103 sudhir

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103 sudhir

  1. 1. Experimental analysis of 1400 cc diesel engine car converted into Hybrid Electric Vehicle by using BLDC hub motors by Prof. Sudhir Gupte Automobile Engineering Department A.D.Patel Institute of Technology IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 12 Dec' 2013 1
  2. 2. Introduction Two reasons for the need of Conversion. Fossil fuel resources depleting Environment Pollution Global Warming Stringent Mandatory norms Hike in Fuel prices Demand and supply Newer Technologies IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 12 Dec' 2013 2
  3. 3. Introduction: What is Automotive Industry doing ? To achieve mandatory pollution standards out of compulsion Engine down sizing Power to Weight Ratio Reduction in Vehicular Weight Improvement in Combustion Air/Fuel Ratio Study of Driving cycle Aerodynamics EV/HEV IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 3
  4. 4. Mild, Micro etc. Hybrids. But all these comes at very high development cost and complicated & expensive installations on the vehicle. BUT If per capita consumption is not reduced drastically and if alternate energy vehicles are not developed, they will not be able to sustain the market conditions in the near future. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 4
  5. 5. Integrated holistic approach to improve Quality of air     Improvement in Roads and traffic conditions Fuel Quality standards Bio Fuels & Alternate energy sources. Electric vehicle mission plan declared by Govt. India 9th Jan, 2012. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 5
  6. 6. However Those Millions of old vehicles will be still guzzling unwanted, harmful pollutants in the atmosphere at an alarming rate, still contributing towards the menace of global warming, which will continue, if they are not converted into hybrid electric vehicles. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 6
  7. 7. Hence 1400 cc diesel engine car converted into Hybrid Electric Vehicle by using BLDC hub motors – An Experimental analysis IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 7
  8. 8. Following points were considered while attempting to contribute towards improving the quality of air or reduce further damage being created by the existing /old gasoline and /or diesel vehicles.  conversion should be economical and affordable.  Conversion should be easy. An unskilled worker/mechanic should be able to carry out the conversion within 4 to 5 hours, after receiving necessary one day training.  Minimum requirement of special tools.  Return on investment should be measurable and attractive for the user.  Convenient to use by the customer.  Hassel free service. Ease of maintenance.  Ease of implementation even for vehicle manufacturer on the similar new models.  Satisfactory performance. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 8
  9. 9. Concept : Proposed Hybrid system  Using the existing IC engine as main source.  Electric motors providing driving force as Auxiliary power source.  Can be used as four wheel drive as and when necessary.  All four wheels disc brake system.  No/Minimum modifications in the existing drive train. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 9
  10. 10. Concept : Proposed Hybrid system … Cont.  On board Energy flow: Separate Battery pack for Existing engine and for electric motors.  Plug-in type charging system for Electric motor batteries and existing alternator charging system for the vehicular battery.  Regenerative braking system not adopted, because, under most ideal conditions, efficiency of loop, battery to kinetic and kinetic to battery charging is no greater than 50 %. Also, it adds to cost, which may prohibit customers for conversion. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 10
  11. 11. Models Applicable:     Maruti: M800, Alto, Zen Tata: Indica Hundai: Santro All “B segment” cars with Front Transverse Engine. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 11
  12. 12. Kit comprising of Parts         Permanent Magnet BLDC Hub Motors Controller Accelerator pedal control Battery Pack (options to choose type of Battery: Pb/Acid, Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer, etc.) Wiring harness (inclusive of switches) Charging system Measuring Instruments (optional) Brakes system IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 12
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  17. 17. Performance Test Results Conventional ICE Vehicle Prototype HEV % Saving of Fuel in EV mode V/s ICE State highway 4.65 2.29 50.8 State highway 4.83 2.62 45.8 NH 8 5.05 2.19 56.6 Express way 5.12 1.97 61.5 Parameters Fuel Consumption, Liters//100Km Route Maximum Speed Achievable in HEV 62 km/hr IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 17
  18. 18. Conventional ICE Vehicle HEV after Conversion 52 PS @ 5000 52PS 85 @ 2500 rpm 85 @ 2500 rpm - 2.5+2.5 = 5 kw - 150 Ah 150 Kg 150 Kg Curb weight of vehicle 1050 Kg 1250 Kg Total 1200 Kg 1400 Kg Parameters Engine Peak Power Engine Max. Torque, NM Peak Power of Motor, PM BLDC HEV Battery Pack, 4x12 V, Lead Acid type Passenger Weight IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 18
  19. 19. Torque at Wheels Description Unit rpm @ ICE HEV Peak power Ps 5000 52 5 Peak toque Nm 2500 85 Final drive ratio Gear Ratios 4.40 1st Nm 3.64 2nd Nm 1.95 3rd Nm 1.27 4th Nm 0.88 5th Nm 0.64 Reverse Nm 3.50 Tyre Size Rolling radius Max. Torque at wheels 165X65R14 0.272 1st Nm Nm 729.30 3rd Nm 474.98 4th Nm 329.12 5th Nm 237.86 Reverse Nm 1309.00 Km/hr 92 0.272 1361.36 2nd Max. Speed m IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 200 61.5 19
  20. 20. Why change EV driving cycle  Prius changes to EV during congested traffic conditions and runs on ICE on highways. OK for urban driving cycles in Metro cities.  In other cities car users are driving in cities for 10 % distances and remaining on highways.  High speed running on highway obviously fuel consumption is high.  With low powered, light weight PMBLDC hub motors, it is proposed to run vehicle on ICE in city traffic conditions and switching on to EV on highway. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 20
  21. 21. Results and Discussions  By using proposed lower power Hub Motors, up to 61 % saving is achievable on the existing cars.  Peak performance of the available drive line is retained / assured.  Veh. existing electrical system is not disturbed.  Existing Hyd. Brakes with Disc brakes in rear.  No additional Instrumentation required.  Power Steering and A/c are driven by ICE, hence ICE has to run on idling while running in EV mode. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 21
  22. 22. Results and Discussions …Cont.  Appropriate torque capacity of PM BLDC hub motors can be selected for the particular vehicle for conversion in to HEV, for deriving optimum results.  Advantage of hub motors is that the output is directly driving the wheels; hence the motors efficiency is the only loss. Geared hub motors add to varying torque reqyuirement.  Well to wheel energy efficiency for Prototype HEV is measures at 0.87 km/MJ as against 0.64 for Insight and 0.56 for Prius models but 1.14 for Tesla (pure EV). IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 22
  23. 23. Conclusions  Proposed method is expected to reduce the fuel consumption by 45 % to 61 % (with A/c & P/S).  Results can improve further, if the high Ah, light weight batteries are utilized.  Possible to convert majority of the old cars with front engine front wheel drive vehicles in to Hybrid Electric car, without much of difficulty and at reasonable cost.  Easy to implement in new veh. models – Existing/introduced in future, by the vehicle manufacturers. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 23
  24. 24. Conclusions …Contd.  Serviceability and life of components is improved.  Increase Service life of ICE and driveline components.  Reduced maintenance cost of ICE and driveline assembly components.  ROI from 11 to 15 months @ 3000 km per month. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 24
  25. 25. THANK YOU IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research - 12 Dec' 2013 25

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