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AR. TADAO ANDO
By :Hetali Bhatt
1305
EARLY LIFE OF AR. TADAO ANDOEARLY LIFE OF AR. TADAO ANDO
• He led an eventful life, working as a truck driver and
boxer pr...
BIOGRAPHY
• Tadao Ando was born in
Osaka, Japan, on 13TH
SEPTEMBER 1941.
• The self-educated
architect with roots in
Osaka...
• Process of design is not broken down into stages
• He believes that everything has to be done by hands, because he
doesn...
• “In all my works, light is an important
controlling factor.”
• “I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of
thick concre...
LIGHT
SPACE
HUMANITY
NATURE
BASIC ELEMENTS OF HIS BUILDING
INTERLOCKING
GEOMETRIC SHAPE
MATERIAL:
EXPOSED CONCRETE
LIGHTS
LIST OF HIS WORK
1. CHURCH OF LIGHT
2. CHICHU ART MUSEUM
3. CHURCH ON THE WATER
HOKKAIDO
4. AZUMA HOUSE
5. KOSHINO HOUSE, ...
KOSHINO HOUSE, ASHIYA JAPAN
• Located at the foot of
the rokko mountains, in
ashiya city, east of kobe.
• Completed in two...
Location :
ASHIYA JAPAN
SITE LOCATION
•Two different-sized concrete
boxes, arranged in parallel to
accommodate existing trees,
are half-buried in the verdant
sl...
•In the second phase, a fan
shaped
•extension which now contains the
•Atelier was added.
•One unusual feature of this hous...
Ground Floor Plan
1. Atelier
2. Living room
3. Bed rooms
Identical rooms, is
aligned
Like le corbusier’s
monastic
Cells at...
First Floor Plan
1. Study
2. Bedroom
3. Terrace
•Brutalism/ Brutal architecture
•Asymmetrical Balance
•Non separated
•Alignment
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNS USED IN THE
KOSHINO ...
BRUTALISM ARCHITECTURE
It is a movement in architecture
that flourished from the 1950s to
the mid-1970s, descending from
t...
ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE
•Not symmetrical , with the parts
•not arranged correspondingly
identical on both sides of the
centra...
NON SEPARATED
•When one structure gives
an illusion of being
separated yet being
connected.
•The structure here is
separat...
The relationship of one part or the whole to an outside measure, such as the
human body.
Variation of scale. INTIMATE, IMP...
A oneness and absence of
diversity ; a combination or
arrangements and the
ordering of all the elements in
a work that eac...
The repetitive elements in design.
The ordered arrangement of parts into a pattern may occur at various
scales at differen...
A special importance or significance placed upon or imparted to
something; a sharpness
or vividness of outline.
Emphasis r...
SECTION
OF THE
3D VIEW
OF THE
SITE
CHURCH OF THE LIGHT, 1999.
LOCATION: Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan
CONTEXT:
 Tightly-packed residential
neighborhood
 Very small...
LOCATION
• Located in a hidden corner, in
a quiet residential suburb in
Ibaraki, Osaka,
• this small complex comprises
two...
SITE PLAN
The size of its site is only
:
838.6 square meters
the size of the building
SUNDAY SCHOOL
MINISTER HOUSE
The chu...
ABOUT..
• By really placing emphasis on the wall and its
significance of the individual really contrasts
and disagree with...
CONCEPT
• The awareness of the spiritual and secular
within themselves . The Church of light is
an architecture of duality...
DESIGN
• Based on very simple elements like rectangular
boxes and intersecting planes, Ando modelled the
churches using li...
ORIENTATION
• The main chapel is orientated towards the
south east direction.
• This is done so that the morning rays of
t...
DIRECTION OF LIGHT
15 Degree
Shift
Sun
(SOURCE
OF LIGHT )
Cross
FLOOR PLAN
CONSTRUCTION
• The Church of the
Light consists of
three 5.9m
concrete cubes
(5.9m wide x
17.7m long x 5.9m
Front wall whi...
MATERIALS USED
• The building, constructed in
concrete, has given up any
ornament in favour of the
spirituality that gives...
USER BEHAVIOUR
• User behaviour in the
church of light is mainly
stimulated by the building
itself .
• The building may lo...
LIGHTING INSIDE THE CHURCH
AMUZA HOUSING
• Location: Osaka,
Japan
• Area: 65 sq.m
• Year of
construction:
1975-1976
CONCEPT
• His approach was to connect the art of
building with art of living.
• He relates the form and compositional
meth...
PLAN AND SECTION
• Ground floor- living
room, kitchen separated
by a central courtyard
and staircase.
Kitchen Courtyard Li...
THE CHICHU ART MUSEUM
Location: Southern portion of
the island of Naoshima, Japan
Year of Construction: 2004
• Limiting th...
CONCEPT
• Why underground? The site is a place
where national forest abounds and was a
former salt field. Hence to preserv...
• ‘Chichu’ means ‘underground’
• Part of the Front lobby and access
way are dark, but the ain exhibition
space brings in n...
MATERIAL:
• Concrete
• Steel
• Glass
• Wood
INTERNAL SPACES
CHURCH ON THE WATER
HOKKAIDO (1985-88)
Location: Tomamu, Yusutsu County,
Hokkaido,
Japan
Covered in snow from December to ...
ARCHITECT: Tadao Ando
COMMITTEE: local government
LOCATION: Tomamu, Hokkaido, Japan
PROJECT: 09.1985-04.1988
COMPLETION: 0...
•The chapel is placed on a mountain plateau
central Hokkaido, the coldest region in Japan,
where nature is wild.
•The enti...
• The chapel is entered from the back and along the
path approaching the wall.
• The murmur of the water takes visitors
al...
Study sketches
Inside View
Inside View
Special sessions
WAITING ROOM
Bathrooms
Chapel
Special sessions
Detail of the scale,
Black granite floor
Bathr...
Particular
coverPlant cover
Sezione longitudinale A-A
NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM
Years of construction:
1992-1994
Location : okayama , japan
• A museum dedicated to• A museum ...
SITE ANALYSIS (NARIWA MUSEUM)
site
Located from Google map
museum
NARIWA MUSEUM
OF ART MUSEUM
okayama , japan
CONCEPT BEHIND NARIWA MUSEUM
• This work again using reinforced
concrete to neutralize the importance of
the building and ...
BOLD INTERLOCKING PURE GEOMETRY
PLAN OF NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM
ENTRY
• Barrier like façade at entry
no openings
• No direct entry to interior
• Access to the museum is
via an entrance r...
OPENINGS
WALL WINDOW
• Through the large openings, the
interior of the space can
commune with the landscape
SEMI OUTDOOR
SPACES
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP
•A spatial relation, specifies how
some object is located in space in
relation to some reference obje...
WATER-COURT
• A water-court is an above-
defined courtyard filled with
water instead of dry ground.
• In nariwa museum cou...
SCALE AND PROPORTION
Scale: Monumental
Proportion: Structural
and Manufactured
MATERIALS
• Using reinforced
concrete,
• the edifice feels made
from
• an authentic material.an authentic material.
• has ...
RUKKO HOUSING, JAPAN.
(1983)
The Modern Art
Museum (2002)
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AR. TADAO ANDO

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5.ar.tadao ando

  1. 1. AR. TADAO ANDO By :Hetali Bhatt 1305
  2. 2. EARLY LIFE OF AR. TADAO ANDOEARLY LIFE OF AR. TADAO ANDO • He led an eventful life, working as a truck driver and boxer prior to settling on the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field. • Struck by the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Imperial Hotel on a trip to Tokyo as a second-year high-school student. • He attended night classes to learn drawing and took correspondence courses on interior design.correspondence courses on interior design. • He visited buildings designed by renowned architects like Le corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright, • and Louis Kahn before returning to Osaka in 1968 to establish his own design studio, Tadao Ando Architect and Associates.
  3. 3. BIOGRAPHY • Tadao Ando was born in Osaka, Japan, on 13TH SEPTEMBER 1941. • The self-educated architect with roots in Osaka, he spent time in nearby Kyoto and Nara, studying first-hand the •His studies of both traditional Japanese and modern architecture had • a profound influence on his work and resulted in a unique blend of these rich traditions. • In 1968, Ando establishedstudying first-hand the great monuments of traditional Japanese architecture. • Between 1962 and 1969 he traveled to the United States, Europe, and Africa, learning about Western architecture, history, and techniques. • In 1968, Ando established Tadao Ando Architect and Associates in Osaka. • He is an honorary fellow in the architecture academies of six countries; he has been a visiting professor at Yale, Columbia, and Harvard Universities; and in 1997, he became Professor of Architecture at Tokyo University.
  4. 4. • Process of design is not broken down into stages • He believes that everything has to be done by hands, because he doesn’t believe in systematization and modernization • Ando looks at abstract spaces as not abstract spaces by searching on those spaces for the original form of space • The way he connects his building with the natural environment • The form that he gives life to abstract spaces, the transformation of it • The strong material that he uses and yet give us that soft texture • The experience that each and everyone has had when ever passing• The experience that each and everyone has had when ever passing through one of his work • The stamp that he leaves on each of his work such as concrete, free flowing kind of places, abstract not abstract, the nature inside out the place • The strong philosophy behind every building that he has produced
  5. 5. • “In all my works, light is an important controlling factor.” • “I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of thick concrete walls.” • “When the external factors of a city’s environment require the wall to be without openings, the interior must be especially full PHILOSOPHY openings, the interior must be especially full and satisfying.” • “I create architectural order on the basis of geometry squares, circles, triangles and rectangles. • I try to use forces in the area where I am building, to restore the unity between house and nature (light and wind).”
  6. 6. LIGHT SPACE
  7. 7. HUMANITY NATURE
  8. 8. BASIC ELEMENTS OF HIS BUILDING INTERLOCKING GEOMETRIC SHAPE MATERIAL: EXPOSED CONCRETE LIGHTS
  9. 9. LIST OF HIS WORK 1. CHURCH OF LIGHT 2. CHICHU ART MUSEUM 3. CHURCH ON THE WATER HOKKAIDO 4. AZUMA HOUSE 5. KOSHINO HOUSE, ASHIYA JAPAN 6. NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM 6. NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM 7. ROKKO HOUSING 8. NAOSHIMA CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM, NAOSHIMA, JAPAN 9. INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE (2002) 10. NAGARAGAWA CONVENTION CENTER
  10. 10. KOSHINO HOUSE, ASHIYA JAPAN • Located at the foot of the rokko mountains, in ashiya city, east of kobe. • Completed in two phases (1980-81and 1983-84). •The koshino house was originally made up of two parallel rectangular concrete boxes.
  11. 11. Location : ASHIYA JAPAN SITE LOCATION
  12. 12. •Two different-sized concrete boxes, arranged in parallel to accommodate existing trees, are half-buried in the verdant slope of a national park. • An underground corridor links the two boxes, which flank a courtyard.courtyard. •It features two parallel concrete rectangular confines. The forms are partially buried into the sloping ground of a national park and become a compositional addition to the landscape.
  13. 13. •In the second phase, a fan shaped •extension which now contains the •Atelier was added. •One unusual feature of this house •is that the visitor approaches it •from above, and is fully aware of •the plan of the house, if not its •specific function from outside. •the plan of the house, if not its •specific function from outside. •The design element requires •extreme austerity •* Additional curve •Renovated in the year •1983.
  14. 14. Ground Floor Plan 1. Atelier 2. Living room 3. Bed rooms Identical rooms, is aligned Like le corbusier’s monastic Cells at sainte- marie-de-la- Tourette. •The volume closer to six
  15. 15. First Floor Plan 1. Study 2. Bedroom 3. Terrace
  16. 16. •Brutalism/ Brutal architecture •Asymmetrical Balance •Non separated •Alignment PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNS USED IN THE KOSHINO HOUSE •Alignment •Scale & Proportion •Unity. Harmony •Pattern-Repetition •Hierarchy •Blending
  17. 17. BRUTALISM ARCHITECTURE It is a movement in architecture that flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s, descending from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century. A term used by Le Corbusier toA term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material. Tadao Ando who is highly inspired from Le Corbusier uses this kind of architecture in a lot of his buildings. It is raw and without ornamentation
  18. 18. ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE •Not symmetrical , with the parts •not arranged correspondingly identical on both sides of the central axis. •It creates a sense of equilibrium•It creates a sense of equilibrium •by the arrangement of two sets of forms of different size and shape. •In this case the middle staircase acts like the line of symmetry and both sides have asymmetrical balance.
  19. 19. NON SEPARATED •When one structure gives an illusion of being separated yet being connected. •The structure here is separated along the axis in the exterior while connected underground inconnected underground in the interior. •This gives an illusion of •separation and yet is •connected.
  20. 20. The relationship of one part or the whole to an outside measure, such as the human body. Variation of scale. INTIMATE, IMPRESSIVELY and MONUMENTAL. This is an intimate scale. The living room and dinning room have a double story height which is balanced by the small area given to the living and dinning area. SCALE AND PROPORTION balanced by the small area given to the living and dinning area.
  21. 21. A oneness and absence of diversity ; a combination or arrangements and the ordering of all the elements in a work that each contributes to the total aesthetic effect. This is seen in the interior of UNITY, HARMONY This is seen in the interior of the building. With similar materials and same esthetic value and openings.
  22. 22. The repetitive elements in design. The ordered arrangement of parts into a pattern may occur at various scales at different distances. This is seen in the interior, the rectangular structure have a sense of repetition room alignment with a pattern of the window opening in one rectangle also shows pattern PATTERN REPETITION shows pattern
  23. 23. A special importance or significance placed upon or imparted to something; a sharpness or vividness of outline. Emphasis requires that one idea or design themes be dominant, and is important in achieving unity in design HIERARCHY
  24. 24. SECTION OF THE 3D VIEW OF THE SITE
  25. 25. CHURCH OF THE LIGHT, 1999. LOCATION: Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan CONTEXT:  Tightly-packed residential neighborhood  Very small space Location influences form Location influences form  L-shaped wall separates church from busy surrounding.  No good views, so the windows are minimal – only the distinctive narrow cross window and a window opening into the L-shaped wall
  26. 26. LOCATION • Located in a hidden corner, in a quiet residential suburb in Ibaraki, Osaka, • this small complex comprises two modest buildings, arranged at an angle, oriented according to theoriented according to the urban pattern of the neighbourhood. • The site consists of three buildings – The minister’s house , The Sunday school and The Main chapel ( the church of light)
  27. 27. SITE PLAN The size of its site is only : 838.6 square meters the size of the building SUNDAY SCHOOL MINISTER HOUSE The church of light ROAD INTERSECTION the size of the building itself is only : 113.3 square meters which is roughly the size of a small house. MINISTER HOUSE
  28. 28. ABOUT.. • By really placing emphasis on the wall and its significance of the individual really contrasts and disagree with many ideas of modernity in architecture since the 1920’s . • To Ando the concrete walls plays into his ideas the architecture should confront nature .
  29. 29. CONCEPT • The awareness of the spiritual and secular within themselves . The Church of light is an architecture of duality the dual nature of co existence solid /void/dark, stark / serene . • The co existing difference leave the church void of any , and all, ornament creating a pure , unadorned space . The intersectionpure , unadorned space . The intersection of light and solid raises the occupant. • The concrete construction is a reinforcement of Ando’s principle focus on simplicity and minimalistic aesthetic . • Ando’s decision to place the cross on the east façade allows for light to pour into the space throughout the space and into the day , which has a dematerialising effect on the interior concrete walls transforming the dark volume into a illuminated box.
  30. 30. DESIGN • Based on very simple elements like rectangular boxes and intersecting planes, Ando modelled the churches using light and space. • The main church, is a 6 x 6 x 18 m box, laterally crossed by a wall rotated 15 degrees from the main axis of the nave. • This diagonal wall also contains a 1.60 x 5.35 m glass sliding screen and the gateway to the room, PLAN AND SECTION glass sliding screen and the gateway to the room, as in a traditional Japanese shoji. • Behind the altar there is a cross-shaped opening, bathing the interior space with the power and energy of light. CROSS WALL AND SITTING AREA
  31. 31. ORIENTATION • The main chapel is orientated towards the south east direction. • This is done so that the morning rays of the sun enter directly into the chapel. • The access to the compound was made intentionally indirect, unlike many churches in the West. Main chapel • Visitors are forced to enter the complex at the northeast corner through a side street via a forecourt that leads to a corner of the church near the minister's house, arriving to an area located in the back of the church. • From there one enters to a tiny little square, which houses a circular bench. Through This space organizes the accesses to the main church and adjacent chapel. Sunday school
  32. 32. DIRECTION OF LIGHT 15 Degree Shift Sun (SOURCE OF LIGHT ) Cross
  33. 33. FLOOR PLAN
  34. 34. CONSTRUCTION • The Church of the Light consists of three 5.9m concrete cubes (5.9m wide x 17.7m long x 5.9m Front wall which has the cross Side walls 17.7m long x 5.9m high). • Penetrated by a wall angled at 15°, dividing the cube into the chapel and the entrance area. The Penetrating wall
  35. 35. MATERIALS USED • The building, constructed in concrete, has given up any ornament in favour of the spirituality that gives light, enhancing its sacredness • Planks and other parts of the Reused wooden planks • Planks and other parts of the scaffolding used during building construction were re- utilized as the floor and benches inside the church, finished with a black oil stain, harmonizing with the austere and minimal character of the place. Concrete : the main material of construction
  36. 36. USER BEHAVIOUR • User behaviour in the church of light is mainly stimulated by the building itself . • The building may look small but at every curve the user may see a totally changed The single wall controls the circulation and shows a totally different view as the user enters thereby controlling the user behaviour may see a totally changed view of the building. • For eg. The circulation space in the church of light is totally controlled by the angled wall
  37. 37. LIGHTING INSIDE THE CHURCH
  38. 38. AMUZA HOUSING • Location: Osaka, Japan • Area: 65 sq.m • Year of construction: 1975-1976
  39. 39. CONCEPT • His approach was to connect the art of building with art of living. • He relates the form and compositional methods to the kind of life that that will be lived in the given space and regional society. • It is a narrow rectangular concrete block with living spaces surrounding the courtyard.living spaces surrounding the courtyard. • It depicts traditional Japanese life style connected with light ,air and rain and other natural elements
  40. 40. PLAN AND SECTION • Ground floor- living room, kitchen separated by a central courtyard and staircase. Kitchen Courtyard Living room EntryKitchen Courtyard Living room Entry Upper floor- two bedrooms joined by a central uncovered walkway which is the only source of light. Bedroom BedroomUncoverd walkway
  41. 41. THE CHICHU ART MUSEUM Location: Southern portion of the island of Naoshima, Japan Year of Construction: 2004 • Limiting the architecture to an undergroundto an underground structure • No external design rising out of the ground
  42. 42. CONCEPT • Why underground? The site is a place where national forest abounds and was a former salt field. Hence to preserve the existing atmosphere and beauty of the site the museum is wisely buried underground. • It is possible to create almost any form underground as there are no axes or directions as exist above ground, on earthdirections as exist above ground, on earth • The outer expression of an underground building is invisible and, therefore, the obvious issues of form were not an issue. • Challenge was to achieve a highly complex and varied sequence of “lightscapes” within a configuration of simple, geometrical forms. • The museum was intended, holistically, to be visited with light as a guide.
  43. 43. • ‘Chichu’ means ‘underground’ • Part of the Front lobby and access way are dark, but the ain exhibition space brings in natural light creatively throught the courtyards. • a series of small concrete openings and geometric skylights float among the greenery. • There are five galleries altogether , of various sizes and characters featuring the works of three artists –featuring the works of three artists – Claude Monet , Walter de Mari and James Turrell. • The triangular space connects the galleries of the three artists. • Inside the museum the visitors are constantly brought between light and darkness, between mass and void
  44. 44. MATERIAL: • Concrete • Steel • Glass • Wood
  45. 45. INTERNAL SPACES
  46. 46. CHURCH ON THE WATER HOKKAIDO (1985-88) Location: Tomamu, Yusutsu County, Hokkaido, Japan Covered in snow from December to April,Covered in snow from December to April, the area becomes a beautiful white expanse of land. Water has been diverted from a nearby river, and a man-mane pond 90x45 meters has been created. The depth of the pond was carefully set so that the surface of the water would be subtlu affected by the wind, and even a slight breeze would cause ripples." Tadao Ando
  47. 47. ARCHITECT: Tadao Ando COMMITTEE: local government LOCATION: Tomamu, Hokkaido, Japan PROJECT: 09.1985-04.1988 COMPLETION: 04.1988-09.1988 STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: DETAILS STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Ascoral Engineering Associates BUILDING COMPANY: Obayashi Corporation Co. STRUCTURE: Reinforced concrete BUILT AREA: 344.9 sqm TOTAL AREA: 520 sqm
  48. 48. •The chapel is placed on a mountain plateau central Hokkaido, the coldest region in Japan, where nature is wild. •The entire area, is green from spring to summer, and in winter strips turned into a white expanse. •In plan, the chapel is formed by the overlapping of two squares, one small and one large, and overlooks a pond made by diverting a stream that flows through the PlanDESCRIPTION that flows through the vicinity. •A wall independent, L-shaped around the rear of the building and on one side of the pond. Section
  49. 49. • The chapel is entered from the back and along the path approaching the wall. • The murmur of the water takes visitors along the way, without, however, that they see the lake. • After a hundred and eighty degree turn, go up a gently sloping path to reach an area of access to the Chapel is closed on four sides by glass, a kind of container of light. • Traveled to scale curve that leads to the chapel, the visitor finds the view of the lake through the glass wall in front of the altar you can see the expanse of water and a large cross. North Elevation
  50. 50. Study sketches Inside View
  51. 51. Inside View Special sessions WAITING ROOM Bathrooms Chapel Special sessions Detail of the scale, Black granite floor Bathrooms Chapel GROUND FLOOR PLAN CHAPEL BATHROOMS
  52. 52. Particular coverPlant cover
  53. 53. Sezione longitudinale A-A
  54. 54. NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM Years of construction: 1992-1994 Location : okayama , japan • A museum dedicated to• A museum dedicated to impressionist painter Torajima Kojima.
  55. 55. SITE ANALYSIS (NARIWA MUSEUM) site Located from Google map museum
  56. 56. NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM okayama , japan
  57. 57. CONCEPT BEHIND NARIWA MUSEUM • This work again using reinforced concrete to neutralize the importance of the building and to give elevate the natural landscape. •The approach is a bit of a labyrinth(maze), that encourages visitorslabyrinth(maze), that encourages visitors to notice the attractiveness of the mountain landscape. •an artificial pond being the link that provides continuity and fluidity to this design.
  58. 58. BOLD INTERLOCKING PURE GEOMETRY
  59. 59. PLAN OF NARIWA MUSEUM OF ART MUSEUM
  60. 60. ENTRY • Barrier like façade at entry no openings • No direct entry to interior • Access to the museum is via an entrance ramp that leads visitors on a path upward and away from the street and over an artificial pond created in the mountainside.
  61. 61. OPENINGS WALL WINDOW • Through the large openings, the interior of the space can commune with the landscape
  62. 62. SEMI OUTDOOR SPACES
  63. 63. SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP •A spatial relation, specifies how some object is located in space in relation to some reference object. When the reference object is much bigger than the object to locate, the latter is often represented by a point.point. •RELATION BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACE
  64. 64. WATER-COURT • A water-court is an above- defined courtyard filled with water instead of dry ground. • In nariwa museum courtyard is partially enclosed by a natural slope, by the surrounding landscape close-by and bylandscape close-by and by artificial pond along side surfaces of concrete walls.
  65. 65. SCALE AND PROPORTION Scale: Monumental Proportion: Structural and Manufactured
  66. 66. MATERIALS • Using reinforced concrete, • the edifice feels made from • an authentic material.an authentic material. • has shown that the use of concrete allows multiple • formal and structural • variants.
  67. 67. RUKKO HOUSING, JAPAN. (1983)
  68. 68. The Modern Art Museum (2002)

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