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Electrical Vehicle (EV)


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Impact of EV to Thai Industry

Published in: Automotive
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Electrical Vehicle (EV)

  1. 1. 1 Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul Chairman, Board of Director of Innovation Group March 2017
  2. 2. Thailand Economy Green Economy Technology Finance & F/X Politicians Local Politicians Social Changes Globalization and Trade Regulations NBT Consumer’s behavior “Something new and better Global Warming Environmental ControlGreen Technology Political Transparency Government Offices Local influencers 3D Printing Bio-Engineering Digital Technology and Robotic Digital Communications Unbalance of incomes Aging People Urbanization Multi-nationalitiesLabor mobility 2Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  3. 3. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Battery Electrical Vehicle(BEV)  BEV is an electric car that is propelled by electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries.  Electric motor are more quite than ICE and generate much lower heat and pollutants.  Not only Internal combustion engine but fuel system are not necessary also for BEV. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vs. Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 3
  4. 4. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 4 Why Electric Vehicles?? The Transport sector is responsible for one quarter of total Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Major Emmissions of Pollution – especially in Megacities (Urbanisation) One Quarter of total consumption of fossil raw materials Noise Pollution
  5. 5. Losses : about 40% hot exhaust gases 20% motor cooling (water) 10% motor cooling (radiation, convection) 10% other losses Energy Efficiency ICE 20 % propulsion Energy Efficiency EV 85 % propulsion Losses : about 5% battery 10% other losses Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 5
  6. 6. 6Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  7. 7. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 7
  8. 8. 8Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  9. 9. 9Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  10. 10.  Today oil demand is 92.4 mbd and automotive accounts for 75% of oil product consumption in transporting system or 50% of final oil consumption  By 2023, w/w will consume 100 mbd of oil, EV could replace 2 mbd of oil demand as early as 2023  China is the strongest growing country in EV  Current price of battery in mid-sized car cost $ 15,000. makes EV car very expensive. But price of battery is coming down.  While cost of producing ICE to meet environmental controlling standard will becoming more expensive than EV which meet the standard 10Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  11. 11. HEV FCEV PHEV EREV HEV: Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV: Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicle BEV: Battery Electric Vehicle EREV: Extended Range Electric Vehicle FCEV: Fuel cell Electric Vehicle 11Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand) BEV
  12. 12. HEV PHEV BEV EREV FCEV Engine Y Y N N Fuel cell Regen. brake Y Y Y Y Y External N Y Y Y N Engine M/G Battery Fuel tank Engine Fuel tank M/G Battery Engine Fuel tank M/G Battery M/G Battery Fuel cell M/G Battery H2 tank Charged by engine/fuel cell Charged by regenerative braking Charged by external power source Large battery capacity for long range travelling -> Charging by external power source is definitely necessary 12Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  13. 13. AC (Normal and fast charge) DC (Quick charge) Phase/Voltage 1 P/230 V 3 P/400 V -/400-500 V Power 3.3-7.4 kW 10-43 kW ≥ 50 kW Charging time (Ex. Battery capacity 24 kWh) 3-7 hr. (Full charge) 0.5-2 hr. (Full charge) < 30 min. (80% charge only) 13Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  14. 14. Global cumulative number of PEVs* (BEV+PHEV) has reached 1.2 millions in 2015 PEVs BEV 1 million *PEVs: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (BEV + PHEV) 14Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  15. 15. Global cumulative number of EV charging outlets, 2010-2015, has reached 1.45 millions outlets. • As of 2015,the numbers of private charger are 1.3 millions outlets, publicly low charger are ∼162,000 outlets and publicly fast charger are ∼28,000 outlets respectively. • Top 3 countries: US, China and Japan Note: Slow chargers include AC chargers with charging power ≤22 kW. Fast chargers include AC chargers with charging power 43 kW, DC chargers, Tesla Superchargers and inductive chargers. (thousands) 15Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  16. 16. Level Target Scope Type Tool • National • State/ provincial • Municipal • Private customers • Industry • Public sector • Vehicle • Charging infrastructure • Financial • Target/bans/ mandates • Public procurement • Others • Fiscal-Tax incentive/ penalty • Direct financial subsidy • Mandates &Targets • Product standards • Public expenditure • Electricity rates • Etc. A key driver to boost the EV ecosystem – THE POLICY Ex: A federal funding programme that contributed to 36,500 publicly accessible charging outlets in place in 2015. A partnership with a retailer for the installation of 500 fast chargers and 650 standards chargers at its stores, providing 2/3 of funding. From March 2015, the CH government has mandated that parking spaces in new residential bldg. & at least 10% of public parking should have EV charging infrastructure. 16Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  17. 17. *Hawkins, Troy R.; Singh, Bhawna; Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Strømman, Anders Hammer (February 2012). "Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles". Journal of Industrial Ecology. 17 (1): 53–64 Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 17  High cost of Li-ion battery. Besides Li, Cd is relatively expensive and toxic.  Critical Raw Materials (Rare Earths (for example neodymium, dysprosium; Special Metals etc.) – many of them not available in Europe  Range small compared to ICE cars and temperature dependant  Low Comfort Level (Heating ; other energy consumers..)  Long Loading Times
  18. 18. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 18 Mobility of the Future Shared Mobility Connected Autonomous Driving E-Mobility
  19. 19. Emerging new service platforms of transportation is customized and convenient for consumers. Driverless system must be relied on safety and convenient in driving including effectively connecting with other cars. Car Emission would be reduced with electrification system both vehicle technologies (PHEV/BEV) and traffic management in urban areas. Infrastructure and transportation should support digital driving system. Connectivity in supply chain by digital system will come into play. Share services Autonomous or self-driving vehicle Automotive Industry of the Future Green mobility Digitalization of automotive products and process management 1 2 3 4 Source : Mckinsey & Company , Mercedes-Benz , PWC Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 19
  20. 20. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 20
  21. 21. Expected Cost 2015 2020 2025 2030 100 € / kWh EV >= conventional 150 € / kWh HV battery system costs 200 – 300 € / kWh HV battery system costs Conventional powertrain costs Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 21Innovation Group (Thailand)
  22. 22. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 22 Drivetrain now Diesel Gasoline Hybrid eDrive Future
  23. 23. Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 23Innovation Group (Thailand)
  24. 24. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 24 S-Class GLE GLC GLC COUPE C-Class EstateC-Class E-ClassC-Class LWB 2014 20162015
  25. 25. Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 100% EV Share Mercedes-Benz Cars Sales 2025 Greater China NAFTA WEU Highest Potential EV Share Mercedes-Benz Cars 2025 Ready for the market 50% 15% 25% 25Innovation Group (Thailand)
  26. 26. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 26 B 250 eSLS AMG Coupé Electric Drive smart fortwo electric drive smart electric drive - fortwo and forfour Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL Battery-electric vehicle with up to 500 km range Intelligent EV-Architecture
  27. 27. 2010: Underfloor package 206 g Platinum 4 kW / m2 active area Screw compressor 2017: Compartment package 20 g Platinum 9 kW / m2 active area Electric turbo charger with turbine reduction of Platinum Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 30% 30% higher mileage reduction fuel cell engine size higher electric range in future vehicles 27Innovation Group (Thailand) 90% 40%
  28. 28. Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 28Innovation Group (Thailand)
  29. 29. 29Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  30. 30. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 30
  31. 31. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 31
  32. 32. AC Charging Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul DC Charging Inductive Charging 32Innovation Group (Thailand)
  33. 33. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 33 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Digital Services Friends Airport Super market Stadium Cinema Bakery Parking lot Restaurant Park Private trip Daily business Holidays POI Zoo Mall Parking lot Parking lot Gym Rest stop Customer requirements available fast intelligent comfortable @home highway public @work
  34. 34. 2nd plant start of operations: mid 2018 Production of Li-Ion batteries for hybrid as well as electric vehicles and energy storage systems Production space stocked up from 20,000 to 60,000 m2 Extension Deutsche ACCUMOTIVE GmbH & Co. KG, Kamenz, Germany Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 34Innovation Group (Thailand)
  35. 35. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 35
  36. 36. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 36
  37. 37. EV needs light martials for its chassis and body. Aluminum alloys and carbon composites are replacing heavy steel Li-ion battery uses Li as the anode. Graphite as the cathode . Li is sensitive to air and moisture to ignite. Copper will be heavily consumed , 80 kilos per car. If in 2035, 140 million EV on the road ( 8% of total fleets of light vehicles). EV will consume 1/3 of total global copper demand . By 2025, . EV could replace 2 million barrel a day of oil demand and increasing (w/w will consume 100 million barrel of oil per day) Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 37
  38. 38. Lithium-ion batteries are main battery for all rechargeable applications from cell phones to electrical cars to renewable energy farm. Graphite is used in the other electrode 99.9%) purity as anode-grade. Graphene is ideal for use in in battery because of its net-like structure that allow Li atoms through, speeding up charge and discharge times. Most Li-ion battery contain graphite 55% more than Li (55 pounds in large EV battery) Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 38
  39. 39. Lithium Cobalt Oxide ( 60% Co has highest density, using mainly in cell phone and lab top) Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide(10-20% Co has lower density but can handle larger energy loading and makes it safer in large batteries in EV) And finally Lithium NickleCobalt Aluminium Oxide ( 9% Co, lower density, high load battery , good for large scale project ) Co is found in mining of Ni. Cobalite ( CoAsS) is important deposite in Congo. Mining of Co causes poisonous of Arsenic to steam and Arsenic fume in smelting Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 39
  40. 40. World is looking to use non-Cobalt in Li compound Li-battery station provides peak hour electrical power plant to cover times of excess demand..300 megawatts of battery storage is building in California. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 40
  41. 41. Tier 2 & 3Tier 1Assembly Group Auto parts Producers 450,000 people Supporting Industries 100,000 people Car and Pickup truck Assembly 17 companies, 23 firms Motorcycle Assembly 8 Companies 8 firms Small and Medium Auto parts producers (1,700 companies) Stamping, plastics, rubber, machining, casting, forging, function, electrical, trimming Engines, Drivetrains, Steering, Suspension, Brake Wheel, Tire, Bodyworks, Interiors, Electronics Systems Auto parts Producers (386 companies) Motorcycle parts Producers (201 companies) *Car Assembly 100,000 people •Distributor, •Service center 200,000 people Cluster structure and supply chain in Thailand automotive industry - Distribution W/H - Finance - Assess - Specific Adviser - Logistic - Leasing, Banking Entrepreneur Associations and Institutions Academic and Technical Institution Government Upstream industries Iron and Steel, Plastics, Rubber, Electronics, glass and mirror, Textile and Leather, Petrochemical, Painting and Coating Policy group and supporting organizations Services industries Supporting industries Machinery, Tools and Mechanical devices, Molding etc. World Ranking 12th Production Base Target More than 2,500 companies
  42. 42. 42 THAILAND AUTOMOTIVE AND MOTORCYCLE EXPORT VALUE (MILLION BAHT) Export value of Thailand automotive and auto parts industries THAILAND AUTO PARTS EXPORT VALUE (MILLION BAHT) 2015 Total export value 1.2 Trillion Baht Source : TAI/ TAPMA MB. MB.
  43. 43.  Thai automotive production is close to 2 million cars. It is the 12th world’s car production of 91 million cars.  It accounts to almost 1.5 trillion baht in total value chain.  Always, Automotive industry is key driver in development of steel, petrochemical and rubber industries.  Automotive and tire industries consume 65% of total rubber. And Thailand is the largest NR producer, at 4.5 mil. tons.  65% of Innovation Group’s revenue is generated from products and service to automotive industry. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 43
  44. 44. 44Dr.Banja JunhasavasdikulInnovation Group (Thailand)
  45. 45. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 45 Weather strip Grommet
  46. 46. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 46 Brake-Clutch parts Anti vibration parts Hoses and Fuel Hoses Engine Mount Dustproof cover Bush Oil Seal Intake hoses
  48. 48. Comparison of RM cost for ICE vs. BEV Part Weigth (g) Kind of Rubber RM cost (� / car) ICE BEV wind shield & weather strip 4,300 EPDM 390 Brake 250 EPDM 30 Air condition hose 220 EPDM , FKM Polyamide 70 Grommet 410 EPDM 35 Wiper Blade 75 NR 10 O-Ring & Seal 120 NBR, EPDM 60 Brake 260 EPDM 35 Body Cushion 300 NR 30 Boot 1,000 EPDM, CR 130 Strut 2,000 NR 200 other rubber 200 NR, EPDM 20 Belt 400 CR/HNBR 60 Fuel hose 960 FKM, ECO, CSM 200 Power steering hose 900 FKM, CSM, CR 500 Air intake hose 500 ACM, ECO 175 Turbo charger 500 FKM/Silicone 300 Radiator hose 500 EPDM 100 Oil seal & gasket 240 NBR/FKM 240 Engine mount 410 NR/CR 40 Engine Cushion 515 NR 80 Total 2,705 1,010
  49. 49.  ICE car consists of rubber part for 14 kg approximately (not including tires).  BEV has no combustion engine and fuel system. So, rubber part around an engine, fuel transferring system and fuel tank are not necessary.  Discarding rubber part in engine and fuel system, 70% of rubber part still be remained.  However, those parts that disappear are the high performance rubber parts which always challenge technical development in rubber. These rubber parts are high value products for improvement of engine performance, bio-fuel and environmental regulations ICE BEV Total weight of rubber part in car wind shield & weather strip Cooling system Brake Grommet Wiper Blade Suspension Anti-Vibration Others rubber Engine Fuel system 30% Reduced 14 KGs Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 49
  50. 50. • Oil and high temperature resistant materials will decrease in usage in BEV. • Inflammable and high voltage resistant materials will be required for the part that connect to electrical equipment, motor and battery in BEV. • Heat generated in motor and battery storage area is less than ICE, rubber part is probably replaced by new composite materials in plastic and rubber. “TPV” is a new challenging materials will be using more in those areas. Materials Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 50
  51. 51. Green Tires Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 51
  52. 52. Concept Tires Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 52
  53. 53. Goodyear’s Round shaped Tire for EV Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 53
  54. 54. No Flat Tire No need to carry spare Low rolling-resistance Recyclable flexible materials Applicable to heavy duty tires Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 54
  55. 55. tough materials of Polyurethane and glass reinforced are used Michelin X Tweel Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 55
  56. 56. Generate electric for EV By converting friction heat of tire and road and tire flex into electric It can also collect heat from sun in hot air to generate electric when car is not running. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 56
  57. 57. Innovation Group (Thailand) Dr.Banja Junhasavasdikul 57