:APPLIANCE AND TECHNIQUE G.G.T.FLETCHER.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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