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Top 100 Linux Interview Questions and Answers 2014

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If you're looking for the top 100 linux interview questions and answers, then you've come to the right place. We at hirist have compiled a list of the top linux interview questions that are asked by companies like TCS, Infosys, Wipro, HCL and Cognizant and put it together in a pdf format that can be downloaded for free.

You can easily download this free linux interview questions pdf file and use it to prepare for an interview. It doesn't matter if you're looking for linux interview questions and answers for freshers or linux interview questions and answers for experienced because this presentation will cater to both segments.


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Top 100 Linux Interview Questions and Answers 2014

  1. 1. hirist .com www.hirist.com TOP 100 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS LINUX
  2. 2. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisLinuxandwhyisitsopopular? 2 QUESTION LinuxisanoperatingsystembasedonUNIX,andwasfirstintroducedbyLinusTorvaldscommonlyusedinservers. ItisbasedontheLinuxKernel,andcanrunondifferenthardwareplatformsmanufacturedbyIntel,MIPS,HP, IBM,SPARCandMotorola.AnotherpopularelementinLinuxisitsmascot,apenguinfigurenamedTux. PopularityofLinuxisbecauseofthefollowingreasons •Itisfreeandopensource.WecandownloadLinuxforfreeandcustomizeitasperourneeds. •Itisveryrobustandadaptable. •Immenseamountoflibrariesandutilities ANSWER QUESTION 1
  3. 3. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisBASH? 3 QUESTION BASHisshortforBourneAgainSHell.ItwaswrittenbySteveBourneasareplacementtotheoriginalBourneShell(representedby/bin/sh).ItcombinesallthefeaturesfromtheoriginalversionofBourneShell,plusadditionalfunctionstomakeiteasierandmoreconvenienttouse.IthassincebeenadaptedasthedefaultshellformostsystemsrunningLinux. ANSWER QUESTION 2
  4. 4. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthecoreofLinuxOperatingSystem? 4 QUESTION ThecoreoftheLinuxoperatingsystemisKernel.ItisbrokendownintoShell,Command,Script,andTerminal.ShellisacommandLineInterpreter,CommandisuserInstructiontoComputer,Scriptiscollectionofcommandsstoredinafile,andTerminalisacommandLineInterface. ANSWER QUESTION 3
  5. 5. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthebasicdifferencebetweenUNIXandLinuxOperatingSystem? 5 QUESTION Linuxisfreeandopen-sourcesoftware(allowingprogrammerstoprogramwithLinuxnotaroundit),thekernelofwhichiscreatedbyLinusTorvaldsandcommunity.UNIX,ontheotherhand,isUNIXiscopyrightednameonlybigcompaniesareallowedtousetheUNIXcopyrightandname,soIBMAIXandSunSolarisandHP-UXallareUNIXoperatingsystems. ANSWER QUESTION 4
  6. 6. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisLILO? 6 QUESTION LILOisabootloaderforLinux.ItisusedmainlytoloadtheLinuxoperatingsystemintomainmemorysothatitcanbeginitsoperations. ANSWER QUESTION 5
  7. 7. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisanINODE? 7 QUESTION Allfileshaveitsdescriptionstoredinastructurecalled„inode‟.Theinodecontainsinfoaboutthefile-size,accessandmodificationtime,permissionandsoon.Inadditiontodescriptionsaboutthefile,theinodecontainspointerstothedatablocksofthefile. ANSWER QUESTION 6
  8. 8. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisaswapspace? 8 QUESTION AswapspaceisacertainamountofspaceusedbyLinuxtotemporarilyholdsomeprogramsthatarerunningconcurrently.ThishappenswhenRAMdoesnothaveenoughmemorytoholdallprogramsthatareexecuting. ANSWER QUESTION 7
  9. 9. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatistheadvantageofopensource? 9 QUESTION Opensourceallowsyoutodistributeyoursoftware,includingsourcecodesfreelytoanyonewhoisinterested. Peoplewouldthenbeabletoaddfeaturesandevendebugandcorrecterrorsthatareinthesourcecode.Theycanevenmakeitrunbetter,andthenredistributetheseenhancedsourcecodefreelyagain.Thiseventuallybenefitseveryoneinthecommunity. ANSWER QUESTION 8
  10. 10. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthebasicdifferencebetweenBASHandDOS? 10 QUESTION ThekeydifferencesbetweentheBASHandDOSconsoleliesin3areas: -BASHcommandsarecasesensitivewhileDOScommandsarenot; -underBASH,/characterisadirectoryseparatorandactsasanescapecharacter.UnderDOS,/servesasacommandargumentdelimiterandisthedirectoryseparator -DOSfollowsaconventioninnamingfiles,whichis8characterfilenamefollowedbyadotand3characterfortheextension.BASHfollowsnosuchconvention. ANSWER QUESTION 9
  11. 11. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthedifferencebetweenTCPandUDP? 11 QUESTION ThebasicdifferenceisthatTCPestablishesaconnectionbeforesendingdataandthisallowsittocontrolthedataflowandguaranteethatallpacketsgetdelivered.UDPsimplychucksdatagramsontothewireandifsomegetlostorarriveinbadorderthere‟snowaytorequestaresend.HoweverUDPhaslownetworkoverheadsosomeservicessuchasDNSresolution,SNMP,DHCP,RIPandVOIPuseUDPforitsspeedandanyerrorsareusuallydealtwithontheapplicationlayerratherthannetworklayer. ANSWER QUESTION 10
  12. 12. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatistheimportanceoftheGNUproject? 12 QUESTION Thisso-calledFreesoftwaremovementallowsseveraladvantages,suchasthefreedomtorunprogramsforanypurposeandfreedomtostudyandmodifyaprogramtoyourneeds.Italsoallowsyoutoredistributecopiesofasoftwaretootherpeople,aswellasfreedomtoimprovesoftwareandhaveitreleasedtothepublic. ANSWER QUESTION 11
  13. 13. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowdoesDNSresolutionwork? 13 QUESTION AclientapplicationrequestsanIPaddressfromthenameserverusuallybyconnectingtoUDPport53.ThenameserverwillattempttoresolvetheFQDNbasedonitsresolverlibrary,whichmaycontainauthoritativeinformationaboutthehostrequestedorcacheddataaboutthatnamefromanearlierquery.Ifthenameserverdoesnotalreadyhavetheanswer,itwillturntorootnameserverstodeterminetheauthoritativefortheFQDNinquestion. Then,withthatinformation,itwillquerytheauthoritativenameserversforthatnametodeterminetheIPaddress. ANSWER QUESTION 12
  14. 14. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Describetherootaccount. 14 QUESTION Therootaccountislikeasystemsadministratoraccount,andallowsyoufullcontrolofthesystem.Hereyoucancreateandmaintainuseraccounts,assigningdifferentpermissionsforeachaccount.ItisthedefaultaccounteverytimeyouinstallLinux. ANSWER QUESTION 13
  15. 15. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisCLI? 15 QUESTION CLIisshortforCommandLineInterface.Thisinterfaceallowsusertotypedeclarativecommandstoinstructthecomputertoperformoperations.CLIoffersanadvantageinthatthereisgreaterflexibility.However,otheruserswhoarealreadyaccustomwithusingGUIfinditdifficulttoremembercommandsincludingattributesthatcomewithit. ANSWER QUESTION 14
  16. 16. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisGUI? 16 QUESTION GUI,orGraphicalUserInterface,makesuseofimagesandiconsthatusersclickandmanipulateasawayofcommunicatingwiththecomputer.Insteadofhavingtorememberandtypecommands,theuseofgraphicalelementsmakesiteasiertointeractwiththesystem,aswellasaddingmoreattractionthroughimages,iconsandcolors. ANSWER QUESTION 15
  17. 17. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowcanyoufindouthowmuchmemoryLinuxisusing? 17 QUESTION Fromacommandshell,usethe“concatenate”command:cat/proc/meminfoformemoryusageinformation.Youshouldseealinestartingsomethinglike:Mem:64655360,etc.ThisisthetotalmemoryLinuxthinksithasavailabletouse. ANSWER QUESTION 16
  18. 18. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisanMXrecord? 18 QUESTION AnMXrecordnumericallyranksthemailserversyouwouldprefertoreceiveemailforadomain.TheMXrecordwiththelowestnumberispreferredovertheothers,butyoucansetmultipleemailserverswiththesamevalueforsimpleloadbalancing. ANSWER QUESTION 17
  19. 19. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com PleasedescribetheLinuxboot-upsequence. 19 QUESTION Therearesevenstepstotheboot-upsequence.1)BIOS(basicinput/outputsystem)–executestheMBRwhereBootLoadersits,2)MBR-MasterbootreadsKernelintomemory,3)GRUB(GrandUnifiedBootloader)KernelstartsInitprocess,4)Kernel–Kernelexecutesthe/sbin/initprogram.Initreadsinittab,executesrc.sysinit,5)Init–thercscriptthanstartsservicestoreachthedefaultrunleveland6)Runlevelprograms–theseprogramsareexecutedfrom/etc/rc.d/rc*.dl/ ANSWER QUESTION 18
  20. 20. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatistypicalsizeforaswappartitionunderaLinuxsystem? 20 QUESTION Thepreferredsizeforaswappartitionistwicetheamountofphysicalmemoryavailableonthesystem.Ifthisisnotpossible,thentheminimumsizeshouldbethesameastheamountofmemoryinstalled. ANSWER QUESTION 19
  21. 21. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Howdoyousearchforapatternandthenreplaceitinanentirefile? 21 QUESTION YouuseSed,orinVieditor,thesearchusescharacter„s‟slashthepatterntobesearched,slashthepatterntoreplaceitwith,slash„g‟whichstandsforentirefile. ANSWER QUESTION 20
  22. 22. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com DoestheCtrl+Alt+DelkeycombinationworkonLinux? 22 QUESTION Yes,itdoes.JustlikeWindows,youcanusethiskeycombinationtoperformasystemrestart.Onedifferenceisthatyouwon‟tbegettinganyconfirmationmessageandtherefore,rebootisimmediate. ANSWER QUESTION 21
  23. 23. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowdoyoulistandflushallIptables? 23 QUESTION Firstyouusethe–Lswitchtoviewallthecurrentlypresentrulesandthen–Ftoflushthem. ANSWER QUESTION 22
  24. 24. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowdoyouchangepermissionsunderLinux? 24 QUESTION Assumingyouarethesystemadministratorortheownerofafileordirectory,youcangrantpermissionusingthechmodcommand.Use+symboltoaddpermissionor–symboltodenypermission,alongwithanyofthefollowingletters:u(user),g(group),o(others),a(all),r(read),w(write)andx(execute).Forexamplethecommandchmodgo+rwFILE1.TXTgrantsreadandwriteaccesstothefileFILE1.TXT,whichisassignedtogroupsandothers. ANSWER QUESTION 23
  25. 25. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisashell?Whataretheirnames? 25 QUESTION Theshellisthepartofthesystemwithwhichtheuserinteracts.AUnixshellinterpretscommandssuchas“pwd”, “cd”or“traceroute”andsendstheproperinstructionstotheactualoperatingsystemitself.TheshellscurrentlyavailableareAnsSH,BASH,CSH,TCSH,NOLOGIN,KSH.Otherfunctionsofashellincludescriptingcapability, pathmemory,multitasking,andfilehandling. ANSWER QUESTION 24
  26. 26. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com InLinux,whatnamesareassignedtothedifferentserialports? 26 QUESTION Serialportsareidentifiedas/dev/ttyS0to/dev/ttyS7.ThesearetheequivalentnamesofCOM1toCOM8inWindows. ANSWER QUESTION 25
  27. 27. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisazombie? 27 QUESTION Cheekyanswersgetbonuspointsforthisone.ButintheLinuxworld,azombieprocessistheprocessoutputof„ps‟ bythepresenceof„Z‟intheSTATcolumn.Zombiesareessentiallytheprematureprocesseswhosematureparentprocessesdiedwithoutreapingitschildren.Notethatzombiescan‟tbekilledwiththeusual„kill‟signal. ANSWER QUESTION 26
  28. 28. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowdoyouaccesspartitionsunderLinux? 28 QUESTION Linuxassignsnumbersattheendofthedriveidentifier.Forexample,ifthefirstIDEharddrivehadthreeprimarypartitions,theywouldbenamed/numbered,/dev/hda1,/dev/hda2and/dev/hda3. ANSWER QUESTION 27
  29. 29. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youneedtodefineamacro,akeybindingfortheexistingcommand.Howwouldyoudoit? 29 QUESTION Thereisacommandcalledbind,inbashshellwhichiscapableofdefiningmacro,orbindingakey.Inordertobindakeywithanexistingcommand,weneedtogenerateCharacterSequenceemittedbythekey.PressCtrl+vandthenkeyF12,Igot^[[24~ ANSWER QUESTION 28
  30. 30. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Yourassistantneedstoprintdirectorystack,whatwouldyousuggest? 30 QUESTION TheLinuxcommand'dirs',willprintthedirectorystack. ForExample:[root@localhost~]#dirs /usr/share/X11 ANSWER QUESTION 29
  31. 31. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthemaximumlengthforafilenameunderLinux? 31 QUESTION Anyfilenamecanhaveamaximumof255characters.Thislimitdoesnotincludethepathname,sothereforetheentirepathnameandfilenamecouldwellexceed255characters. ANSWER QUESTION 30
  32. 32. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatdoesthecommand'hash'isusedforinbashShell? 32 QUESTION Linuxcommand'hash'managesinternalhashtable,finsandrememberfullpathofthespecifiedcommand,Displayusedcommandnamesandnumberoftimesthecommandisused. [root@localhost~]#hash hitscommand 2/bin/ls 2/bin/su ANSWER QUESTION 31
  33. 33. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whichbuilt¬inLinuxcommandperformsarithmeticoperationofIntegersinBash? 33 QUESTION The'let'commandthatperforms,arithmeticoperationofintegerinbashshell. #!/bin/bash ... ... letc=a+b … ... ANSWER QUESTION 32
  34. 34. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Explainvirtualdesktop. 34 QUESTION Thisservesasanalternativetominimizingandmaximizingdifferentwindowsonthecurrentdesktop.Usingvirtualdesktops,eachdesktopisacleanslatewhereyoucanopenoneormoreprograms.Ratherthanminimizing/restoringallthoseprogramsasneeded,youcansimplyshufflebetweenvirtualdesktopswithprogramsintactineachone. ANSWER QUESTION 33
  35. 35. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Differentiatemultiuserfrommultitask. 35 QUESTION Multiusermeansthatmorethanonepersoncanusethecomputeratthesametime.Multitaskmeansthatevenasingleusercanhavethecomputerworkonmorethanonetaskorprogramatthesametime. ANSWER QUESTION 34
  36. 36. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youhavealargetextfile,andyouneedtoseeonepageatatime.Whatwillyoudo? 36 QUESTION Youcanachievetheaboveresultbypipelingtheoutputof'catfile_name.txt'with'more'command. [root@localhost~]#catfile_name.txt|more ANSWER QUESTION 35
  37. 37. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whoownthedatadictionary? 37 QUESTION Theuser'SYS'ownsthedatadictionary.Users'SYS'and'SYSEMarecreatedbydefault,automatically. ANSWER QUESTION 36
  38. 38. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowdoyoushareaprogramacrossdifferentvirtualdesktopsunderLinux? 38 QUESTION Toshareaprogramacrossdifferentvirtualdesktops,intheupperleft-handcornerofaprogramwindowlookforaniconthatlookslikeapushpin.Pressingthisbuttonwill“pin”thatapplicationinplace,makingitappearinallvirtualdesktops,inthesamepositiononscreen. ANSWER QUESTION 37
  39. 39. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatcommandshouldyouusetocheckthenumberoffilesanddiskspaceusedbyeachuser'sdefinedquotas? 39 QUESTION Thecommand'repquota'comestorescuehere.Commandrepquotasummariesquotasforafilesystem. ANSWER QUESTION 38
  40. 40. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whataredaemons? 40 QUESTION Daemonsareservicesthatprovideseveralfunctionsthatmaynotbeavailableunderthebaseoperatingsystem.Itsmaintaskistolistenforservicerequestandatthesametimetoactontheserequests.Aftertheserviceisdone,itisthendisconnectedandwaitsforfurtherrequests. ANSWER QUESTION 39
  41. 41. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youhavelotsofrunningjobs,howwouldyouremovealltherunningprocesses,withoutrestartingthemachine? 41 QUESTION TheLinuxcommand'disown-r'willremovealltherunningProcesses. ANSWER QUESTION 40
  42. 42. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com AuserisnewtoLinuxandhewantstoknowfulllistofavailablecommands,whatwouldyousuggesthim? 42 QUESTION Acommand'compgenc'willshowafulllistofavailablecommands. [root@localhost~]$compgen-c l. ll ls which if then else elif fi case esac for select while until do done … ANSWER QUESTION 41
  43. 43. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatarethekindsofpermissionsunderLinux? 43 QUESTION Thereare3kindsofpermissionsunderLinux: -Read:usersmayreadthefilesorlistthedirectory -Write:usersmaywritetothefileofnewfilestothedirectory -Execute:usersmayrunthefileorlookupaspecificfilewithinadirectory ANSWER QUESTION 42
  44. 44. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youneedtotrackeventsonyoursystem.Whatwillyoudo? 44 QUESTION Fortrackingtheeventsonthesystem,weneedadaemoncalledsyslogd.Thesyslogddaemonisusefulintrackingtheinformationofsystemandthensavingittospecifiedlogfiles. Running„syslogd„applicationinterminalgenerateslogfileatthelocation„/var/log/syslog„.ThesyslogdapplicationisveryusefulintroubleshootingLinuxsytems.Asamplelogfilelookssimilartobelow. ANSWER QUESTION 43
  45. 45. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowwillyourestrictIPsothattherestrictedIP‟smaynotusetheFTPServer? 45 QUESTION WecanblocksuspiciousIPbyintegratingtcp_wrapper.Weneedtoenabletheparameter“tcp_wrapper=YES”intheconfigurationfileat„/etc/vsftpd.conf‟.AndthenaddthesuspiciousIPinthe„host.deny‟fileatlocation„/etc/host.deny‟. ANSWER QUESTION 44
  46. 46. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatarethedifferentmodeswhenusingvieditor? 46 QUESTION Thereare3modesundervi: -Commandmode–thisisthemodewhereyoustartin -Editmode–thisisthemodethatallowsyoutodotextediting -Exmode–thisisthemodewhereinyouinteractwithviwithinstructionstoprocessafile ANSWER QUESTION 45
  47. 47. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Isitpossibletouseshortcutforalongpathname? 47 QUESTION Yes,thereis.AfeatureknownasfilenameexpansionallowsyoudothisusingtheTABkey.Forexample,ifyouhaveapathnamed/home/iceman/assignmentsdirectory,youwouldtypeasfollows:/ho[tab]/ice[tab]/assi[tab].This, however,assumesthatthepathisunique,andthattheshellyou‟reusingsupportsthisfeature. ANSWER QUESTION 46
  48. 48. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com TellusthedifferencebetweenTelnetandSSH? 48 QUESTION TelnetandSSHbotharecommunicationprotocolwhichareusedtomanageremotesystem.SSHisSecured,whichrequiresexchangingofkeyoppositeoftelnetwhichtransmitdatainplaintext,whichmeanstelnetislesssecurethanSSH. ANSWER QUESTION 47
  49. 49. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com YouneedtostopyourXserver.WhenyoutriestokillyourXserver,YougotanerrormessagethatyoucannotquitXserver.Whatwillyoudo? 49 QUESTION WhenkillingaXserver,itwon‟tworknormalwaylikedoing„/etc/init.d/gdmstop‟.Weneedtoexecuteaspecialkeycombination„Ctrl+Alt+BackSpace‟whichwillforceXservertorestart. ANSWER QUESTION 48
  50. 50. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisthedifferencebetweencommand„ping‟and„ping6′? 50 QUESTION Boththecommandsaresameandusedforthesamepurposeexceptthatthefactthatping6isusedwithipv6IPaddress. ANSWER QUESTION 49
  51. 51. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisredirection? 51 QUESTION Redirectionistheprocessofdirectingdatafromoneoutputtoanother.Itcanalsobeusedtodirectanoutputasaninputtoanotherprocess. ANSWER QUESTION 51
  52. 52. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youwanttosearchforallthe*.tarfilesinyourHomedirectoryandwantstodeleteallatonce.Howwillyoudoit? 52 QUESTION Weneedtousefindcommandwithrmcommandtodeleteall“.tar”files. #find/home/name'*. tar'|xargsrmrf ANSWER QUESTION 51
  53. 53. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisthedifferencebetweenlocateandslocatecommand? 53 QUESTION Theslocatelooksforthefilesthatuserhaveaccesswhereaslocatewillsearchforthefilewithupdatedresult. ANSWER QUESTION 52
  54. 54. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatistheSMTP? 54 QUESTION SMTPisthemostcommonprotocolforane-mailserver. ANSWER QUESTION 53
  55. 55. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatSambaservicedo? 55 QUESTION TheSambaserviceprovidesMicrosoftSMBsupportinLinuxsothatLinuxmachinescanconnecttoMicrosoftnetworkresources. ANSWER QUESTION 54
  56. 56. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhichservicecanbeusedwithNFStoprovideremotefileaccessforUNIXsystems? 56 QUESTION NISisusedwithNFStoprovideremotefileaccessforUNIXsystems. ANSWER QUESTION 55
  57. 57. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisMTA? 57 QUESTION MTAisaserviceofSendmailserver,whichtransfermailfromonenetworkorhosttoanothernetworkorhost. ANSWER QUESTION 56
  58. 58. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Nameaconnection-lessprotocolforfiletransfer. 58 QUESTION TFTPisaconnection-lessprotocolforfiletransfer. ANSWER QUESTION 57
  59. 59. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Youcompanyhaveslowinternetconnection.WhichLinuxserviceyoucanusetomanageinternetconnection? 59 QUESTION YoushoulduseSquidproxyserver,whichallowstomanagethewebcontentsandalsocachethewebpagestodecreasetheamountoftrafficgoingtoInternet. ANSWER QUESTION 58
  60. 60. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whichportshouldyouopeninyourhostfirewalltorunwebserver? 60 QUESTION Bydefaultwebserveruseport80and443whichyouneedtoopeninfirewall. ANSWER QUESTION 59
  61. 61. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhichIPaddressingshouldyouuseforServer? 61 QUESTION ForserveryoushouldalwaysusestaticIPaddress. ANSWER QUESTION 60
  62. 62. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whichportsshouldyouopeninhostfirewallforanemailserver? 62 QUESTION Openport110whichisusedbythePOP3e-mailprotocol. Openport25whichisusedbytheSMTPe-mailprotocol. Openport143whichisusedbytheIMAPe-mailprotocol. ANSWER QUESTION 61
  63. 63. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhichIPaddressshouldyouuseforclientdesktop? 63 QUESTION Forclientyoucanusebothstaticanddynamicmethod.ForeasymanagementusingDHCPtoassignIPaddresswouldbethebestoption. ANSWER QUESTION 62
  64. 64. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisinitrdimageandwhatisitsfunctioninthelinuxbootingprocess? 64 QUESTION TheinitialRAMdisk(initrd)isaninitialrootfilesystemthatismountedpriortowhentherealrootfilesystemisavailable.Theinitrdisboundtothekernelandloadedaspartofthekernelbootprocedure.Thekernelthenmountsthisinitrdaspartofthetwo-stagebootprocesstoloadthemodulestomaketherealfilesystemsavailableandgetattherealrootfilesystem.Thusinitrdimageplaysavitalroleinlinuxbootingprocess. ANSWER QUESTION 63
  65. 65. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Explainthetermssuid,sgidandstickybit? 65 QUESTION InadditiontothebasicfilepermissionsinLinux,therearefewspecialpermissionsthatareavailableforexecutablefilesanddirectories. SUID:Ifsetuidbitisset,whenthefileisexecutedbyauser,theprocesswillhavethesamerightsastheownerofthefilebeingexecuted. SGID:Sameasabove,butinheritsgroupprevilegesofthefileonexecution,notuserprevileges.Similarwaywhenyoucreateafilewithindirectory,itwillinheritthegroupownershipofthedirectories. Stickybit:Stickybitwasusedonexecutablesinlinuxsothattheywouldremaininthememorymoretimeaftertheinitialexecution,hopingtheywouldbeneededinthenearfuture.Butmainlyitisonfolders,toimplythatafileorfoldercreatedinsideastickybitenabledfoldercouldonlybedeletedbytheowner.Averygoodimplementationofstickybitis/tmp,whereeveryuserhaswritepermissionbutonlyuserswhoownafilecandeletethem. ANSWER QUESTION 64
  66. 66. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com ListoutfewofthedifferencesbetweenSoftlinkandHardlink? 66 QUESTION a)Hardlinkcannotbecreatedfordirectories.Hardlinkcanonlybecreatedforafile. b)Symboliclinksorsymlinkscanlinktoadirectory. c)Removingtheoriginalfilethatyourhardlinkpointstodoesnotremovethehardlinkitself;thehardlinkstillprovidesthecontentoftheunderlyingfile. d)Ifyouremovethehardlinkorthesymlinkitself,theoriginalfilewillstayintact. e)Removingtheoriginalfiledoesnotremovetheattachedsymboliclinkorsymlink,butwithouttheoriginalfile,thesymlinkisuseless ANSWER QUESTION 65
  67. 67. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisthedifferencebetweenumaskandulimit? 67 QUESTION umaskstandsfor„Userfilecreationmask‟,whichdeterminesthesettingsofamaskthatcontrolswhichfilepermissionsaresetforfilesanddirectorieswhentheyarecreated.Whileulimitisalinuxbuiltincommandwhichprovidescontrolovertheresourcesavailabletotheshelland/ortoprocessesstartedbyit. Youcanlimitusertospecificrangebyediting/etc/security/limits.confatthesametimesystemwidesettingscanbeupdatedin/etc/sysctl.conf ANSWER QUESTION 66
  68. 68. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthefunctionalityofaPuppetServer? 68 QUESTION Puppetisanopen-sourceandenterpriseapplicationforconfigurationmanagementtollinUNIXlikeoperatingsystem.PuppetisanITautomationsoftwareusedtopushconfigurationtoitsclients(puppetagents)usingcode. Puppetcodecandoavarietyoftasksfrominstallingnewsoftware,tocheckfilepermissions,orupdatinguseraccountsandlotsofothertasks ANSWER QUESTION 67
  69. 69. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisSeLinux? 69 QUESTION SELinuxisanacronymforSecurity-enhancedLinux.ItisanaccesscontrolimplementationandsecurityfeaturefortheLinuxkernel.Itisdesignedtoprotecttheserveragainstmisconfigurationsand/orcompromiseddaemons.Itputlimitsandinstructsserverdaemonsorprogramswhatfilestheycanaccessandwhatactionstheycantakebydefiningasecuritypolicy. ANSWER QUESTION 68
  70. 70. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Explainbrieflytheprocedureforre-installingGrubinLinux? 70 QUESTION 1)DownloadUbuntuInstallation/Livecd 2)BootfromUbuntuInstallation/Livecd-usb,burnedcdetc. 3)Duringbootselect“TryUbuntu”,Don‟tselectinstall! 4)MountyourLinuxrootpartition sudomount/dev/sda6/mnt(Assuming/dev/sda6istheLinuxrootpartition) 5)Install/reinstallgrub $sudogrub-install--root-directory=/mnt//dev/sda(where/dev/sdaisyourprimarydisk) Installationfinished.Noerrorreported. 6)Rebootyoursystem,removebootableCDandweshouldhavethebootmenureadywhenthesystemstarts. Note:Therewouldbeslightdifferencewhenusingwithotherdistros ANSWER QUESTION 69
  71. 71. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com ExplainthedifferentScenariosinvolvedinTCP3wayhandshake? 71 QUESTION TheTCPthreewayhandshakeistheprocessforestablishingaTCPconnection.Wecanexplain3wayhandshakewithasimplescenariowhereweassumeaclientcomputeriscontactingaservertosenditsomeinformation. a)TheclientsendsapacketwiththeSYNbitsetandasequencenumberofN. b)TheserversendsapacketwithanACKnumberofN+1,theSYNbitsetandasequencenumberofX. c)TheclientsendsapacketwithanACKnumberofX+1andtheconnectionisestablished. d)Theclientsendsthedata. Thefirstthreestepsintheaboveprocessiscalledthethreewayhandshake. ANSWER QUESTION 70
  72. 72. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisrDNSandexplainitsbenefitsintheLinuxDomainNameSystems? 72 QUESTION AtypicalDNSlookupisusedtodeterminewhichIPaddressisassociatedwithahostname,andthisiscalledForwardDNSlookup.AreverseDNSlookupisusedfortheopposite,todeterminewhichhostnameisassociatedwithanIPaddress.SometimesreverseDNSlookupsarerequiredfordiagnosticpurposes.Today,reverseDNSlookupsareusedmainlyforsecuritypurposestotraceahackerorspammer.Manymodernmailingsystemsusereversemappingtoprovidesimpleauthenticationusingduallookup:hostname-to-addressandaddress-to- hostname.TherDNS(reverseDNS)isimplementedusingaspecializedzonerecordforreverselookupscalledPTRrecord.PTRrecordsalwaysresolvetonames,neverIPaddresses. ANSWER QUESTION 71
  73. 73. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhyisLVMrequired? 73 QUESTION LVMstandsforLogicalVolumeManager,toresizefilesystem‟ssizeonlinewerequiredLVMpartitioninLinux.SizeofLVMpartitioncanbeextendedandreducedusingthelvextend&lvreducecommandsrespectively. ANSWER QUESTION 72
  74. 74. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowtocheckMemorystatsandCPUstats? 74 QUESTION Using„free‟&„vmstat‟commandwecandisplaythephysicalandvirtualmemorystatisticsrespectively.Withthehelpof„sar‟commandweseetheCPUutilization&otherstats. ANSWER QUESTION 73
  75. 75. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com HowtoincreasethesizeofLVMpartition? 75 QUESTION BelowaretheLogicalSteps: -Usethelvextendcommand(lvextend-L+100M/dev/<NameoftheLVMPartition>,inthisexampleweareextendingthesizeby100MB. -resize2fs/dev/<NameoftheLVMPartition> -checkthesizeofpartitionusing„df-h‟command ANSWER QUESTION 74
  76. 76. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Howtocreatepartitionfromtherawdisk? 76 QUESTION Usingfdiskutilitywecancreatepartitionsfromtherawdisk.Belowarethestepstocreatepartitionfromtherawdsik: -fdisk/dev/hd*(IDE)or/dev/sd*(SCSI) -Typentocreateanewpartition -Aftercreatingpartition,typewcommandtowritethechangestothepartitiontable. ANSWER QUESTION 75
  77. 77. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisloadaverageinalinux? 77 QUESTION LoadAverageisdefinedastheaveragesumofthenumberofprocesswaitingintherunqueueandnumberofprocesscurrentlyexecutingovertheperiodof1,5and15minutes.Usingthe„top‟and„uptime‟commandwefindtheloadaverageofalinuxsever. ANSWER QUESTION 76
  78. 78. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatistheroleofudevdaemon? 78 QUESTION Theudevdemonusedtocreateandremoveallthesedevicenodesorfilesin/dev/directory. ANSWER QUESTION 77
  79. 79. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisRAID? 79 QUESTION RAID,standsforRedundantArrayofInexpensiveDisks.RAIDisamethodbywhichsamedataorinformationisspreadacrossseveraldisks,usingtechniquessuchasdiskstriping(RAIDLevel0),diskmirroring(RAIDLevel1), anddiskstripingwithparity(RAIDLevel5)toachieveredundancy,lowerlatency,increasedbandwidth,andmaximizedabilitytorecoverfromharddiskcrashes. ANSWER QUESTION 78
  80. 80. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisCUPS?WhatisthelocationoflogfilesforCUPS? 80 QUESTION CUPSstandsfor"CommonUNIXPrintingSystem".CUPSisaopensourceprintingsystemdevelopedbyAppleInc. CUPSusestheInternetPrintingProtocol(IPP)toallowlocalprintingandprintsharing. ThelogfilesfortheCUPSprintingsystemarelocatedinthe/var/log/cups/directory. ANSWER QUESTION 79
  81. 81. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisYUM? 81 QUESTION YUMstandsforYellowdogUpdater,ModifiedbecauseitisbasedonYUP,theYellowdogUpdater.WheredoesthenameYellowdogcomefrom?YellowDogisaversionofLinuxforthePowerArchitecturehardwareandisRPM- based,justlikeRedHatEnterpriseLinuxandFedora.YUP,andlaterYUM,werewrittenbytheLinuxcommunityasawaytomaintainanRPM-basedsystem. ANSWER QUESTION 80
  82. 82. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Differentiaterelativepathfromabsolutepath. 82 QUESTION Relativepathreferstothepathrelativetothecurrentpath.Absolutepath,ontheotherhand,referstotheexactpathasreferencedfromtherootdirectory. ANSWER QUESTION 81
  83. 83. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatispiping? 83 QUESTION Piping,representedbythepipecharacter“|”,isusedtocombinetwoormorecommandstogether.Theoutputofthefirstcommandservesasinputthenextcommand,andsoon. ANSWER QUESTION 82
  84. 84. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisasuperuser? 84 QUESTION Asuperuserisaspecialtypeuserwhohasopenaccesstoallfilesandcommandsonasystem.Notethatthesuperuser‟sloginisusuallyroot,andisprotectedbyaso-calledrootpassword. ANSWER QUESTION 83
  85. 85. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatistheuseoftheteecommand? 85 QUESTION Theteecommanddoestwothings:oneistogetdatafromthestandardinputandsendittostandardoutput;thesecondisthatitredirectsacopyofthatinputdataintoafilethatwasspecified. ANSWER QUESTION 84
  86. 86. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisparsing? 86 QUESTION Parsingistheprocessofbreakingupofacommandlineintowords.Thisismadepossiblebyusingdelimitersandspaces.Intheeventthattabsormultiplespacesarepartofthecommand,theseareeventuallyreplacedbyasinglespace. ANSWER QUESTION 85
  87. 87. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatispid? 87 QUESTION PidisshortforProcessID.ItisusedprimarilytoidentifyeveryprocessthatrunsontheUNIXsystem,whetheritrunsontheforegroundorrunsatthebackground.Everypidisconsideredunique. ANSWER QUESTION 86
  88. 88. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisldd? 88 QUESTION Listdynamicdependencies–printsharedlibrarydependencies Eg:–#vimnew.c #gccnew.c–onew #lddnew ANSWER QUESTION 87
  89. 89. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhatisthecommandtouninstallprocessesinLinux? 89 QUESTION rpm–esendmail -e–remove ANSWER QUESTION 88
  90. 90. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WhataretheLinuxbootfiles? 90 QUESTION 1./boot/grub/grub.conf:containsbootdiskparameters 2./etc/fstab:containsFilesystemswhichneedtomountatboottime 3./etc/initab:Containsdefaultrunlevel 4./etc/init.d/rc.d/rcN.d:Thisisadiritcontains ANSWER QUESTION 89
  91. 91. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Differencebetweennfssoftandhardmountingpoints? 91 QUESTION Hardmountoption:–Iftheclientfailstoaccesstheserver,thentheconnectionhangsandoncethesystemisupthenitwillagainaccesstheserver. Soft:–Iftheclientfailedtoconnecttheserver,itimmediatelygivestheerrorreportandclosestheconnection. ANSWER QUESTION 90
  92. 92. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisthestatuscode403,404representedinapacheserver? 92 QUESTION 403representforbiddenerror,meansifafilemissessomeselinuxsecuritycontext. 404representthatthereisacgiscriptmissingorwebpagesmissing. ANSWER QUESTION 91
  93. 93. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com WHATISTHEMEANINGOFAIX 93 QUESTION AIX(AdvancedInteractiveeXecutive)isanopenoperatingsystemfromIBMwhichisbasedonaversionofUNIX. AIX/ESAwasdesignedforIBM‟sSystem/390orlargeserverhardwareplatform.AIX/6000isanoperatingsystemthatrunsonIBM‟sworkstationplatform,theRISCSystem/6000. ANSWER QUESTION 92
  94. 94. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whoinventedunix? 94 QUESTION Unixwascreatedin1969byKenThompsonandDennisRitchieatBellLaboratories. ANSWER QUESTION 93
  95. 95. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatisthecommandtomakeaprocesstorunintheforegroundfrombackground? 95 QUESTION Whentheprocessisrunning,press“control+Z”.Nowatthecommandprompt,type“bg” ANSWER QUESTION 94
  96. 96. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Iwanttoseehowmanyinterfaces(Ethernetcards)areworkingusingsinglecommand? 96 QUESTION Ifconfig ANSWER QUESTION 95
  97. 97. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Afilewhichisnotdeletedbynormaluserandalsoroot(usingrm),forthattypeoffilehowwedeleteit? 97 QUESTION Usingchattrcommand,weneedtochangetheattributesandthenweremoveusingrmcommand. Eg:–chattr-iIuexample rm-rfexample ANSWER QUESTION 96
  98. 98. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatiswild-cardinterpretation? 98 QUESTION Whenacommandlinecontainswild-cardcharacterssuchas„*‟or„?‟,thesearereplacedbytheshellwithasortedlistoffileswhosepatternmatchestheinputcommand.Wild-cardcharactersareusedtosetupalistoffilesforprocessing,insteadofhavingitspecifiedoneatatime. ANSWER QUESTION 97
  99. 99. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Whatdoesthiscommanddo?catfood1>kitty 99 QUESTION Itredirectstheoutputofcatfoodintothefilekitty;thecommandisthesameas: catfood>kitty ANSWER QUESTION 98
  100. 100. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com What"neat"commandwilldo? 100 QUESTION “Neat”commandprovidesGraphicalinterfacetochangenetworksettingsfornetworkdevices. ANSWER QUESTION 99
  101. 101. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Isthereanyrelationbetweenmodprobe.conffileandnetworkdevices? 101 QUESTION Yes,thisfileassignsakernelmoduletoeachnetworkdevice. ForExample:- [root@localhost~]#cat/etc/modprobe.conf aliaseth0b44 Hereb44isthekernelmodulefornetworkdeviceeth0. WecanConfirmbyfollowingcommand(Thismodule“b44”ispresentornot). [root@localhost~]#lsmod|grepb44 b44290050 ANSWER QUESTION 100
  102. 102. For the hottest LINUX jobs, please visit www.hirist.com hirist .com Resources 102 https://www.udemy.com/blog/linux-interview-questions/ http://www.masteringinlinux.com/linux-questions/top-linux-interview-question- answer.html http://computernetworkingnotes.com/rhce-interview-questions/basic-linux- interview-questions-for-freshers.html http://www.tecmint.com/core-linux-interview-questions-and-answers/ http://www.linuxtechi.com/experience-linux-admin-interview-questions/ http://www.01world.in/p/linux.html http://linoxide.com/linux-how-to/linux-interview-questions-answers/ http://career.guru99.com/top-50-linux-interview-questions/ http://www.tecmint.com/useful-random-linux-interview-questions-and-answers/ http://certcollection.org/forum/topic/154299-linux-system-administration- interview-questions-and-answers/ http://linuxserverworld.com/linux-interview-questions-part-i/
  103. 103. www.hirist.com TOP 100 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS LINUX

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