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Big Data Management Analytics And Management Essay
CS6350
Big data Management Analytics and Management
Summer 2015
Homework 1
In this homework you will learn how to solve problems using Map Reduce. Please apply
Hadoop map–reduce to derive some statistics from Yelp Dataset. You can find the
dataset in elearning. Copy the data into your hadoop cluster and use it as input data.
You can use the put or copyFromLocal HDFS shell command to copy those files into your HDFS
directory.
In class there will be brief demo/ discussion about that.
Dataset Description.
The dataset comprises of a single csv file data.csv that contains 3 types of entities namely users,
businesses and reviews. Records for each entity are distinguished by the 'type ' column.
The type column determines the type of entity a row represents. For example if type is business,
then that row contains business data,
if type is user , then the row contains user data
likewise if type is review, then that row contains review data.
The csv file has 24 columns namely
Column id : Name of Column
Column 0 :review_id
Column 1: text
Column 2: business_id
Column 3: full_address
Column 4: schools
Column 5: longitude
Column 6: average_stars:: //this is for the business entity type only
Column 7: date
Column 8: user_id
Column 9: open
Column10: categories
Column11: photo_url
Column12: city
Column13: review_count
Column14: name
Column15: neighborhoods
Column 16: url
Column 17: votes.cool
Column 18: votes.funny
Column 19: state
Column 20: stars:: //this is
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Open and Closed Source Systems Essay
An operating system is a considered a set of programs that schedule tasks, assign storage and
presenting an interface to the user. There are many operating systems to choose from. Some are
created for personal use, some for business use, and some can be used for both. One of the biggest
differences is whether the operating system is open source or closed source. Operating systems are
created with programming code. Programmers are responsible for writing the source code, which is
compiled into executable code. This executable code is what creates the product ran on computers.
An open source system is a system in which the source code is visible. A closed source system keeps
the source code hidden.
System Differences
There are more ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Users have several options when choosing a closed source system. Some examples would include
Microsoft Windows and Apple OS X operating systems. Like open source systems, closed source
systems offer software for a variety of uses that include personal, server and mobile.
Open Source Closed Source
Linux
Red Hat
Unix Windows 97, XP, 7, Vista
Versions of Window Server
Mac OS X
Closed source systems are usually found in personal computers because the level of expertise
needed to use them is minimal. There are many factors to consider when determining which system
to use. The level of expertise of the user, the costs of the system and any add–ons, and the flexibility
of the system must all be considered. The type of application also plays some role in the decision.
Both types can be found in personal, server, and mobile applications. However, open source systems
are often found more in mobile and server applications.
Using the UNIX Environment
I am currently using Windows 7 as my primary operating system and I have been a Windows user
since I started really using computers so the transition for me to a UNIX/Linux environment has
been a bit daunting. For the purposes of this comparison I downloaded Cygwin, which emulates a
Linux environment quite well. The first issue that I had to figure out was where did the GUI go? I
realized that a UNIX/Linux system uses the command prompt
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The History of Gnu/Linux Essay
In the beginning of the age of the modern computer, programmers worked around the clock, creating
code for their employers for use in proprietary computer systems. These elite programmers enjoyed
challenging one another and frequently enjoyed stretching modern systems to their limits. These
programmers became know as "hackers" for their talents at dissecting and working
around difficult problems, often searching for the most elegant or most efficient solution possible.
Unlike the vision of hackers as portrayed by the 1990's media., these hackers refrained from any
illegal activities. The best hackers viewed such things as breaking into computer systems as
immature and childish. The media derives their definition of a hacker ... Show more content on
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GNU/Linux, as an operating system and massive community programming project, quickly became
the flagship for the open source revolution and the claim to fame for two exceptional hackers,
Richard Stallman and Linus Benedict Torvalds, the two most highly respected and well–known
hackers that have ever lived..
Before the birth of the GNU/Linux and the open source revolution, a tight community of hackers
dwelling within the programmer–friendly company, AI Labs.AI Labs, over time, had become one of
the most prestigious programmer havens and the most advanced artificial intelligence development
center in the world at that time. AI Labs recruited the best hackers from all over the world to come
and work for them. This elite hacker team formed a code–sharing community embodied the playful
yet quite competitive hacker spirit which Stallman, the founder of GNU refers to as a special kind of
"playful cleverness." (Code 16) However, due to an unfortunate turn of events,
Symbolics broke up the the AI Labs team by hiring away the entire team except the exceptional
Stallman and Greenblat. ("GNU") Although the hackers which previously made up a
tightly knit code–sharing community were able to keep in touch, the proprietary nature of their
software prevented them from sharing their source code outside of those select companies who were
licensed to possess copies of the
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Unix And Unix Operating System
6.4 C–DOT DSS MAX is administrated by UNIX operating system
BSNL C–DOT DSS MAX uses UNIX operating system to operate the exchange.
The UNIX operating system is a set of programs that act as a link between the computer and the
user. The computer programs that allocate the system resources and coordinate all the details of the
computer 's internals is called the operating system or kernel.
Users communicate with the kernel through a program known as the shell. The shell is a command
line interpreter it translates commands entered by the user and converts them into a language that is
understood by the kernel.
UNIX was originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken
Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna.
There are various UNIX variants available in the market. Solaris UNIX, AIX, HP UNIX and BSD
are few examples.
Several people can use a UNIX computer at the same time; hence UNIX is called a multiuser
system. A user can also run multiple programs at the same time; hence UNIX is called multitasking.
This is why BSNL uses UNIX operating system as the exchanges can be operated through a remote
area.
UNIX operating system provides various commands to operate embedded systems in C–DOT DSS
MAX.
The commands used in C–DOT DSS MAX UNIX operating system are broadly divided into two
categories–
1. Administration command classes
2. Maintenance command classes
In Administration command classes, there
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Operating System Structure Of A Single Large Executable...
OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE The operating system can be defined as a collection of
written procedures, linked together into a single large executable binary program. The most useful
and better approach is divide the task into small components /modules instead of having one
monolithic system so that the operating system can function properly and can be modified easily.
Input, output and functions should be clearly defined in each of the system modules as far as we can
finally come with large and complex system. Simple structure, layered structure, microkernel,
client–server systems and virtual machines are among different structures of operating system. 1
Simple Structure Well defined structures are very important in operating systems. Scope,
functionality and well designed modules are main factor to consider to make sure the system will
satisfy user needs and provides a good service to users.MS–DOS is a good example of Simple
structure because of its history which starts with small, simple and limited system that did not
consider about the number of users and possibility of become popular operating system that can be
able to accommodate as many users as possible.MS–DOS do not consider the matter of separation
between the interfaces and levels of functionality. As Silberschatz (2013)," stated that an application
programs are able to access the basic I/O routines to write directly to the display and disk drives.
Such freedom leaves MS–DOS vulnerable to errant (or malicious)
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Managing a Global Team
MGS32015E
Global Human Resource Management
Spring 2012
MANAGING A GLOBAL TEAM: GREG JAMES
AT SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
Overview of SUN Microsystems Inc.
Sun Microsystems I nc. (SUN) provided companies with complete information technology (IT)
solutions that included hardware, software, storage and services. One of Sun ' s competitive
strategies had been to form global teams in order to provide excellent and prompt support to its
client at any hour of the day.
Greg James is the global manager of SUN located in Santa Clara, USA. H e leads a global team of
45 people composed of members in France, India, the UAE and the US. James ' team serves Sun' s
enterprise customers in Asia and Europe.
1. Situational Analysis
James' s ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Because of the time zones, the Indian employees had excessively long days from 6:30 to 22:00.
As a result, they had little time at home with family. Moreover, Ashok revealed that they were
dissatisfied t hey are only conducted in customer maintenance work and other teams get the
interesting work in innovation process. Also, the I ndian team was looked down by others who they
were incompetent.
2.1.2 France and the US
There is a "compensation mismatch" a mong the French and the US teams. The French team
complains that they were less pay than the American coworkers by 30%. The American team
dissatisfied they had less vacation and more workloads than the French teammates as France had
strict labour laws. James had explained to his team that they had to accept the country –based
benefits differences but both teams felt dissatisfied.
2.1.3 The UAE
The team members feared they would be deemed incompetent because they had consistently missed
deadlines. However, this ha ppen not because of their incompetent. In the Middle East, their culture
required extensive and time –consuming in building relationship before contracts and commitments
could be finalized. Furthermore, race discrimination happens in the UAE team itself,
Ahmed and Rahul don't get along because Ahmed was from Pakistan.
2.1.4 U.S. Team viewed as "Favorites"
James spent more time with the U.S team and communicated with them more frequently. The three
international teams
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Essay about UNIX and Windows
UNIX and Windows
About Unix The Unix operating system is a powerful programming environment designed by and
for computer programmers. Unix is available on a wide variety of computer systems, including
personal computers, workstations, mainframes and supercomputers. It was developed for, and is
particularly well suited to, multi–user systems, but is now also run on 'stand–alone' machines.
Beginners and casual users often find the jargon–filled help system frustrating and the lack of icons
and menus unfriendly. Unix was first developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories in the USA.
It was originally developed as a system to be used by the staff in the laboratories, and it was
principally intended to provide an operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
They are many different versions of Unix, as well as some Unix 'lookalikes'. The most widely used
are: System V (distributed by the original developers, AT&T) AIX (IBM) Berkeley BSD (from the
University of California, Berkeley) SunOS, now known as Solaris (from the makers of Sun
workstations) Xenix (a PC version of Unix).
The Unix operating system consists basically of the kernel and the shell. The kernel is the part
carries out basic operating system functions such as accessing files, allocating memory and handling
communications.
A shell provides the user interface to the kernel. A number of shells are available on the Unix
operating system including the Bourne shell and the C shell. The shell is basically an extensive
program that runs all the time that you are logged on to the computer, and provides an interactive
interface between the user and the computer functions. The C shell is the default shell for interactive
work on many Unix systems.
Most users don't see much difference among the variants of Unix (ULTRIX, AIX, etc.), because the
shell program handles interactions between the user and the operating system. When you type a
command "at Unix," you are actually typing it at the shell. The shells are the same no matter what
type of Unix you use; for example, Korn shell will look the same whether the computer you use is
AIX or ULTRIX. You can choose from several shells: Korn shell
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The Elements Of The Operating System For Linux
The elements of the operating system for the LINUX comprises of the components such as follows:
System Calls – The system calls are the service requests made for the specific kernels.
Signals – The signals are the calling functions for the operating system to the process and requests.
Processes – The process management is used to provide the creation, scheduling and management of
various processes.
Memory Management – The memory management is used to provide the memory storage
allocations to the system.
File System – The file systems are used to provide the maintenance of the files, folder structures in
the drives.
Network Protocols – The network components and the protocols are used to interconnect the system
to the routers, or bridges and so on.
Interrupts – This section is used to maintain the interrupts for handling the connections with the
peripheral devices.
Methods for inter–process management in Linux
The methods involved in the inter–process management in LINUX include the following:
The creation of the process
Process call
Execution
The process is created at first using the 'fork' statement. The process is then called after the 'execve'
command. The LINUX system is used to maintain the single program execution.
The signals only carry the information about the process and about the state of the process whether
it is running or not. In the LINUX system, communication is passed by using scheduling states and
'wait.queue' structures.
There are
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Computer Technology Contributions
Computer science is an ever–evolving field that is relevant to the daily activities of almost all people
living in the 21st century. Through the years, the field of computer science has advanced thanks to
the contributions of numerous scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. From the programs
powering medical devices in healthcare to the operating systems on mobile devices, the work of
computer scientists is responsible for the technologies that power our lives. This paper describes the
contributions made by Ada Lovelace, Linus Torvalds, and Dennis Ritchie to the field of computer
science. 1: Ada Lovelace Ada Lovelace is most known for her contributions to computer science
during a time before computer science was a recognized discipline. Her work involved a thorough
series of notes on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, including a table that explained how the
engine could potentially display Bernoulli numbers (Martin, 2015). The analytical engine was an
industrial–era invention intended to carry out computations using punched cards (Martin, 2015). She
was tasked with translating Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea's notes on Babbage's analytical
engine, which she published in 1843 (Martin, 2015). Ada's notes on the analytical engine were much
greater than the original translation, and she was able to realize the true potential of the analytical
engine. She was able to come up with an algorithm for the analytical engine that could be used to
calculate Bernoulli
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Computer Operating System
1. Introduction to Operating System:–
Computer is a somewhat complex machine. The world has become accustomed to so many choices.
One of the major choices in the modern era is the "Operating System (OS)". Operating systems are
the central software component to any computer. The main brands of operating system are;
Windows Mac OS, Sun Solaris, UNIX, DOS and Linux. Each brand has its own take on what makes
up an operating system. Windows is the most commonly used operating system around the world.
The most common advantage about Windows is its simplicity. It is now very easy for an
inexperienced person to grasp the concept and use the computer with this operating system on it.
Windows newest version is Vista and windows7. Vista has made ... Show more content on
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Its current best–selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft
Office suite of productivity software.
Starting in 1980, Microsoft formed an important partnership with IBM that allowed them to bundle
Microsoft's operating system with computers that they sold, paying Microsoft a royalty for every
sale. In 1985, IBM requested that Microsoft write a new operating system for their computers called
OS/2; Microsoft wrote the operating system, but also continued to sell their own alternative, which
proved to be in direct competition with OS/2. Microsoft Windows eventually overshadowed OS/2 in
terms of sales. When Microsoft launched several versions of Microsoft Windows in the 1990s, they
had captured over 90% market share of the world's personal computers.
[pic]
Fig: Microsoft staff photo from December 7, 1978. From left to right:
Top: Steve Wood, Bob Wallace, and Jim Lane.
Middle: Bob O'Rear, Bob Greenberg, Marc McDonald, Gordon Letwin.
Bottom: Bill Gates, Andrea Lewis, Marla Wood, Paul Allen.
Versions:–
|Release date |Product name |Current version / build |
|Nov 1987 |Windows2.03 |2.03 |
|Mar 1989 |Windows2.11
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Unix Security Essay
An Overview of UNIX Security
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the security of UNIX. Considerations shall be given
regarding generalized security aspects of a typical UNIX system. The ultimate scope of the
following presentation shall remain within the boundaries of a few of the more critical UNIX
security aspects. Of particular note will be discussion regarding standard user access, root access,
file system security, and internet access precautions. This will not focus on specific measures used to
implement security, but rather will investigate both pros and cons typical of a UNIX installation.
Finally, a brief description of UNIX security versus other operating systems will be noted. Since no
two UNIX–based operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Of the utmost security concern is the protection of the root account. The root account allows a user
absolute control of the system, including the ability to alter practically every aspect of the systems,
from individual files to installed programs. Indeed, an entry in Wikipedia.com notes, that a UNIX
administrator should be much like Clark Kent, only using the root account, or becoming Superman,
when absolutely necessary, lest the security of the account be compromised (2006). Ultimately, this
implementation represents a near surefire way to protect the system against many internal and
external threats. By ensuring regularly scheduled root account password changes and ensuring the
passwords are strong, the cons noted previously should be relatively easy to avoid. File system
security is also very important regardless of the UNIX implementation. UNIX files system security
generally allows access permissions to be granted to various defined users and groups. UNIX also
contains an access right flag know as the "sticky bit". The sticky bit can be used to allow users and
groups write access to certain directories within the system. Similarly, the sticky bit can be used by a
user to disallow other users with access to the same directory to alter the contents of the file. The file
can only be altered by the file owner, the directory owner, and the root account (linuxdevcenter.com,
2006). This particular element allows for a great deal of control
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un Microsystem Company Analysis Essay
Executive Summary
In this analysis of the Sun Microsystem Company I will give a situation analysis, which includes the
growing economic trend in the market of the new computer technology. An analysis of the industry
that states the current workstation market and its competitors, which states that the industry is an
exclusive market with high entry barriers and has a constant competition with the personal computer
industry. In the organizational section, a general financial analysis of the companies profitability,
and the management philosophy of the current C.E.O. and the negative effects he's caused. The
marketing strategy will explain the companies target market, its market focus, the aspects of its
advertising, and advertising ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Situation Analysis
Environment
The economic environment from 1982 to 1990 was the age of new technology. During this time
there were many new companies emerging in the computer industry, trying to find a niche market.
The economy was trending towards a large increase on economic wealth and very low
unemployment rates. The culture was starting to embrace the idea of computer technology and the
idea of networking.
Industry
The industry in which Sun Microsystems is competing in is computer workstations for scientists,
engineers, and commercial companies. Sun's founder's believed there was demand for a desktop
computer workstation costing between $10,000 and $20,000 in a market niche, ignored by
minicomputer makers such as, IBM, Data General, Dec, and Hewlett–Packard. Sun's executives
believed that they would only have a short time in this market before the other large companies
decided to enter, because it was an exclusive market with a high entry barrier, but with opportunity
for extensive profitability.
The workstation market for engineers and scientists was rapidly becoming saturated. The company
is now concentrating more of its efforts on airlines, banks, insurance, financial companies, and other
commercial companies, trying to persuade users to utilize Sun workstations to solve new problems.
Sun had to change their product design to make its machines easier to install, and improve the
understandability of product manuals. As Sun
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Creative Writing: A Fictional Narrative
"That's rude of the other girl," Alex said. "I can't really blame her, I am not the best talking to girls
and I wasn't...well...this," Steve motioned to his whole body, "when we went on the date." "Still, you
don't go on a double date and ignore your 'date'" Alex shook her head. "I am sure you were
delightful. And you are doing fine talking to me." "Really, because a girl like you would have
terrified me back then," Steve said with a smile. "Honestly, you kind of terrify me now." Alex
laughed out loud at this. While she knew that she didn't give off the most welcoming vibe, the fact
that a man that was so much taller and stronger than her said he was terrified of her was hilarious.
She had been called many things, but terrifying wasn't one of ... Show more content on
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She wasn't sure, but she had a feeling that Steve almost said that Sam could listen to the whole thing
through the bugs. It was a little slip and Alex wouldn't have even noticed it if she hadn't known
about the bugs in the first place. "That's up to you, but if he teases me mercilessly, remember that I
know where you live," Steve said with a smile as he finished his beer. They chatted a bit more as
Alex finished her food and cleaned up before Steve got ready to leave. While he might have been
Captain America, Alex realized that she forgot about that when she was talking to him. He was just a
normal, slightly awkward, guy. It was weird to see her hero, and any superhero, like this. It was so
easy to put them on a pedestal that when you saw they didn't fit up there at all, it was easier to just
think that they were someone else than change your opinion. "Thank you so much for doing this,"
Alex said as she walked him to the door. "You seriously saved my ass and my grade." "It wasn't all
that bad and it was really the least I could do with the weekend you had," Steve said with a smile as
he put on a baseball cap. He walked out into the hallway, but turned and looked at her instead of
heading down the
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Open Source Philosophy
The History and Philosophy of Open Source
The open source movement was born in 1984, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab when Richard
M. Stallman quit his position at the university to begin the GNU Project. Having grown tired of
seeing his colleagues being hired off by corporations and signing nondisclosure agreements for their
work, he set off to create a completely free, open operating system. Though he specialized in the
field, building such a system from the ground up is nearly impossible for a single person; thus, he
began with a more attainable goal, creating a C compiler. Though he was successful in this, he never
managed to create a kernel (the core of an operating system), aside from GNU Hurd, of which we do
not speak. Fortunately for the movement, one would later emerge with a similar philosophy. Around
1991, the GNU Project had amassed a respectable number of software packages, including the
widely used GCC and Emacs, though it still lacked the core, a kernel. Then, more than six thousand
kilometers away, a twenty–one–year–old Finnish university student began developing a small, open
source system as a hobby. Once the open source community became interested in it, what started as
a small project capable of little more than displaying text quickly morphed into one of the most
widely–distributed pieces of software in history, containing more than twenty million lines of code,
contributed to by tens of thousands of developers across the globe, and with
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How Did Linus Torvalds Begin His Original Project In Linux?
In 1991 Linus Torvalds began a project known as the Linux Kernel while attending the University of
Helsinki. He had written the program specifically for the hardware he was using at the time and then
he had also wanted it to be independent of the operating system. There are some reasons known of
why Linus Torvalds had started his original project in Linux. Two of these such reasons are in 1983
the GNU project was born, and its creator was Richard Stallman. He had the goal in mind of
creating a free UNIX like operating system. Later Stallman had also created the GNU General
Public License. Linus had stated that these had a lack of being widely adopted, and that he wanted to
create free kernel that would be available quickly. If the GNU Hurd or any of the other kernels had
been available, then there is a possibility that Torvalds never would have written his own in the first
place. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Development was initiated on MINIX and it used the GNU C Compiler, and until this very day is
the same compiler that is mainly used. He started out mainly developing device drivers and hard
drive access. By December of that same year he had created a version of Linux that he referred to as
0.01. In the year of 1991 on the day of October 5th Torvalds sent a posting to the newsgroup
comp.os.minix. This post announced the release of a new version labeled as 0.02. This version was
intended to be very basic and one that still needed MINIX to operate. There was an incredible
attraction and interest in this and from here on out the kernel was very rapidy improved by Torvalds
and many a number in
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Essay about Doc. Unix
1. You have just finished a 25–page paper that you have written using Emacs.The file containing the
paper is called /assignments/data_sources. After your instructor has briefly looked at the paper, she
recommends that you change all instances of the reference
"data is" to "data are" before you submit it.Which of the following commands can you use to locate
these references in the file for a quick assessment of how much you have to change?
a. find – i 'data is' /assignments/data_sources
b. test /assignments/data_sources "data is"
c. grep "data is" /assignments/data_sources
d. scan –t data is /assignments/data_sources
2. You are interested in determining the number of words in your /assignments/ data_sources file
mentioned in Question ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
window ls –a
d. dir < display
13. You are creating a file to send over the Internet via a satellite connection that only allows you to
send files under 250 KB.Which of the following commands enables you to determine the number of
bytes in the file before you try to send it?
a. cat –s
b. tr –b
c. counter –k
d. wc –c
14. In the command sed –f fixit notes > instructions, what is "fixit"?
a. a script file
b. an operator
c. a function
d. a formatting interpreter
15. When you design a record layout, you should do which of the following?
a. identify each field by data type
b. plan to delimit fields using a dash
c. identify each field by name
d. store only fields relevant to the record's purpose
16. What sed command option enables you to append new text to a file?
a. p
b. –n
c. a
d. |add
17. Your boss has two salary scale files, salary and salary1, and wants to compare their contents side
by side to see if there are any differences in the files.Which of the following commands should he
use?
a. diff –S salary > salary1
b. comm salary salary1
c. uniq salary < salary1
d. sed ––comp salary salary1
18. When you use the pr command how can you limit the output to only a screen full of text to view.
(Choose all that apply.)
a. Maximize your terminal window to hold 24 lines.
b. Pipe the output into more.
c. Use the –l 23 option.
d. Pipe the less command into the more command.
19. When you use the Awk printf capability, what does the dollar sign ($) represent?
a. a field
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Unix Linux Research Paper
unix linux
Unix has different costs and its not freely accessible linux can be freely downloaded, There are
priced versions for Linux also, but windows normally costs a lot more cost
unix linux on the other side unix operating system is used in internet servers, workstations &
personal computers.Backbone of the majority of finance infastructure and many 24x365 high
availability solutions. linux is a great example of an open source software development and free
operating system,linux can be installed on many devices ranging from mobile phones to
computers,mainframes and upper computers usage
Unix Linux whereas the Unix users have to wait weeks for a bug removal patch due to it going
through an endless development cycles . both operating systems are vulnerable to bugs and threats
,yet Linux is way better in dealing with bugs and threats as it's an open operating system ,bugs can
be reported by anyone in the user/developer forum ,and it gets fixed within few days Threat
detection
A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 and 120 viruses reported till now. Linux has had
about 60 to 100 viruses listed till date. None ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It was written in the C language and was designed to be a portable and multi–user system in a time–
sharing configuration. the inventor of Linus OS is Linus travolds,he always wanted to call his
invention 'Freax'.at the beginning , he used to store files under the name 'Freax' for about 12
months.in 1991,travolds became curious about operating systems so he thought of creating his own
while attending to his university and he was frustrated by the licensing of Minix ,which at the time
limited it to educational use only ,so he began to work on his own operating system kernel ,which
became the Linux kernel operating system ,he then began to develop his operating system on Minix
and the applications used on minix were also used on the Linux later.
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CISSH Essays
CISC 7310
Operating Systems
Fall 2013
Dayton Clark cissh project
Due December 4th
Name:
ID (4–digit):
Introduction
In this project we implement a simple shell called, cissh. I have implemented the some of the shell,
you are to complete the implementation of two features.
As is cissh can execute commands like "ls" cissh–| ls
==== ls
Distribution
Makefile
Solution
TAGS cissh cissh.c cissh.o cissh.output
cissh.ps cisshSingleCommand.c cisshDescription.odt cisshSingleCommand.o cisshPipe.c
discussion.tpl cisshPipe.o solution.output cisshRedirectedInput.csysCallManPages.pdf
cisshRedirectedInput.otestScript.txt cisshRedirectedOutput.c cisshRedirectedOutput.o
and "ls > filelist" cissh–| ls > fileList
==== ls ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Introduces the overall edit–compile–link–debug programming cycle and the explains the basic usage
of...gcc, make, gdb, emacs, and the shell. The goal is to describe the major features and typical uses
of the tools and show how they fit together with enough detail for basic projects. A version of this
handout is used at Stanford to help students get started building programs on Unix.
http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/107/UnixProgrammingTools.pdf My personal
favorite Linux/Unix links
(Easy install) http://www.ubuntu.com https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation
http://www.opensolaris.com/ (For the Unix nuts) (gcc – not installed by default?) (Apple is Unix
also but, it is hiding in developer tools.)
http://developer.apple.com/mac/library/documentation/Xcode/Conceptual/XcodeCo
existence/Contents/Resources/en.lproj/Basics/Basics.html
One more post, this fixes an error in my code that only appears under some compilers (thanks
Yasuhiro):
Subject: RE: Description
Reply Quote Modify Set Flag Remove
Author: Yasuhiro Saito
Posted date: Thursday, March 11, 2010 4:19:32 PM EST
Last modified date: Thursday, March 11, 2010 4:19:32 PM EST
[cissh.c segmentation fault]
I think we need to correct cissh.c file. Otherwise a segmentation fault occurs.
In the processLine function, we need to correct as follows;
–––> if(tokenCount == 0 || *tokens[tokenCount – 1] != ';')
{
tokens[tokenCount] = ";";
tokenCount++;
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Is418 Project 1-2-3 Essay example
IS–418: Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications
* Project: Linux – Based Web Application Infrastructure
* Project: Logistics
* Project Part 3: Executive Summary
* Project Part 3: Tasks 1 * Project Part 3: Tasks 2 * Project Part 3: Tasks 3
IS–418: Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications
* Project: Linux – Based Web Application Infrastructure
* Project: Logistics
* Project Part 3: Executive Summary
* Project Part 3: Tasks 1 * Project Part 3: Tasks 2 * Project Part 3: Tasks 3
Task 1: Use a Kernel
Scenario:
First World Bank Savings and Loan's Linux–based infrastructure requires an in–house custom
kernel or a kernel provided by a vendor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However the key strength in all these management appliance solutions is that they are "open
solutions" designed to empower the customer.
The Power of Open Standards:
Opengear has a long tradition of working with organizations and people in the open standards and
open source community – to help support the development of open design and spread the use of
open platforms: * Opengear partnered with OSSI and the OpenSSL project to sponsor the OpenSSL
cryptographic module meeting the FIPS 140–2 standard for ARM processors * Opengear supports
the OpenFlow/SDN Interoperability Lab. This Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology
from the Open
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Open and Closed Source and What It Means
Open and Closed Source Systems
June 24, 2013
Open and Closed Source System
What Open Source Means
Open–Source means it is free. No one owns it, so there is no source code, no key code, and no
licensing to purchase. When Linus Torvalds created Linux, he determined that the more people or,
the more minds delving into the software can make the system more creative, more improved, and
the possibilities are endless. Thus, he gave Linux to the world as a free open–source operating
system ("Damicon; Linking The Left Brain And The Right Brain: Open Vs. Closed Source", 2003–
2009).
Open–Source is defined by the code or source code is accessible to person or persons who
essentially use it or in IT definition: end–user. The user can revise and ... Show more content on
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Software that safeguards these privileges are kept is called free software.
The license was originally written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation or (FSF)
for the GNU project. According to Gnu General Public License, Version 3 29 June 2007 (2007),
"The GNU General Public license is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works"
(para. 1). Copyleft means a technique for creating a program whereby it is free; forcing any altered
and expanded versions of said program to be free also. A software company provides a software
license to a consumer who then provides their permission for the consumer to use their software
packet or package. Typically, it comes with many restrictions, and only allows the user one copy per
license. It cannot be copied or distributed in anyway. Such is the case for Microsoft.
Microsoft also has volume licensing in that a corporation can purchase as many licenses, or also
referred to as key codes, as they might need depending on the size of the business.
When Microsoft came up with volume licensing it allowed businesses to save costs by not having to
purchase the boxed software. The cost is only for the license number or key code. It can also give
tailored buying choices and better software administration.
References
Damicon; linking the left–brain and the right brain: Open vs. Closed Source. (2003– 2009).
Retrieved from
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The Development Of The C Programming Dialect
1.
The Development of the C Language
Conceptual
–The C programming dialect was contrived in the early 1970s as a framework execution dialect for
the beginning Unix working framework. Inferred from the typeless dialect BCPL, it advanced a sort
structure; made on a minor machine as an apparatus to enhance a pitiful the earth, it has turned into
one of the overwhelming dialects of today. This paper studies its advancement
This paper is about the improvement of the C programming dialect, the impacts on it, and the
conditions under which it was made.
C initiated existence in the years 1969–1973, in parallel with the early improvement of the Unix
working framework; the most imaginative period happened amid 1972. An alternate spate of
progressions topped somewhere around 1977 and 1979, when versatility of the Unix framework was
being exhibited. Amidst this second period, the first generally accessible portrayal of the dialect
appeared: the C Programming Language, often called the `white book ' or `k&r ' [kernighan 78]. At
last, in the center 1980s, the dialect was formally institutionalized by the ANSI X3j11 board of
trustees, which rolled out further improvements. Until the early 1980s, in spite of the fact that
compilers existed for an assortment of machine architectures and working frameworks, the dialect
was just about only connected with Unix; all the more as of late, its utilization has spread a great
deal all the more generally, and today it is among the dialects
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The Management Programs Of A Computer
Introduction
Operating systems, ("OS") are the management programs of a computer. First it is booted into the
computer by a boot program, and then it manages all other programs on the computer. These other
programs are called applications, and they utilize an operating system by making requests for
process service power through an API, or application program interface. Users then interact directly
with an operating system through a graphical user interface or command language.
History The earliest computers lacked any form of operating system because they were simple
mainframes. The machines were primitive and programs were often entered into the system one bit
at a time, through many mechanical switches and plug boards. There were no operating systems
during the first phase of computer history––from 1940–1955. By the 1950s, punch cards were
introduced and made it so switches were not as necessary any more. The IBM 701, from General
Motors Research Laboratories, was the first system that implemented an operating system. The
systems generally ran one job at a time, which was indicated by whatever was on the punch card.
This is called single–stream batch processing. Computers were just exotic experimental equipment,
and mainly tested theory. The use plugboards would direct the computer. Without operating systems,
there is no overlap between computation, I/O, think time, and response time. The specific goal was
to handle tables of numbers. Libraries
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Computerizimg the Regitration Process at Universities
The University Student Registration System: a Case Study in Building a High–Availability
Distributed Application Using General Purpose Components
M. C. Little, S. M. Wheater, D. B. Ingham, C. R. Snow, H. Whitfield and S. K. Shrivastava
Department of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU,
England.
Abstract
Prior to 1994, student registration at Newcastle University involved students being registered in a
single place, where they would present a form which had previously been filled in by the student
and their department. After registration this information was then transferred to a computerised
format. The University decided that the entire registration process was to be computerised for the
Autumn of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The high availability requirement implies that the computerised registration system must be able to
tolerate a 'reasonable' number of machine and network related failures, and the consistency
requirement implies that the integrity of stored data (student records) must be maintained in the
presence of concurrent access from users and the types of failures just mentioned. It was expected
that most human errors, such as incorrectly inputting data, would be detected by the system as they
occurred, but some "off–line" data manipulation would be necessary for errors which had not been
foreseen. Tolerance against catastrophic failures (such as complete electrical power failure, or a fire
destroying much of the University infrastructure) although desirable, was not considered within the
remit of the registration system. A solution that would require the University buying and installing
specialist fault–tolerant computing systems, such as Tandem [1] or Stratus [2] was not considered
economically feasible. The only option worth exploring was exploiting the University 's existing
computing resources. Like most other universities, Newcastle has hundreds of networked computers
(Unix workstations, PCs, Macs) scattered throughout the campus. A solution that could make use of
these resources and achieve availability by deploying software–implemented fault–tolerance
techniques certainly looked attractive.
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Electronic Information : The Unstable Development Of...
ABSTRACT:– With the unstable development of computerized information, de–duplication
procedures are generally utilized to reinforcement information and minimize system and capacity
overhead by recognizing and taking out excess among information. Rather than keeping various
information duplicates with the same substance, de–duplication takes out repetitive information by
keeping stand out physical duplicate and alluding other excess information to that duplicate. De–
duplication has gotten much consideration from both the scholarly world and industry in light of the
fact that it can significantly enhances stockpiling usage and spare storage room, particularly for the
applications with high de–duplication proportion, for example, archival capacity frameworks.
Various de–duplication frameworks have been proposed taking into account different de–duplication
methodologies, for example, customer side or server–side de–duplications, record level or square
level de–duplications. Particularly, with the approach of distributed storage, information de–
duplication systems turn out to be more alluring and discriminating for the administration of always
expanding volumes of information in distributed storage administrations which inspires endeavors
and associations to outsource information stockpiling. Keywords: Deduplication; distributed storage
system; reliability; secret sharing INTRODUCTION:– With the explosive growth of digital data,
deduplication techniques are widely employed to
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The Linux Network Name Space Essay
Contents
Linux Network Name Spaces 2
Overview 2
Linux Name Spaces 2
Linux Network Name Space 2
Network Name Space Use Cases 2
Network Name Space Example 2
Summary 2
References 3
Linux Network Name Spaces
Overview
In this paper we will discuss the Linux Network Name Space. First, the concept of namespaces will
be described along with an overview of the default name spaces available in the Linux operating
system. The Linux Network Name Space is a key enabler for some high profile virtualization
technologies including OpenStack and Docker.
Linux Name Spaces
Linux consists of the following six namespaces:
Network – Network Namespace
PID – Process Namespace
Mount – Filesystem Namespace
User – User Namespace
IPC – Interprocess Communication Namespace
UTS – Host and NIS Namespace
Linux namespaces can be traced back to early UNIX technologies called chroot, process jails
controlled where access is controlled with cgroups. The concept of a namespace is to isolate
processes from other processes on the system. This concept evolved into namespaces that are
created with clone() system call and manipulated with the setns() and unshare() system calls. The
clone() system call is used when creating child namespace from a parent or root namespace. As the
name would suggest this creates a clone of an existing stack. The setns() system call is used to join a
namespace. The unshare() system call is used for moving processes into a namespace, as the name
suggests the process
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Open Source Software: Chasing Microsoft Essay
Microsoft's operating system is encountering a heated battle from two fronts: open–source software
and Apple. Open–source programmers seek to share their code for an operating system freely over
the Internet which contrasts with Microsoft who seeks to keep its code proprietary. Apple is also
competing with Microsoft by trying to create a different kind of operating system, one that is
creative, unique and changes the way people use information. Both the open–source programmers
and the Apple programmers (Mac OS X), use a variation of UNIX for their operating systems.
Open–source software is available for anyone to use or modify free of charge. Most software
companies allow only their programmers to make changes to source code; but ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
It was in 1991that Linus Torvald began creating an operating system kernel, called Linux. He was a
21 year old computer science student at the University of Helsinki Finland who had a dream of
converting the teaching version of UNIX called MINIX into a useful operating system. Linux
version 0.01 was released on September as an alternative to UNIX and Windows. Linux is a
participant in the Open Source Software movement and the source code can be downloaded, altered
and redistributed.
"Linux is the perfect operating system for hackers because they can freely download newer versions
of the Linux kernel or other Linux utilities of the Internet and instantly change its source code to fix
any software bugs found." (The Penguin's Guide to Linux, 2000)
As more people joined the Linux movement, more software programs were added to its databank.
Soon there were drivers, office programs, games and user–friendly GUI's. While Linux does not
command a huge market share, they fill a niche with users of netbooks and those who like to
experiment with new programs.
OS Platform Statistics
2012 Win7 WinXP Vista Win2003 Linux Mac Mobile
January 47.1% 31.4% 4.7% 0.7% 4.9% 9.0% 1.3%
(w3schools, 2012) Some Linux distributions are more popular than others based on the features they
offer. The most popular, although newest, Linux distribution is Ubuntu. It has a very easy–to–use
desktop that can
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Essay on UNIX&Linux
UNIX AND LINUX
Two Powerful Systems That Are Often Misunderstood
Unix and Linux
There have been many–recorded eras throughout man's history. There was the Ice Age (BURR), the
Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Industrial Age (revolution) just to name a few. Each of these
eras marks pivotal advances in humankind. Here are some examples of our advancements, during
the Ice Age, one of nature's first demonstrations of her power in population control, man presents his
first fashion show focusing on the elegant features of Fur clothing and accessories. The Industrial
Revolution mans first experience with assembly line manufacturing. It ... Show more content on
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There are many operating systems in use today, a few examples are Windows 95/98, Windows NT,
MS–DOS, UNIX and one you may not have heard of, LINUX. The focuses of this report are the
operating systems UNIX and LINUX, two very interesting and powerful systems. The first is often
labeled as too confusing and unfriendly, the later is relatively unknown to the novice user, but
surprisingly they are very similar in design. A short history of the two operating systems may
explain why they are so similar.
UNIX is a creation out of Bell Labs in the 1960's, in a project headed by Stephen Bourne. The idea
was to create an operating system whose kernel (core part) was as tiny as possible. The main driving
force, the small UNIX kernel, was that the developers were doing their work on what were
considered in that day to be tiny computers. The severe limitation on RAM resulted in a small kernel
with all the utilities implemented as separate, stand–alone programs. Each was itself tiny, and
designed to accept input from the preceding program as well as provide output to succeeding
programs. This process of using output from one program as input into another is referred to as
piping and is central to UNIX operating systems today (UNIX &amp; LINUX Answers! Certified
Tech Support © 1998).
LINUX is a creation of Linus
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Personal Narrative: Ariana
I met Ariana in the parking lot of the downtown movie theater like planned. And automatically I
regretted not staying home. "I hope you know it's very rude to hang up on someone when they're
talking. On top of that, you show up to our date late, AGAIN. And why didn't you attend classes
today? Mrs. Sorun was worried..." She's been doing a lot of questioning and complaining as if we
were really going out. But, she did say this is her way of playing around, so I'm probably
overthinking it. "First," I calmly said to begin my counter rant, "I'm only five minutes late. Second,
is it not considered ruder to wake someone up in the middle of the night? By the way, I couldn't go
back to sleep, so thank you. And finally, I don't care about that lady, so let her worry." ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
"I have not the slightest clue for why you're thanking me, but you're welcome," she said, smiling
and giving a thumbs up. If it wasn't obvious before, this all but confirms she's messing around.
"You're not as serious as you let on to be, are you?" "No, I am," she assured, slightly bumping me
with her hips. "But sometimes you need to learn when to live a little." Live a little? As in enjoying
oneself by spending time doing enjoyable things? Cause if that's the definition she's going by, me
being forced to hang around her is nowhere close to living a little. More like living in... Maybe that's
taking it a little too far. Reeling us back in, I asked, "what's this movie, event, thingy you got us
doing? And why am I involved?" "Um, I believe romantic philosophers call it a 'dinner and a movie
date,' but don't take my word for it," she answered with a stifled laugh. "We're going to see one of
my all–time favorite films and discuss it afterwards during a sit–down dinner if that's okay with
you." Yeah, I don't like this plan. "I'm going home." I turned and walked back to my car
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Unix/Linux
UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique
POS/420
Name
Professor
Date
University of Phoenix
Abstract
The following sections in this paper focus on analyzing operating systems for Riordan
Manufacturing Inc. that specializes in plastic molding and design. Team B concentrated on five
main areas of UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server. The five areas include Security, Administration,
Networking, Performance, and Programmability. The team explains the existing systems, followed
by comparing advantages and disadvantages of each operating system. The comparisons provide
insight for Riordan's IT specialist and administration considering which system to implement.
Interesting topics that relate to security weaknesses, and advantages that UNIX® ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Not only that, but users can even fix problems themselves. Microsoft may tout its large team of paid
developers, but it 's unlikely that team can compare with a global base of Linux user–developers
around the globe. Security can only benefit through all those extra 'eyeballs'" (Why Linux is More
Secure Than Windows, para. 13).
Administration
Riordan Manufacturing Corporation, (Apollo Group, 2004), is a hybrid computing environment
employing MS Windows, (Microsoft Corporation, 2011), e–mail and file servers along–side UNIX
Enterprise Resource Program (ERP) and a HP–UX, (Hewlett Packard Development Company,
2011), UNIX Manufacturing Resource Program (MRP). Effective administrative support of both
operating systems requires two information technology groups, one specializing in MS Windows
platforms and one specializing in UNIX platforms. Requiring two IT groups and two unique server
platforms doubles the administrative management and equipment costs in the enterprise.
Standardizing server hardware and software to one type will significantly reduce costs and increase
Riordan Manufacturing's return on its investment. One server operating system platform can support
all of the workstation's applications with the exception of MS Windows Exchange, (Microsoft
Corporation, 2011), e–mail application.
To reduce personnel costs it is recommend merging the two server platforms (operating systems) to
one where it is possible. HP–UX,
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A Project On Capstone Project
William Wang
Christian
5th
7 April 2015
Capstone project
Have you wonder where the power of technology and computers and all of the applications came
from? Well there are a lot of computer applications like local security applications, protocols, well I
am going to explain some security applications to you. There are many kinds of different security
applications. I am going to explain two of different applications Linux and security policy settings.
Now what are security policies? Security policy settings in Microsoft could be used as part of all of
our security implementation to make sure and to secure domain controllers, servers, client
computers, and other resources in the whole computer world. One of the security applications in
Microsoft is security compliance manager what is that? Well security compliance manager is a
downloadable tool to our computer that will help us deploy, plan , operate and manage the security
baselines for windows client and server operating settings and of course for Microsoft settings. What
does it contain? It contains the complete database of recommended security settings methods to
customize the baselines and the option to implement the important settings in multiple formats. "The
next thing is called security configuration wizard. It is an application where you go through the
process of applying, editing, or rolling back a security policy the security policy that we could create
with SCW is an .xml file but when applied, network
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Essay on The Linux
The Linux was originally founded by Linus Torvalds. In 1991, he was a second year computer
science student in Finland. He sought after an operating system that was similar to the UNIX
system, but both UNIX and the hardware it ran on were excessively expensive. A UNIX version
called Minix was available for free, but it did not reasonably meet his needs as it was simply an
operating system for students, designed primarily as a teaching tool rather than an industry strength
operating system. As a result, Torvalds studied Minix and proceeded to set out to write a new
version. After six months of working to produce the new operating system, Torvalds made very little
progress toward the utility of the system.
He began to post his intentions ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In many systems architecture, the kernel is the lowest level of software that interfaces with the
hardware in a computer. In UNIX, users typically have no direct access to it. It is responsible for
interfacing all applications that run in user mode including the physical hardware and allowing
processes to get information from each other.
Linux kernel developers designed kernel modules that could be loaded and unloaded at runtime.
Kernel modules are essential to keeping the kernel functioning with all of the computer's hardware
without consuming all of the available memory. A module generally adds functions based on the
users needs to the base kernel for things like file systems and devices. A kernel is essential for any
computer system to run and operate properly. The Linux kernel is different than OS X and Windows
because it includes drivers at the kernel level, and most other operating systems do not. (Salzman,
2005.)
The Linux operating system has been developed by many intelligent people. Around two percent of
the Linux kernel was actually written by Torvalds himself. Today, the Linux kernel has received
contributions from thousands of developers across the globe. Torvalds remains the definitive
authority on what new codes are incorporated into the Linux kernel. However, Linux distribution
modifies the kernel according to each of their users'
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Unix Comparison Matrix
Components BSD System V GNU
Role of shell
Main access to the UNIX operating system and as such any improvement to it can result in
considerably more effective use of the system, increased speed, efficiency and file properties. "C"
Shell
This shell is good for interactive work and also added some features from other
Operating shells. The Korn shell became part of System V but had one major problem; unlike the
rest of the UNIX shells it wasn't free, you had to pay AT&T for it. Bourne Shell
It has a very strong powerful syntactical language built into it, with all the features that are
commonly considered to produce structured programs; it has particularly strong provisions for
controlling input and output and in its expression ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Comments on performance As the hardware basis for such capabilities, an interactive graphics
computer station––SaberStation for short––equips the application programmer with more than
enough processing power for the job. Based on a National Semiconductor 32–bit chip set and
running at 10 MHz under the BSD Unix operating system, the unit puts the performance of a VAX–
like minicomputer on an engineer's desk. Its architecture, which employs a floating–point
coprocessor and ultrafast, 32–bit–wide DMA channels, executes 1.2 million instructions a second.
Comments on programmability Programs in this system can often, even typically, be written in a
single line of code. Inexperienced users can be taught to write simple programs in a matter of
minutes. Beginners often produce simple programs without effort within their first day using it.
The elements of the Unix environment have been called software tools. A software tool is very much
like a component, but a bit different. Throughout this piece, we'll refer to components as "tools," but
remember that you can almost always substitute "component" for "tool." In Unix, the standard shell
utilities are all tools. So is the shell. A tool takes a standard data format –– lines of textual input ––
and produces output in the same format. No special code is needed to handle data types; everyone
agrees on a simple format and does a small amount of translation.
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Comparison Between Windows And Linux
Comparative analysis of Windows and Linux
Abstract: Comparison between windows and Linux is mostly used discussion topic among peoples.
Windows and Linux both are operating system in which Windows are closed source and used for
PC.While Linux is open source and used for open source community. Both operating systems have
unique features, advantages and disadvantages. Both operating systems are differing from each other
in term of working, cost, security etc. The first focus of this paper is on introduction of both OS
.This paper mainly focuses on difference between both OS and also defines how these OS are
different in term of working, cost, security, configuration, and performance and user friendliness.
Key Words: Windows, Linux and Operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Threat detection and solution
After detecting a major threat in Windows OS, Microsoft generally releases a patch that can fix the
problem and it can take more than 2/3 months. In case of Linux, threat detection and solution is very
fast.
Examples
Windows 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP
Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Debian, Arch Linux, Android, Peach OSI etc.[4]
Development and Distribution
Windows is developed and distributed solely by Microsoft.
Linux is developed by Open Source development. and it is distributed by various vendors.
Installation
Windows installation methodology is easy. In this the users do not need to have installation disk for
installing
Before installing Linux on machine, we must need each piece of hardware.
Configuration
In Windows configuration is difficult to change and modify.
In Linux configuration is easy to change and modify. We can modify and configure the program
according to needs.
Flexibility
Windows are less flexible than Linux. Because in Windows modification and configuration is
difficult.
Linux is more flexible than Windows, because it provide the modification and configuration
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Lab 1 Essay
1. During the install, the option to sync with NTP (Network Time Protocol) server was checked.
From a security perspective, why is it important for a system to keep accurate time?
UNIX systems base their notion of time on interrupts generated by the hardware clock. Delays in
processing these interrupts because UNIX systems clocks to lose time slowly but erratically. These
small changes in timekeeping are what the time scientist call jitter. The Time protocol provided a
server's notion of time in a machine readable format, and there is also an ICMP Timestamp message
2. During the install, a password has been set for the "root" user. What is the "root "user, and when it
is appropriate to user this account.
The root user is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
You can configure SWAP using mkswap/swapfile command in root or configure it while building
the system itself. I prefer to configure it while building the system for a security standpoint then
doing it while the system is on.
7. What are some of the benefits and features that are available to Linux users by selecting the ext4
file system for the partitioning of a Linux system? The Ext 4 files system is larger and the system is
also faster.
8. How is the passwd file used and what fields make up its content? Explain. The passwd file is used
to store passwords and logins, mail files, bin files and system files 9. What is the fstab file used for
and what fields make up its content? Explain
The fstab file typically lists all available disks and disk partitions, and indicates how they are to be
initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's file system.
10. Explain the significance of creating separate partitions of the /var and /boot directories? What is
contained within these directories? The /var filesystem contains data that is changed when the
system is running normally. It contains /spool/ mail/ messages/log/syslog. The boot is where the root
partition is mounted and it contains kernel image, boot sector/ etc/init.d
11. How would selecting the option "encrypt filesystem "be useful?
EFS provides strong encryption through industry–standard algorithms and public key cryptography,
encrypted files are confidential even
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Windows Nt vs Unix as an Operating System
Windows NT vs Unix As An Operating System
In the late 1960s a combined project between researchers at MIT, Bell Labs and
General Electric led to the design of a third generation of computer operating system known as
MULTICS (MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service). It was envisaged as a computer
utility, a machine that would support hundreds of simultaneous timesharing users. They envisaged
one huge machine providing computing power for everyone in Boston. The idea that machines as
powerful as their GE–645 would be sold as personal computers costing only a few thousand dollars
only 20 years later would have seemed like science fiction to them.
However MULTICS proved more difficult than imagined to implement and Bell Labs
withdrew ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Most of these systems were (and still are) neither source nor binary compatible with one another,
and most are hardware specific.
With the emergence of RISC technology and the breakup of AT&T, the UNIX systems category
began to grow significantly during the 1980s. The term "open systems" was coined. Customers
began demanding better portability and interoperability between the many incompatible UNIX
variants. Over the years, a variety of coalitions (e.g. UNIX International) were formed to try to gain
control over and consolidate the UNIX systems category, but their success was always limited.
Gradually, the industry turned to standards as a way of achieving the portability and interoperability
benefits that customers wanted. However, UNIX standards and standards organisations proliferated
(just as vendor coalitions had), resulting in more confusion and aggravation for UNIX customers.
The UNIX systems category is primarily an application–driven systems category, not an operating
systems category. Customers choose an application first–for example, a high–end CAD package–
then find out which different systems it runs on, and select one. The final selection involves a
variety of criteria, such as price/performance, service, and support. Customers generally don't
choose UNIX itself, or which UNIX variant they want. UNIX just comes with the package when
they buy a system to run their chosen
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Unix Operating System
Abstract
This paper is a general overview of Unix operating system. It starts by presenting a brief history of
the early development of Unix. It concentrates on main aspects of Unix operating system. Key
concepts covered are interactive multi–user operating systems, the design objectives of Unix, file–
store organization, text processing and programming, the role of C programming language with
regard to portability and reliable system software, process control (signals and fork), error logging
and recovery from system failures, modifiability and application.
Outline
I. Introduction of Unix
a. History of Unix
b. Interest in Unix
c. Early marketing
d. Developments
i. GUI ii. Linux
1. Linus Torvalds
II. The Design Objectives of Unix, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The full Unix operating system had been ported only to the top end of the early personal computer
market, since Unix required CPU, memory, and disk resources which were well in excess of what
was available on the majority of these early machines. However, the growing popularity of the IBM
PC clone as a personal computing platform, and the need to have a system which students could
work on encouraged Andrew Tanenbaum to write a small version of Unix in 1986 called Minix, for
the PC platform. Although it originally supported multi–processing with a single user and only
floppy disk drives for storage, it evolved over the years to Minix 2.0, with many additional features
not found in the early versions. The full source code is available. Unlike most Unix operating
systems, Minix uses a micro–kernel–based design.
Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for Unix were available in the early 1980's but all were proprietary
and communication at the graphical level between two different Unix platforms was generally not
possible. This situation was remedied when the Athena Project at MIT provided a standard platform
independent graphical interface for Unix and other operating systems that can be used over a
network. It is usually referred to as the X Window System, X11, or simply X. The X Window
System has continued to this day to be the main graphical interface for Unix. It was primarily
enhanced and
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Comparing Microsoft DOS with UNIX Essay
Comparing Microsoft DOS with UNIX As is suggestive of its name, an operating system (OS) is a
collection of programs that operate the personal computer (PC). Its primary purpose is to support
programs that actually do the work one is interested in, and to allow competing programs to share
the resources of the computer. However, the OS also controls the inner workings of the computer,
acting as a traffic manager which controls the flow of data through the system and initiates the
starting and stopping processes, and as a means through which software can access the hardware and
system software. In addition, it provides routines for device control, provides for the management,
scheduling and interaction of tasks, and maintains system ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
This presents the need for memory management, as the memory of the computer would need to be
searched for a free area in which to load a users program. When the user was finished running the
program, the memory consumed by it would need to be freed up and made available for another user
when required (CIT). Process scheduling and management is also necessary, so that all programs
can be executed and run without conflict. Some programs might need to be executed more
frequently than others, for example, printing. Conversely, some programs may need to be
temporarily halted, then restarted again, so this introduces the need for inter–program
communication. In modern operating systems, we speak more of a process (a portion of a program
in some stage of execution (CIT, 3)) than a program. This is because only a portion of the program is
loaded at any one time. The rest of the program sits waiting on the disk until it is needed, thereby
saving memory space. UNIX users speak of the operating system as having three main parts: the
kernel, the shell and the file system. While DOS users tend not to use the term kernel and only
sometimes use the term shell, the terms remain relevant. The kernel, also known as the "Real Time
Executive", is the low–level core of the OS and is loaded into memory right after the loading of the
BIOS whenever the system is started. The kernel handles the transfer of data among the various
parts of the system, such as from hard disk to
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Unix, Linux, and Windows Server Critique Essay
UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique
UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique
Administration
Windows Server Advantages There are many administration advantages for Windows Servers. One
aspect is domain operations which are an important resource available on the network through
Window Server. Making Window Server a domain controller adds security and the ability to add
local and group policies to the network (Garza, 2010). If Window Server is not promoted to the
status of a domain controller, then it can run simple network operations using peer–to–peer
structures (Garza, 2010). These are workgroups, and they can only block or allow access but do not
provide control features for the network. The numbers of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Disadvantages One of the biggest disadvantages is that it does not have a specific organization
which updates and provides services, or software tweaks in a regular manner as Windows does.
Another disadvantage is that the lack of graphical user inters faces, or the absence of free tools and
software when compared to Windows (Host wisely, 2011).
Performance
Windows Server Advantages Windows server offers anywhere access with great flexibility, which
allows a company to build, deploy, and manage applications and websites on premises, in the cloud,
or in hybrid environments using a consistent set of tools and framework Windows server also offers
frameworks, services, and tools to help increase scalability. (Microsoft, 2012). Disadvantages
Windows servers are notorious for being vulnerable to worms while there have been basically no
worms affecting UNIX in the past ten years. Any server running on windows should really have
anti–virus software on it just like a desktop would. While window servers are unaffected by this they
are just as susceptible to malicious and mischievous hackers as window servers and therefore must
still be patched UNIX Advantages There are many performance advantages for
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 1 Review...
Guide to UNIX Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 1 Solutions
Answers to the Chapter 1 Review Questions
1. Your boss drops by your office in a hurry to ask you to attend a meeting at 10:30 on Friday
morning and you can't find a pen to make a note as a reminder. What Linux command can you use
to make a quick note to store in a file called Meeting? Answer: b. cat > Meeting
2. Before you make the note in Question 1, you decide to determine Friday's date, so that you can
include it in your note. What Linux command can you use to quickly determine the Friday's date?
Answer: a. cal
3. While you are typing a command, you misspell the name of a file you want to specify with the
command. Which of the following ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
What key sequence can you use to repeat the last command, which was used to print the file?
Answer: c. Press the up arrow key one time.
21. Your international company is scheduling a meeting among managers in Canada, the United
States, Spain, Sweden, and Hong Kong on the basis of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). What
command enables you to display the current time in GMT? Answer: b. date –u
22. How would you describe the purpose of the more command? Answer: The more command
enables you to view a file's contents by scrolling down.
23. What is the purpose of Telnet? Answer: Telnet can be used to connect a UNIX , Linux, or
Windows PC to a remote computer.
24. You enter Cal on the command line to view a calendar but only see an error message. Explain
why you got the error message. Answer: UNIX and Linux are case sensitive, so to display a calendar
you must use the cal command and not Cal.
25. Explain how you can run more than one command on a single command line. Answer: To run
more than one command on a single line, use the : (semicolon) character to separate each command.
Hands–On Projects Tips and Solutions for Chapter 1
Project 1–1
In this project, students use Telnet in Windows 2000/XP/Vista to access a remote computer running
UNIX/Linux. Students will need accounts on both the Windows 2000/XP/Vista
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Big Data Management Analytics And Management Essay

  • 1. Big Data Management Analytics And Management Essay CS6350 Big data Management Analytics and Management Summer 2015 Homework 1 In this homework you will learn how to solve problems using Map Reduce. Please apply Hadoop map–reduce to derive some statistics from Yelp Dataset. You can find the dataset in elearning. Copy the data into your hadoop cluster and use it as input data. You can use the put or copyFromLocal HDFS shell command to copy those files into your HDFS directory. In class there will be brief demo/ discussion about that. Dataset Description. The dataset comprises of a single csv file data.csv that contains 3 types of entities namely users, businesses and reviews. Records for each entity are distinguished by the 'type ' column. The type column determines the type of entity a row represents. For example if type is business, then that row contains business data, if type is user , then the row contains user data likewise if type is review, then that row contains review data. The csv file has 24 columns namely Column id : Name of Column Column 0 :review_id Column 1: text Column 2: business_id Column 3: full_address Column 4: schools Column 5: longitude Column 6: average_stars:: //this is for the business entity type only
  • 2. Column 7: date Column 8: user_id Column 9: open Column10: categories Column11: photo_url Column12: city Column13: review_count Column14: name Column15: neighborhoods Column 16: url Column 17: votes.cool Column 18: votes.funny Column 19: state Column 20: stars:: //this is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 6. Open and Closed Source Systems Essay An operating system is a considered a set of programs that schedule tasks, assign storage and presenting an interface to the user. There are many operating systems to choose from. Some are created for personal use, some for business use, and some can be used for both. One of the biggest differences is whether the operating system is open source or closed source. Operating systems are created with programming code. Programmers are responsible for writing the source code, which is compiled into executable code. This executable code is what creates the product ran on computers. An open source system is a system in which the source code is visible. A closed source system keeps the source code hidden. System Differences There are more ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Users have several options when choosing a closed source system. Some examples would include Microsoft Windows and Apple OS X operating systems. Like open source systems, closed source systems offer software for a variety of uses that include personal, server and mobile. Open Source Closed Source Linux Red Hat Unix Windows 97, XP, 7, Vista Versions of Window Server Mac OS X Closed source systems are usually found in personal computers because the level of expertise needed to use them is minimal. There are many factors to consider when determining which system to use. The level of expertise of the user, the costs of the system and any add–ons, and the flexibility of the system must all be considered. The type of application also plays some role in the decision. Both types can be found in personal, server, and mobile applications. However, open source systems are often found more in mobile and server applications. Using the UNIX Environment I am currently using Windows 7 as my primary operating system and I have been a Windows user since I started really using computers so the transition for me to a UNIX/Linux environment has been a bit daunting. For the purposes of this comparison I downloaded Cygwin, which emulates a
  • 7. Linux environment quite well. The first issue that I had to figure out was where did the GUI go? I realized that a UNIX/Linux system uses the command prompt ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 11. The History of Gnu/Linux Essay In the beginning of the age of the modern computer, programmers worked around the clock, creating code for their employers for use in proprietary computer systems. These elite programmers enjoyed challenging one another and frequently enjoyed stretching modern systems to their limits. These programmers became know as &quot;hackers&quot; for their talents at dissecting and working around difficult problems, often searching for the most elegant or most efficient solution possible. Unlike the vision of hackers as portrayed by the 1990's media., these hackers refrained from any illegal activities. The best hackers viewed such things as breaking into computer systems as immature and childish. The media derives their definition of a hacker ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... GNU/Linux, as an operating system and massive community programming project, quickly became the flagship for the open source revolution and the claim to fame for two exceptional hackers, Richard Stallman and Linus Benedict Torvalds, the two most highly respected and well–known hackers that have ever lived.. Before the birth of the GNU/Linux and the open source revolution, a tight community of hackers dwelling within the programmer–friendly company, AI Labs.AI Labs, over time, had become one of the most prestigious programmer havens and the most advanced artificial intelligence development center in the world at that time. AI Labs recruited the best hackers from all over the world to come and work for them. This elite hacker team formed a code–sharing community embodied the playful yet quite competitive hacker spirit which Stallman, the founder of GNU refers to as a special kind of &quot;playful cleverness.&quot; (Code 16) However, due to an unfortunate turn of events, Symbolics broke up the the AI Labs team by hiring away the entire team except the exceptional Stallman and Greenblat. (&quot;GNU&quot;) Although the hackers which previously made up a tightly knit code–sharing community were able to keep in touch, the proprietary nature of their software prevented them from sharing their source code outside of those select companies who were licensed to possess copies of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 15. Unix And Unix Operating System 6.4 C–DOT DSS MAX is administrated by UNIX operating system BSNL C–DOT DSS MAX uses UNIX operating system to operate the exchange. The UNIX operating system is a set of programs that act as a link between the computer and the user. The computer programs that allocate the system resources and coordinate all the details of the computer 's internals is called the operating system or kernel. Users communicate with the kernel through a program known as the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter it translates commands entered by the user and converts them into a language that is understood by the kernel. UNIX was originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. There are various UNIX variants available in the market. Solaris UNIX, AIX, HP UNIX and BSD are few examples. Several people can use a UNIX computer at the same time; hence UNIX is called a multiuser system. A user can also run multiple programs at the same time; hence UNIX is called multitasking. This is why BSNL uses UNIX operating system as the exchanges can be operated through a remote area. UNIX operating system provides various commands to operate embedded systems in C–DOT DSS MAX. The commands used in C–DOT DSS MAX UNIX operating system are broadly divided into two categories– 1. Administration command classes 2. Maintenance command classes In Administration command classes, there ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 19. Operating System Structure Of A Single Large Executable... OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE The operating system can be defined as a collection of written procedures, linked together into a single large executable binary program. The most useful and better approach is divide the task into small components /modules instead of having one monolithic system so that the operating system can function properly and can be modified easily. Input, output and functions should be clearly defined in each of the system modules as far as we can finally come with large and complex system. Simple structure, layered structure, microkernel, client–server systems and virtual machines are among different structures of operating system. 1 Simple Structure Well defined structures are very important in operating systems. Scope, functionality and well designed modules are main factor to consider to make sure the system will satisfy user needs and provides a good service to users.MS–DOS is a good example of Simple structure because of its history which starts with small, simple and limited system that did not consider about the number of users and possibility of become popular operating system that can be able to accommodate as many users as possible.MS–DOS do not consider the matter of separation between the interfaces and levels of functionality. As Silberschatz (2013)," stated that an application programs are able to access the basic I/O routines to write directly to the display and disk drives. Such freedom leaves MS–DOS vulnerable to errant (or malicious) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 23. Managing a Global Team MGS32015E Global Human Resource Management Spring 2012 MANAGING A GLOBAL TEAM: GREG JAMES AT SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC. Overview of SUN Microsystems Inc. Sun Microsystems I nc. (SUN) provided companies with complete information technology (IT) solutions that included hardware, software, storage and services. One of Sun ' s competitive strategies had been to form global teams in order to provide excellent and prompt support to its client at any hour of the day. Greg James is the global manager of SUN located in Santa Clara, USA. H e leads a global team of 45 people composed of members in France, India, the UAE and the US. James ' team serves Sun' s enterprise customers in Asia and Europe. 1. Situational Analysis James' s ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Because of the time zones, the Indian employees had excessively long days from 6:30 to 22:00. As a result, they had little time at home with family. Moreover, Ashok revealed that they were dissatisfied t hey are only conducted in customer maintenance work and other teams get the interesting work in innovation process. Also, the I ndian team was looked down by others who they were incompetent. 2.1.2 France and the US There is a "compensation mismatch" a mong the French and the US teams. The French team complains that they were less pay than the American coworkers by 30%. The American team dissatisfied they had less vacation and more workloads than the French teammates as France had strict labour laws. James had explained to his team that they had to accept the country –based benefits differences but both teams felt dissatisfied. 2.1.3 The UAE The team members feared they would be deemed incompetent because they had consistently missed deadlines. However, this ha ppen not because of their incompetent. In the Middle East, their culture required extensive and time –consuming in building relationship before contracts and commitments could be finalized. Furthermore, race discrimination happens in the UAE team itself,
  • 24. Ahmed and Rahul don't get along because Ahmed was from Pakistan. 2.1.4 U.S. Team viewed as "Favorites" James spent more time with the U.S team and communicated with them more frequently. The three international teams ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 28. Essay about UNIX and Windows UNIX and Windows About Unix The Unix operating system is a powerful programming environment designed by and for computer programmers. Unix is available on a wide variety of computer systems, including personal computers, workstations, mainframes and supercomputers. It was developed for, and is particularly well suited to, multi–user systems, but is now also run on 'stand–alone' machines. Beginners and casual users often find the jargon–filled help system frustrating and the lack of icons and menus unfriendly. Unix was first developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories in the USA. It was originally developed as a system to be used by the staff in the laboratories, and it was principally intended to provide an operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They are many different versions of Unix, as well as some Unix 'lookalikes'. The most widely used are: System V (distributed by the original developers, AT&T) AIX (IBM) Berkeley BSD (from the University of California, Berkeley) SunOS, now known as Solaris (from the makers of Sun workstations) Xenix (a PC version of Unix). The Unix operating system consists basically of the kernel and the shell. The kernel is the part carries out basic operating system functions such as accessing files, allocating memory and handling communications. A shell provides the user interface to the kernel. A number of shells are available on the Unix operating system including the Bourne shell and the C shell. The shell is basically an extensive program that runs all the time that you are logged on to the computer, and provides an interactive interface between the user and the computer functions. The C shell is the default shell for interactive work on many Unix systems. Most users don't see much difference among the variants of Unix (ULTRIX, AIX, etc.), because the shell program handles interactions between the user and the operating system. When you type a command "at Unix," you are actually typing it at the shell. The shells are the same no matter what type of Unix you use; for example, Korn shell will look the same whether the computer you use is AIX or ULTRIX. You can choose from several shells: Korn shell ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 32. The Elements Of The Operating System For Linux The elements of the operating system for the LINUX comprises of the components such as follows: System Calls – The system calls are the service requests made for the specific kernels. Signals – The signals are the calling functions for the operating system to the process and requests. Processes – The process management is used to provide the creation, scheduling and management of various processes. Memory Management – The memory management is used to provide the memory storage allocations to the system. File System – The file systems are used to provide the maintenance of the files, folder structures in the drives. Network Protocols – The network components and the protocols are used to interconnect the system to the routers, or bridges and so on. Interrupts – This section is used to maintain the interrupts for handling the connections with the peripheral devices. Methods for inter–process management in Linux The methods involved in the inter–process management in LINUX include the following: The creation of the process Process call Execution The process is created at first using the 'fork' statement. The process is then called after the 'execve' command. The LINUX system is used to maintain the single program execution. The signals only carry the information about the process and about the state of the process whether it is running or not. In the LINUX system, communication is passed by using scheduling states and 'wait.queue' structures. There are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 36. Computer Technology Contributions Computer science is an ever–evolving field that is relevant to the daily activities of almost all people living in the 21st century. Through the years, the field of computer science has advanced thanks to the contributions of numerous scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. From the programs powering medical devices in healthcare to the operating systems on mobile devices, the work of computer scientists is responsible for the technologies that power our lives. This paper describes the contributions made by Ada Lovelace, Linus Torvalds, and Dennis Ritchie to the field of computer science. 1: Ada Lovelace Ada Lovelace is most known for her contributions to computer science during a time before computer science was a recognized discipline. Her work involved a thorough series of notes on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, including a table that explained how the engine could potentially display Bernoulli numbers (Martin, 2015). The analytical engine was an industrial–era invention intended to carry out computations using punched cards (Martin, 2015). She was tasked with translating Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea's notes on Babbage's analytical engine, which she published in 1843 (Martin, 2015). Ada's notes on the analytical engine were much greater than the original translation, and she was able to realize the true potential of the analytical engine. She was able to come up with an algorithm for the analytical engine that could be used to calculate Bernoulli ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 40. Computer Operating System 1. Introduction to Operating System:– Computer is a somewhat complex machine. The world has become accustomed to so many choices. One of the major choices in the modern era is the "Operating System (OS)". Operating systems are the central software component to any computer. The main brands of operating system are; Windows Mac OS, Sun Solaris, UNIX, DOS and Linux. Each brand has its own take on what makes up an operating system. Windows is the most commonly used operating system around the world. The most common advantage about Windows is its simplicity. It is now very easy for an inexperienced person to grasp the concept and use the computer with this operating system on it. Windows newest version is Vista and windows7. Vista has made ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Its current best–selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software. Starting in 1980, Microsoft formed an important partnership with IBM that allowed them to bundle Microsoft's operating system with computers that they sold, paying Microsoft a royalty for every sale. In 1985, IBM requested that Microsoft write a new operating system for their computers called OS/2; Microsoft wrote the operating system, but also continued to sell their own alternative, which proved to be in direct competition with OS/2. Microsoft Windows eventually overshadowed OS/2 in terms of sales. When Microsoft launched several versions of Microsoft Windows in the 1990s, they had captured over 90% market share of the world's personal computers. [pic] Fig: Microsoft staff photo from December 7, 1978. From left to right: Top: Steve Wood, Bob Wallace, and Jim Lane. Middle: Bob O'Rear, Bob Greenberg, Marc McDonald, Gordon Letwin. Bottom: Bill Gates, Andrea Lewis, Marla Wood, Paul Allen. Versions:– |Release date |Product name |Current version / build | |Nov 1987 |Windows2.03 |2.03 | |Mar 1989 |Windows2.11 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 44. Unix Security Essay An Overview of UNIX Security The purpose of this paper is to analyze the security of UNIX. Considerations shall be given regarding generalized security aspects of a typical UNIX system. The ultimate scope of the following presentation shall remain within the boundaries of a few of the more critical UNIX security aspects. Of particular note will be discussion regarding standard user access, root access, file system security, and internet access precautions. This will not focus on specific measures used to implement security, but rather will investigate both pros and cons typical of a UNIX installation. Finally, a brief description of UNIX security versus other operating systems will be noted. Since no two UNIX–based operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Of the utmost security concern is the protection of the root account. The root account allows a user absolute control of the system, including the ability to alter practically every aspect of the systems, from individual files to installed programs. Indeed, an entry in Wikipedia.com notes, that a UNIX administrator should be much like Clark Kent, only using the root account, or becoming Superman, when absolutely necessary, lest the security of the account be compromised (2006). Ultimately, this implementation represents a near surefire way to protect the system against many internal and external threats. By ensuring regularly scheduled root account password changes and ensuring the passwords are strong, the cons noted previously should be relatively easy to avoid. File system security is also very important regardless of the UNIX implementation. UNIX files system security generally allows access permissions to be granted to various defined users and groups. UNIX also contains an access right flag know as the "sticky bit". The sticky bit can be used to allow users and groups write access to certain directories within the system. Similarly, the sticky bit can be used by a user to disallow other users with access to the same directory to alter the contents of the file. The file can only be altered by the file owner, the directory owner, and the root account (linuxdevcenter.com, 2006). This particular element allows for a great deal of control ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 48. un Microsystem Company Analysis Essay Executive Summary In this analysis of the Sun Microsystem Company I will give a situation analysis, which includes the growing economic trend in the market of the new computer technology. An analysis of the industry that states the current workstation market and its competitors, which states that the industry is an exclusive market with high entry barriers and has a constant competition with the personal computer industry. In the organizational section, a general financial analysis of the companies profitability, and the management philosophy of the current C.E.O. and the negative effects he's caused. The marketing strategy will explain the companies target market, its market focus, the aspects of its advertising, and advertising ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Situation Analysis Environment The economic environment from 1982 to 1990 was the age of new technology. During this time there were many new companies emerging in the computer industry, trying to find a niche market. The economy was trending towards a large increase on economic wealth and very low unemployment rates. The culture was starting to embrace the idea of computer technology and the idea of networking. Industry The industry in which Sun Microsystems is competing in is computer workstations for scientists, engineers, and commercial companies. Sun's founder's believed there was demand for a desktop computer workstation costing between $10,000 and $20,000 in a market niche, ignored by minicomputer makers such as, IBM, Data General, Dec, and Hewlett–Packard. Sun's executives believed that they would only have a short time in this market before the other large companies decided to enter, because it was an exclusive market with a high entry barrier, but with opportunity for extensive profitability. The workstation market for engineers and scientists was rapidly becoming saturated. The company is now concentrating more of its efforts on airlines, banks, insurance, financial companies, and other commercial companies, trying to persuade users to utilize Sun workstations to solve new problems. Sun had to change their product design to make its machines easier to install, and improve the understandability of product manuals. As Sun
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  • 53. Creative Writing: A Fictional Narrative "That's rude of the other girl," Alex said. "I can't really blame her, I am not the best talking to girls and I wasn't...well...this," Steve motioned to his whole body, "when we went on the date." "Still, you don't go on a double date and ignore your 'date'" Alex shook her head. "I am sure you were delightful. And you are doing fine talking to me." "Really, because a girl like you would have terrified me back then," Steve said with a smile. "Honestly, you kind of terrify me now." Alex laughed out loud at this. While she knew that she didn't give off the most welcoming vibe, the fact that a man that was so much taller and stronger than her said he was terrified of her was hilarious. She had been called many things, but terrifying wasn't one of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... She wasn't sure, but she had a feeling that Steve almost said that Sam could listen to the whole thing through the bugs. It was a little slip and Alex wouldn't have even noticed it if she hadn't known about the bugs in the first place. "That's up to you, but if he teases me mercilessly, remember that I know where you live," Steve said with a smile as he finished his beer. They chatted a bit more as Alex finished her food and cleaned up before Steve got ready to leave. While he might have been Captain America, Alex realized that she forgot about that when she was talking to him. He was just a normal, slightly awkward, guy. It was weird to see her hero, and any superhero, like this. It was so easy to put them on a pedestal that when you saw they didn't fit up there at all, it was easier to just think that they were someone else than change your opinion. "Thank you so much for doing this," Alex said as she walked him to the door. "You seriously saved my ass and my grade." "It wasn't all that bad and it was really the least I could do with the weekend you had," Steve said with a smile as he put on a baseball cap. He walked out into the hallway, but turned and looked at her instead of heading down the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 57. Open Source Philosophy The History and Philosophy of Open Source The open source movement was born in 1984, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab when Richard M. Stallman quit his position at the university to begin the GNU Project. Having grown tired of seeing his colleagues being hired off by corporations and signing nondisclosure agreements for their work, he set off to create a completely free, open operating system. Though he specialized in the field, building such a system from the ground up is nearly impossible for a single person; thus, he began with a more attainable goal, creating a C compiler. Though he was successful in this, he never managed to create a kernel (the core of an operating system), aside from GNU Hurd, of which we do not speak. Fortunately for the movement, one would later emerge with a similar philosophy. Around 1991, the GNU Project had amassed a respectable number of software packages, including the widely used GCC and Emacs, though it still lacked the core, a kernel. Then, more than six thousand kilometers away, a twenty–one–year–old Finnish university student began developing a small, open source system as a hobby. Once the open source community became interested in it, what started as a small project capable of little more than displaying text quickly morphed into one of the most widely–distributed pieces of software in history, containing more than twenty million lines of code, contributed to by tens of thousands of developers across the globe, and with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 61. How Did Linus Torvalds Begin His Original Project In Linux? In 1991 Linus Torvalds began a project known as the Linux Kernel while attending the University of Helsinki. He had written the program specifically for the hardware he was using at the time and then he had also wanted it to be independent of the operating system. There are some reasons known of why Linus Torvalds had started his original project in Linux. Two of these such reasons are in 1983 the GNU project was born, and its creator was Richard Stallman. He had the goal in mind of creating a free UNIX like operating system. Later Stallman had also created the GNU General Public License. Linus had stated that these had a lack of being widely adopted, and that he wanted to create free kernel that would be available quickly. If the GNU Hurd or any of the other kernels had been available, then there is a possibility that Torvalds never would have written his own in the first place. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Development was initiated on MINIX and it used the GNU C Compiler, and until this very day is the same compiler that is mainly used. He started out mainly developing device drivers and hard drive access. By December of that same year he had created a version of Linux that he referred to as 0.01. In the year of 1991 on the day of October 5th Torvalds sent a posting to the newsgroup comp.os.minix. This post announced the release of a new version labeled as 0.02. This version was intended to be very basic and one that still needed MINIX to operate. There was an incredible attraction and interest in this and from here on out the kernel was very rapidy improved by Torvalds and many a number in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 65. Essay about Doc. Unix 1. You have just finished a 25–page paper that you have written using Emacs.The file containing the paper is called /assignments/data_sources. After your instructor has briefly looked at the paper, she recommends that you change all instances of the reference "data is" to "data are" before you submit it.Which of the following commands can you use to locate these references in the file for a quick assessment of how much you have to change? a. find – i 'data is' /assignments/data_sources b. test /assignments/data_sources "data is" c. grep "data is" /assignments/data_sources d. scan –t data is /assignments/data_sources 2. You are interested in determining the number of words in your /assignments/ data_sources file mentioned in Question ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... window ls –a d. dir < display 13. You are creating a file to send over the Internet via a satellite connection that only allows you to send files under 250 KB.Which of the following commands enables you to determine the number of bytes in the file before you try to send it? a. cat –s b. tr –b c. counter –k d. wc –c 14. In the command sed –f fixit notes > instructions, what is "fixit"? a. a script file b. an operator c. a function d. a formatting interpreter 15. When you design a record layout, you should do which of the following? a. identify each field by data type b. plan to delimit fields using a dash c. identify each field by name d. store only fields relevant to the record's purpose 16. What sed command option enables you to append new text to a file?
  • 66. a. p b. –n c. a d. |add 17. Your boss has two salary scale files, salary and salary1, and wants to compare their contents side by side to see if there are any differences in the files.Which of the following commands should he use? a. diff –S salary > salary1 b. comm salary salary1 c. uniq salary < salary1 d. sed ––comp salary salary1 18. When you use the pr command how can you limit the output to only a screen full of text to view. (Choose all that apply.) a. Maximize your terminal window to hold 24 lines. b. Pipe the output into more. c. Use the –l 23 option. d. Pipe the less command into the more command. 19. When you use the Awk printf capability, what does the dollar sign ($) represent? a. a field ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. Unix Linux Research Paper unix linux Unix has different costs and its not freely accessible linux can be freely downloaded, There are priced versions for Linux also, but windows normally costs a lot more cost unix linux on the other side unix operating system is used in internet servers, workstations & personal computers.Backbone of the majority of finance infastructure and many 24x365 high availability solutions. linux is a great example of an open source software development and free operating system,linux can be installed on many devices ranging from mobile phones to computers,mainframes and upper computers usage Unix Linux whereas the Unix users have to wait weeks for a bug removal patch due to it going through an endless development cycles . both operating systems are vulnerable to bugs and threats ,yet Linux is way better in dealing with bugs and threats as it's an open operating system ,bugs can be reported by anyone in the user/developer forum ,and it gets fixed within few days Threat detection A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 and 120 viruses reported till now. Linux has had about 60 to 100 viruses listed till date. None ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It was written in the C language and was designed to be a portable and multi–user system in a time– sharing configuration. the inventor of Linus OS is Linus travolds,he always wanted to call his invention 'Freax'.at the beginning , he used to store files under the name 'Freax' for about 12 months.in 1991,travolds became curious about operating systems so he thought of creating his own while attending to his university and he was frustrated by the licensing of Minix ,which at the time limited it to educational use only ,so he began to work on his own operating system kernel ,which became the Linux kernel operating system ,he then began to develop his operating system on Minix and the applications used on minix were also used on the Linux later. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. CISSH Essays CISC 7310 Operating Systems Fall 2013 Dayton Clark cissh project Due December 4th Name: ID (4–digit): Introduction In this project we implement a simple shell called, cissh. I have implemented the some of the shell, you are to complete the implementation of two features. As is cissh can execute commands like "ls" cissh–| ls ==== ls Distribution Makefile Solution TAGS cissh cissh.c cissh.o cissh.output cissh.ps cisshSingleCommand.c cisshDescription.odt cisshSingleCommand.o cisshPipe.c discussion.tpl cisshPipe.o solution.output cisshRedirectedInput.csysCallManPages.pdf cisshRedirectedInput.otestScript.txt cisshRedirectedOutput.c cisshRedirectedOutput.o and "ls > filelist" cissh–| ls > fileList ==== ls ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Introduces the overall edit–compile–link–debug programming cycle and the explains the basic usage of...gcc, make, gdb, emacs, and the shell. The goal is to describe the major features and typical uses of the tools and show how they fit together with enough detail for basic projects. A version of this handout is used at Stanford to help students get started building programs on Unix. http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/107/UnixProgrammingTools.pdf My personal favorite Linux/Unix links (Easy install) http://www.ubuntu.com https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation http://www.opensolaris.com/ (For the Unix nuts) (gcc – not installed by default?) (Apple is Unix also but, it is hiding in developer tools.)
  • 75. http://developer.apple.com/mac/library/documentation/Xcode/Conceptual/XcodeCo existence/Contents/Resources/en.lproj/Basics/Basics.html One more post, this fixes an error in my code that only appears under some compilers (thanks Yasuhiro): Subject: RE: Description Reply Quote Modify Set Flag Remove Author: Yasuhiro Saito Posted date: Thursday, March 11, 2010 4:19:32 PM EST Last modified date: Thursday, March 11, 2010 4:19:32 PM EST [cissh.c segmentation fault] I think we need to correct cissh.c file. Otherwise a segmentation fault occurs. In the processLine function, we need to correct as follows; –––> if(tokenCount == 0 || *tokens[tokenCount – 1] != ';') { tokens[tokenCount] = ";"; tokenCount++; ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 79. Is418 Project 1-2-3 Essay example IS–418: Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications * Project: Linux – Based Web Application Infrastructure * Project: Logistics * Project Part 3: Executive Summary * Project Part 3: Tasks 1 * Project Part 3: Tasks 2 * Project Part 3: Tasks 3 IS–418: Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications * Project: Linux – Based Web Application Infrastructure * Project: Logistics * Project Part 3: Executive Summary * Project Part 3: Tasks 1 * Project Part 3: Tasks 2 * Project Part 3: Tasks 3 Task 1: Use a Kernel Scenario: First World Bank Savings and Loan's Linux–based infrastructure requires an in–house custom kernel or a kernel provided by a vendor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However the key strength in all these management appliance solutions is that they are "open solutions" designed to empower the customer. The Power of Open Standards: Opengear has a long tradition of working with organizations and people in the open standards and open source community – to help support the development of open design and spread the use of open platforms: * Opengear partnered with OSSI and the OpenSSL project to sponsor the OpenSSL cryptographic module meeting the FIPS 140–2 standard for ARM processors * Opengear supports the OpenFlow/SDN Interoperability Lab. This Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology from the Open
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  • 84. Open and Closed Source and What It Means Open and Closed Source Systems June 24, 2013 Open and Closed Source System What Open Source Means Open–Source means it is free. No one owns it, so there is no source code, no key code, and no licensing to purchase. When Linus Torvalds created Linux, he determined that the more people or, the more minds delving into the software can make the system more creative, more improved, and the possibilities are endless. Thus, he gave Linux to the world as a free open–source operating system ("Damicon; Linking The Left Brain And The Right Brain: Open Vs. Closed Source", 2003– 2009). Open–Source is defined by the code or source code is accessible to person or persons who essentially use it or in IT definition: end–user. The user can revise and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Software that safeguards these privileges are kept is called free software. The license was originally written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation or (FSF) for the GNU project. According to Gnu General Public License, Version 3 29 June 2007 (2007), "The GNU General Public license is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works" (para. 1). Copyleft means a technique for creating a program whereby it is free; forcing any altered and expanded versions of said program to be free also. A software company provides a software license to a consumer who then provides their permission for the consumer to use their software packet or package. Typically, it comes with many restrictions, and only allows the user one copy per license. It cannot be copied or distributed in anyway. Such is the case for Microsoft. Microsoft also has volume licensing in that a corporation can purchase as many licenses, or also referred to as key codes, as they might need depending on the size of the business. When Microsoft came up with volume licensing it allowed businesses to save costs by not having to purchase the boxed software. The cost is only for the license number or key code. It can also give tailored buying choices and better software administration. References Damicon; linking the left–brain and the right brain: Open vs. Closed Source. (2003– 2009). Retrieved from ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 88. The Development Of The C Programming Dialect 1. The Development of the C Language Conceptual –The C programming dialect was contrived in the early 1970s as a framework execution dialect for the beginning Unix working framework. Inferred from the typeless dialect BCPL, it advanced a sort structure; made on a minor machine as an apparatus to enhance a pitiful the earth, it has turned into one of the overwhelming dialects of today. This paper studies its advancement This paper is about the improvement of the C programming dialect, the impacts on it, and the conditions under which it was made. C initiated existence in the years 1969–1973, in parallel with the early improvement of the Unix working framework; the most imaginative period happened amid 1972. An alternate spate of progressions topped somewhere around 1977 and 1979, when versatility of the Unix framework was being exhibited. Amidst this second period, the first generally accessible portrayal of the dialect appeared: the C Programming Language, often called the `white book ' or `k&r ' [kernighan 78]. At last, in the center 1980s, the dialect was formally institutionalized by the ANSI X3j11 board of trustees, which rolled out further improvements. Until the early 1980s, in spite of the fact that compilers existed for an assortment of machine architectures and working frameworks, the dialect was just about only connected with Unix; all the more as of late, its utilization has spread a great deal all the more generally, and today it is among the dialects ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 92. The Management Programs Of A Computer Introduction Operating systems, ("OS") are the management programs of a computer. First it is booted into the computer by a boot program, and then it manages all other programs on the computer. These other programs are called applications, and they utilize an operating system by making requests for process service power through an API, or application program interface. Users then interact directly with an operating system through a graphical user interface or command language. History The earliest computers lacked any form of operating system because they were simple mainframes. The machines were primitive and programs were often entered into the system one bit at a time, through many mechanical switches and plug boards. There were no operating systems during the first phase of computer history––from 1940–1955. By the 1950s, punch cards were introduced and made it so switches were not as necessary any more. The IBM 701, from General Motors Research Laboratories, was the first system that implemented an operating system. The systems generally ran one job at a time, which was indicated by whatever was on the punch card. This is called single–stream batch processing. Computers were just exotic experimental equipment, and mainly tested theory. The use plugboards would direct the computer. Without operating systems, there is no overlap between computation, I/O, think time, and response time. The specific goal was to handle tables of numbers. Libraries ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 96. Computerizimg the Regitration Process at Universities The University Student Registration System: a Case Study in Building a High–Availability Distributed Application Using General Purpose Components M. C. Little, S. M. Wheater, D. B. Ingham, C. R. Snow, H. Whitfield and S. K. Shrivastava Department of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, England. Abstract Prior to 1994, student registration at Newcastle University involved students being registered in a single place, where they would present a form which had previously been filled in by the student and their department. After registration this information was then transferred to a computerised format. The University decided that the entire registration process was to be computerised for the Autumn of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The high availability requirement implies that the computerised registration system must be able to tolerate a 'reasonable' number of machine and network related failures, and the consistency requirement implies that the integrity of stored data (student records) must be maintained in the presence of concurrent access from users and the types of failures just mentioned. It was expected that most human errors, such as incorrectly inputting data, would be detected by the system as they occurred, but some "off–line" data manipulation would be necessary for errors which had not been foreseen. Tolerance against catastrophic failures (such as complete electrical power failure, or a fire destroying much of the University infrastructure) although desirable, was not considered within the remit of the registration system. A solution that would require the University buying and installing specialist fault–tolerant computing systems, such as Tandem [1] or Stratus [2] was not considered economically feasible. The only option worth exploring was exploiting the University 's existing computing resources. Like most other universities, Newcastle has hundreds of networked computers (Unix workstations, PCs, Macs) scattered throughout the campus. A solution that could make use of these resources and achieve availability by deploying software–implemented fault–tolerance techniques certainly looked attractive. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 100. Electronic Information : The Unstable Development Of... ABSTRACT:– With the unstable development of computerized information, de–duplication procedures are generally utilized to reinforcement information and minimize system and capacity overhead by recognizing and taking out excess among information. Rather than keeping various information duplicates with the same substance, de–duplication takes out repetitive information by keeping stand out physical duplicate and alluding other excess information to that duplicate. De– duplication has gotten much consideration from both the scholarly world and industry in light of the fact that it can significantly enhances stockpiling usage and spare storage room, particularly for the applications with high de–duplication proportion, for example, archival capacity frameworks. Various de–duplication frameworks have been proposed taking into account different de–duplication methodologies, for example, customer side or server–side de–duplications, record level or square level de–duplications. Particularly, with the approach of distributed storage, information de– duplication systems turn out to be more alluring and discriminating for the administration of always expanding volumes of information in distributed storage administrations which inspires endeavors and associations to outsource information stockpiling. Keywords: Deduplication; distributed storage system; reliability; secret sharing INTRODUCTION:– With the explosive growth of digital data, deduplication techniques are widely employed to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 104. The Linux Network Name Space Essay Contents Linux Network Name Spaces 2 Overview 2 Linux Name Spaces 2 Linux Network Name Space 2 Network Name Space Use Cases 2 Network Name Space Example 2 Summary 2 References 3 Linux Network Name Spaces Overview In this paper we will discuss the Linux Network Name Space. First, the concept of namespaces will be described along with an overview of the default name spaces available in the Linux operating system. The Linux Network Name Space is a key enabler for some high profile virtualization technologies including OpenStack and Docker. Linux Name Spaces Linux consists of the following six namespaces: Network – Network Namespace PID – Process Namespace Mount – Filesystem Namespace User – User Namespace IPC – Interprocess Communication Namespace UTS – Host and NIS Namespace Linux namespaces can be traced back to early UNIX technologies called chroot, process jails controlled where access is controlled with cgroups. The concept of a namespace is to isolate processes from other processes on the system. This concept evolved into namespaces that are created with clone() system call and manipulated with the setns() and unshare() system calls. The clone() system call is used when creating child namespace from a parent or root namespace. As the name would suggest this creates a clone of an existing stack. The setns() system call is used to join a namespace. The unshare() system call is used for moving processes into a namespace, as the name suggests the process
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  • 109. Open Source Software: Chasing Microsoft Essay Microsoft's operating system is encountering a heated battle from two fronts: open–source software and Apple. Open–source programmers seek to share their code for an operating system freely over the Internet which contrasts with Microsoft who seeks to keep its code proprietary. Apple is also competing with Microsoft by trying to create a different kind of operating system, one that is creative, unique and changes the way people use information. Both the open–source programmers and the Apple programmers (Mac OS X), use a variation of UNIX for their operating systems. Open–source software is available for anyone to use or modify free of charge. Most software companies allow only their programmers to make changes to source code; but ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It was in 1991that Linus Torvald began creating an operating system kernel, called Linux. He was a 21 year old computer science student at the University of Helsinki Finland who had a dream of converting the teaching version of UNIX called MINIX into a useful operating system. Linux version 0.01 was released on September as an alternative to UNIX and Windows. Linux is a participant in the Open Source Software movement and the source code can be downloaded, altered and redistributed. "Linux is the perfect operating system for hackers because they can freely download newer versions of the Linux kernel or other Linux utilities of the Internet and instantly change its source code to fix any software bugs found." (The Penguin's Guide to Linux, 2000) As more people joined the Linux movement, more software programs were added to its databank. Soon there were drivers, office programs, games and user–friendly GUI's. While Linux does not command a huge market share, they fill a niche with users of netbooks and those who like to experiment with new programs. OS Platform Statistics 2012 Win7 WinXP Vista Win2003 Linux Mac Mobile January 47.1% 31.4% 4.7% 0.7% 4.9% 9.0% 1.3% (w3schools, 2012) Some Linux distributions are more popular than others based on the features they offer. The most popular, although newest, Linux distribution is Ubuntu. It has a very easy–to–use desktop that can ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 113. Essay on UNIX&Linux UNIX AND LINUX Two Powerful Systems That Are Often Misunderstood Unix and Linux There have been many–recorded eras throughout man's history. There was the Ice Age (BURR), the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Industrial Age (revolution) just to name a few. Each of these eras marks pivotal advances in humankind. Here are some examples of our advancements, during the Ice Age, one of nature's first demonstrations of her power in population control, man presents his first fashion show focusing on the elegant features of Fur clothing and accessories. The Industrial Revolution mans first experience with assembly line manufacturing. It ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are many operating systems in use today, a few examples are Windows 95/98, Windows NT, MS–DOS, UNIX and one you may not have heard of, LINUX. The focuses of this report are the operating systems UNIX and LINUX, two very interesting and powerful systems. The first is often labeled as too confusing and unfriendly, the later is relatively unknown to the novice user, but surprisingly they are very similar in design. A short history of the two operating systems may explain why they are so similar. UNIX is a creation out of Bell Labs in the 1960's, in a project headed by Stephen Bourne. The idea was to create an operating system whose kernel (core part) was as tiny as possible. The main driving force, the small UNIX kernel, was that the developers were doing their work on what were considered in that day to be tiny computers. The severe limitation on RAM resulted in a small kernel with all the utilities implemented as separate, stand–alone programs. Each was itself tiny, and designed to accept input from the preceding program as well as provide output to succeeding programs. This process of using output from one program as input into another is referred to as piping and is central to UNIX operating systems today (UNIX &amp; LINUX Answers! Certified Tech Support © 1998). LINUX is a creation of Linus ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 117. Personal Narrative: Ariana I met Ariana in the parking lot of the downtown movie theater like planned. And automatically I regretted not staying home. "I hope you know it's very rude to hang up on someone when they're talking. On top of that, you show up to our date late, AGAIN. And why didn't you attend classes today? Mrs. Sorun was worried..." She's been doing a lot of questioning and complaining as if we were really going out. But, she did say this is her way of playing around, so I'm probably overthinking it. "First," I calmly said to begin my counter rant, "I'm only five minutes late. Second, is it not considered ruder to wake someone up in the middle of the night? By the way, I couldn't go back to sleep, so thank you. And finally, I don't care about that lady, so let her worry." ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "I have not the slightest clue for why you're thanking me, but you're welcome," she said, smiling and giving a thumbs up. If it wasn't obvious before, this all but confirms she's messing around. "You're not as serious as you let on to be, are you?" "No, I am," she assured, slightly bumping me with her hips. "But sometimes you need to learn when to live a little." Live a little? As in enjoying oneself by spending time doing enjoyable things? Cause if that's the definition she's going by, me being forced to hang around her is nowhere close to living a little. More like living in... Maybe that's taking it a little too far. Reeling us back in, I asked, "what's this movie, event, thingy you got us doing? And why am I involved?" "Um, I believe romantic philosophers call it a 'dinner and a movie date,' but don't take my word for it," she answered with a stifled laugh. "We're going to see one of my all–time favorite films and discuss it afterwards during a sit–down dinner if that's okay with you." Yeah, I don't like this plan. "I'm going home." I turned and walked back to my car ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 121. Unix/Linux UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique POS/420 Name Professor Date University of Phoenix Abstract The following sections in this paper focus on analyzing operating systems for Riordan Manufacturing Inc. that specializes in plastic molding and design. Team B concentrated on five main areas of UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server. The five areas include Security, Administration, Networking, Performance, and Programmability. The team explains the existing systems, followed by comparing advantages and disadvantages of each operating system. The comparisons provide insight for Riordan's IT specialist and administration considering which system to implement. Interesting topics that relate to security weaknesses, and advantages that UNIX® ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Not only that, but users can even fix problems themselves. Microsoft may tout its large team of paid developers, but it 's unlikely that team can compare with a global base of Linux user–developers around the globe. Security can only benefit through all those extra 'eyeballs'" (Why Linux is More Secure Than Windows, para. 13). Administration Riordan Manufacturing Corporation, (Apollo Group, 2004), is a hybrid computing environment employing MS Windows, (Microsoft Corporation, 2011), e–mail and file servers along–side UNIX Enterprise Resource Program (ERP) and a HP–UX, (Hewlett Packard Development Company, 2011), UNIX Manufacturing Resource Program (MRP). Effective administrative support of both operating systems requires two information technology groups, one specializing in MS Windows platforms and one specializing in UNIX platforms. Requiring two IT groups and two unique server platforms doubles the administrative management and equipment costs in the enterprise. Standardizing server hardware and software to one type will significantly reduce costs and increase Riordan Manufacturing's return on its investment. One server operating system platform can support all of the workstation's applications with the exception of MS Windows Exchange, (Microsoft Corporation, 2011), e–mail application. To reduce personnel costs it is recommend merging the two server platforms (operating systems) to one where it is possible. HP–UX,
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  • 126. A Project On Capstone Project William Wang Christian 5th 7 April 2015 Capstone project Have you wonder where the power of technology and computers and all of the applications came from? Well there are a lot of computer applications like local security applications, protocols, well I am going to explain some security applications to you. There are many kinds of different security applications. I am going to explain two of different applications Linux and security policy settings. Now what are security policies? Security policy settings in Microsoft could be used as part of all of our security implementation to make sure and to secure domain controllers, servers, client computers, and other resources in the whole computer world. One of the security applications in Microsoft is security compliance manager what is that? Well security compliance manager is a downloadable tool to our computer that will help us deploy, plan , operate and manage the security baselines for windows client and server operating settings and of course for Microsoft settings. What does it contain? It contains the complete database of recommended security settings methods to customize the baselines and the option to implement the important settings in multiple formats. "The next thing is called security configuration wizard. It is an application where you go through the process of applying, editing, or rolling back a security policy the security policy that we could create with SCW is an .xml file but when applied, network ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 130. Essay on The Linux The Linux was originally founded by Linus Torvalds. In 1991, he was a second year computer science student in Finland. He sought after an operating system that was similar to the UNIX system, but both UNIX and the hardware it ran on were excessively expensive. A UNIX version called Minix was available for free, but it did not reasonably meet his needs as it was simply an operating system for students, designed primarily as a teaching tool rather than an industry strength operating system. As a result, Torvalds studied Minix and proceeded to set out to write a new version. After six months of working to produce the new operating system, Torvalds made very little progress toward the utility of the system. He began to post his intentions ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In many systems architecture, the kernel is the lowest level of software that interfaces with the hardware in a computer. In UNIX, users typically have no direct access to it. It is responsible for interfacing all applications that run in user mode including the physical hardware and allowing processes to get information from each other. Linux kernel developers designed kernel modules that could be loaded and unloaded at runtime. Kernel modules are essential to keeping the kernel functioning with all of the computer's hardware without consuming all of the available memory. A module generally adds functions based on the users needs to the base kernel for things like file systems and devices. A kernel is essential for any computer system to run and operate properly. The Linux kernel is different than OS X and Windows because it includes drivers at the kernel level, and most other operating systems do not. (Salzman, 2005.) The Linux operating system has been developed by many intelligent people. Around two percent of the Linux kernel was actually written by Torvalds himself. Today, the Linux kernel has received contributions from thousands of developers across the globe. Torvalds remains the definitive authority on what new codes are incorporated into the Linux kernel. However, Linux distribution modifies the kernel according to each of their users' ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 134. Unix Comparison Matrix Components BSD System V GNU Role of shell Main access to the UNIX operating system and as such any improvement to it can result in considerably more effective use of the system, increased speed, efficiency and file properties. "C" Shell This shell is good for interactive work and also added some features from other Operating shells. The Korn shell became part of System V but had one major problem; unlike the rest of the UNIX shells it wasn't free, you had to pay AT&T for it. Bourne Shell It has a very strong powerful syntactical language built into it, with all the features that are commonly considered to produce structured programs; it has particularly strong provisions for controlling input and output and in its expression ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Comments on performance As the hardware basis for such capabilities, an interactive graphics computer station––SaberStation for short––equips the application programmer with more than enough processing power for the job. Based on a National Semiconductor 32–bit chip set and running at 10 MHz under the BSD Unix operating system, the unit puts the performance of a VAX– like minicomputer on an engineer's desk. Its architecture, which employs a floating–point coprocessor and ultrafast, 32–bit–wide DMA channels, executes 1.2 million instructions a second. Comments on programmability Programs in this system can often, even typically, be written in a single line of code. Inexperienced users can be taught to write simple programs in a matter of minutes. Beginners often produce simple programs without effort within their first day using it. The elements of the Unix environment have been called software tools. A software tool is very much like a component, but a bit different. Throughout this piece, we'll refer to components as "tools," but remember that you can almost always substitute "component" for "tool." In Unix, the standard shell utilities are all tools. So is the shell. A tool takes a standard data format –– lines of textual input –– and produces output in the same format. No special code is needed to handle data types; everyone agrees on a simple format and does a small amount of translation. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 138. Comparison Between Windows And Linux Comparative analysis of Windows and Linux Abstract: Comparison between windows and Linux is mostly used discussion topic among peoples. Windows and Linux both are operating system in which Windows are closed source and used for PC.While Linux is open source and used for open source community. Both operating systems have unique features, advantages and disadvantages. Both operating systems are differing from each other in term of working, cost, security etc. The first focus of this paper is on introduction of both OS .This paper mainly focuses on difference between both OS and also defines how these OS are different in term of working, cost, security, configuration, and performance and user friendliness. Key Words: Windows, Linux and Operating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Threat detection and solution After detecting a major threat in Windows OS, Microsoft generally releases a patch that can fix the problem and it can take more than 2/3 months. In case of Linux, threat detection and solution is very fast. Examples Windows 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Debian, Arch Linux, Android, Peach OSI etc.[4] Development and Distribution Windows is developed and distributed solely by Microsoft. Linux is developed by Open Source development. and it is distributed by various vendors. Installation Windows installation methodology is easy. In this the users do not need to have installation disk for installing Before installing Linux on machine, we must need each piece of hardware. Configuration In Windows configuration is difficult to change and modify. In Linux configuration is easy to change and modify. We can modify and configure the program according to needs. Flexibility Windows are less flexible than Linux. Because in Windows modification and configuration is
  • 139. difficult. Linux is more flexible than Windows, because it provide the modification and configuration ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 143. Lab 1 Essay 1. During the install, the option to sync with NTP (Network Time Protocol) server was checked. From a security perspective, why is it important for a system to keep accurate time? UNIX systems base their notion of time on interrupts generated by the hardware clock. Delays in processing these interrupts because UNIX systems clocks to lose time slowly but erratically. These small changes in timekeeping are what the time scientist call jitter. The Time protocol provided a server's notion of time in a machine readable format, and there is also an ICMP Timestamp message 2. During the install, a password has been set for the "root" user. What is the "root "user, and when it is appropriate to user this account. The root user is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... You can configure SWAP using mkswap/swapfile command in root or configure it while building the system itself. I prefer to configure it while building the system for a security standpoint then doing it while the system is on. 7. What are some of the benefits and features that are available to Linux users by selecting the ext4 file system for the partitioning of a Linux system? The Ext 4 files system is larger and the system is also faster. 8. How is the passwd file used and what fields make up its content? Explain. The passwd file is used to store passwords and logins, mail files, bin files and system files 9. What is the fstab file used for and what fields make up its content? Explain The fstab file typically lists all available disks and disk partitions, and indicates how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's file system. 10. Explain the significance of creating separate partitions of the /var and /boot directories? What is contained within these directories? The /var filesystem contains data that is changed when the system is running normally. It contains /spool/ mail/ messages/log/syslog. The boot is where the root partition is mounted and it contains kernel image, boot sector/ etc/init.d 11. How would selecting the option "encrypt filesystem "be useful? EFS provides strong encryption through industry–standard algorithms and public key cryptography, encrypted files are confidential even ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 147. Windows Nt vs Unix as an Operating System Windows NT vs Unix As An Operating System In the late 1960s a combined project between researchers at MIT, Bell Labs and General Electric led to the design of a third generation of computer operating system known as MULTICS (MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service). It was envisaged as a computer utility, a machine that would support hundreds of simultaneous timesharing users. They envisaged one huge machine providing computing power for everyone in Boston. The idea that machines as powerful as their GE–645 would be sold as personal computers costing only a few thousand dollars only 20 years later would have seemed like science fiction to them. However MULTICS proved more difficult than imagined to implement and Bell Labs withdrew ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Most of these systems were (and still are) neither source nor binary compatible with one another, and most are hardware specific. With the emergence of RISC technology and the breakup of AT&T, the UNIX systems category began to grow significantly during the 1980s. The term "open systems" was coined. Customers began demanding better portability and interoperability between the many incompatible UNIX variants. Over the years, a variety of coalitions (e.g. UNIX International) were formed to try to gain control over and consolidate the UNIX systems category, but their success was always limited. Gradually, the industry turned to standards as a way of achieving the portability and interoperability benefits that customers wanted. However, UNIX standards and standards organisations proliferated (just as vendor coalitions had), resulting in more confusion and aggravation for UNIX customers. The UNIX systems category is primarily an application–driven systems category, not an operating systems category. Customers choose an application first–for example, a high–end CAD package– then find out which different systems it runs on, and select one. The final selection involves a variety of criteria, such as price/performance, service, and support. Customers generally don't choose UNIX itself, or which UNIX variant they want. UNIX just comes with the package when they buy a system to run their chosen ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 151. Unix Operating System Abstract This paper is a general overview of Unix operating system. It starts by presenting a brief history of the early development of Unix. It concentrates on main aspects of Unix operating system. Key concepts covered are interactive multi–user operating systems, the design objectives of Unix, file– store organization, text processing and programming, the role of C programming language with regard to portability and reliable system software, process control (signals and fork), error logging and recovery from system failures, modifiability and application. Outline I. Introduction of Unix a. History of Unix b. Interest in Unix c. Early marketing d. Developments i. GUI ii. Linux 1. Linus Torvalds II. The Design Objectives of Unix, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The full Unix operating system had been ported only to the top end of the early personal computer market, since Unix required CPU, memory, and disk resources which were well in excess of what was available on the majority of these early machines. However, the growing popularity of the IBM PC clone as a personal computing platform, and the need to have a system which students could work on encouraged Andrew Tanenbaum to write a small version of Unix in 1986 called Minix, for the PC platform. Although it originally supported multi–processing with a single user and only floppy disk drives for storage, it evolved over the years to Minix 2.0, with many additional features not found in the early versions. The full source code is available. Unlike most Unix operating systems, Minix uses a micro–kernel–based design. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for Unix were available in the early 1980's but all were proprietary and communication at the graphical level between two different Unix platforms was generally not possible. This situation was remedied when the Athena Project at MIT provided a standard platform independent graphical interface for Unix and other operating systems that can be used over a network. It is usually referred to as the X Window System, X11, or simply X. The X Window System has continued to this day to be the main graphical interface for Unix. It was primarily enhanced and
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  • 156. Comparing Microsoft DOS with UNIX Essay Comparing Microsoft DOS with UNIX As is suggestive of its name, an operating system (OS) is a collection of programs that operate the personal computer (PC). Its primary purpose is to support programs that actually do the work one is interested in, and to allow competing programs to share the resources of the computer. However, the OS also controls the inner workings of the computer, acting as a traffic manager which controls the flow of data through the system and initiates the starting and stopping processes, and as a means through which software can access the hardware and system software. In addition, it provides routines for device control, provides for the management, scheduling and interaction of tasks, and maintains system ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This presents the need for memory management, as the memory of the computer would need to be searched for a free area in which to load a users program. When the user was finished running the program, the memory consumed by it would need to be freed up and made available for another user when required (CIT). Process scheduling and management is also necessary, so that all programs can be executed and run without conflict. Some programs might need to be executed more frequently than others, for example, printing. Conversely, some programs may need to be temporarily halted, then restarted again, so this introduces the need for inter–program communication. In modern operating systems, we speak more of a process (a portion of a program in some stage of execution (CIT, 3)) than a program. This is because only a portion of the program is loaded at any one time. The rest of the program sits waiting on the disk until it is needed, thereby saving memory space. UNIX users speak of the operating system as having three main parts: the kernel, the shell and the file system. While DOS users tend not to use the term kernel and only sometimes use the term shell, the terms remain relevant. The kernel, also known as the "Real Time Executive", is the low–level core of the OS and is loaded into memory right after the loading of the BIOS whenever the system is started. The kernel handles the transfer of data among the various parts of the system, such as from hard disk to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 160. Unix, Linux, and Windows Server Critique Essay UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique UNIX, Linux, and Windows Server Critique Administration Windows Server Advantages There are many administration advantages for Windows Servers. One aspect is domain operations which are an important resource available on the network through Window Server. Making Window Server a domain controller adds security and the ability to add local and group policies to the network (Garza, 2010). If Window Server is not promoted to the status of a domain controller, then it can run simple network operations using peer–to–peer structures (Garza, 2010). These are workgroups, and they can only block or allow access but do not provide control features for the network. The numbers of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Disadvantages One of the biggest disadvantages is that it does not have a specific organization which updates and provides services, or software tweaks in a regular manner as Windows does. Another disadvantage is that the lack of graphical user inters faces, or the absence of free tools and software when compared to Windows (Host wisely, 2011). Performance Windows Server Advantages Windows server offers anywhere access with great flexibility, which allows a company to build, deploy, and manage applications and websites on premises, in the cloud, or in hybrid environments using a consistent set of tools and framework Windows server also offers frameworks, services, and tools to help increase scalability. (Microsoft, 2012). Disadvantages Windows servers are notorious for being vulnerable to worms while there have been basically no worms affecting UNIX in the past ten years. Any server running on windows should really have anti–virus software on it just like a desktop would. While window servers are unaffected by this they are just as susceptible to malicious and mischievous hackers as window servers and therefore must still be patched UNIX Advantages There are many performance advantages for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 164. Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 1 Review... Guide to UNIX Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 1 Solutions Answers to the Chapter 1 Review Questions 1. Your boss drops by your office in a hurry to ask you to attend a meeting at 10:30 on Friday morning and you can't find a pen to make a note as a reminder. What Linux command can you use to make a quick note to store in a file called Meeting? Answer: b. cat > Meeting 2. Before you make the note in Question 1, you decide to determine Friday's date, so that you can include it in your note. What Linux command can you use to quickly determine the Friday's date? Answer: a. cal 3. While you are typing a command, you misspell the name of a file you want to specify with the command. Which of the following ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... What key sequence can you use to repeat the last command, which was used to print the file? Answer: c. Press the up arrow key one time. 21. Your international company is scheduling a meeting among managers in Canada, the United States, Spain, Sweden, and Hong Kong on the basis of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). What command enables you to display the current time in GMT? Answer: b. date –u 22. How would you describe the purpose of the more command? Answer: The more command enables you to view a file's contents by scrolling down. 23. What is the purpose of Telnet? Answer: Telnet can be used to connect a UNIX , Linux, or Windows PC to a remote computer. 24. You enter Cal on the command line to view a calendar but only see an error message. Explain why you got the error message. Answer: UNIX and Linux are case sensitive, so to display a calendar you must use the cal command and not Cal. 25. Explain how you can run more than one command on a single command line. Answer: To run more than one command on a single line, use the : (semicolon) character to separate each command. Hands–On Projects Tips and Solutions for Chapter 1
  • 165. Project 1–1 In this project, students use Telnet in Windows 2000/XP/Vista to access a remote computer running UNIX/Linux. Students will need accounts on both the Windows 2000/XP/Vista ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...