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Architecture Culture and
History 2 (ARC 60203)
PROJECT: ANALYTICAL ESSAY
ALISHA NIAZALI HIRANI 0314325
MELISSA ANNE MEI HO...
1 | P a g e
Topic Page Name
Group introduction 1 Group
1.Spatial organization
1.1 Volume
1.2 Types of organizations
1.3 Ci...
2 | P a g e
1.0 Introduction to Master Architect
Tadao Ando was born on September 13th
1941 in
Osaka, Japan. Ando had many...
3 | P a g e
Tadao Ando’s constant aesthetic has won him many international awards and is a highly
reputed architect across...
4 | P a g e
• The southern structure consists of six linearly organized children’s bedrooms, a bathroom
and a lobby.
• A t...
5 | P a g e
Spatial Organization
By
Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun
0320583
6 | P a g e
1.0 Introduction
Tadao Ando says that, being a Japanese man, his works consists of Japanese architectural
conc...
7 | P a g e
larger by decreasing the amount of furniture so as to give a feeling of freedom and essence of
living. In the ...
8 | P a g e
For the circulation, unlike the typical front ground entrance from the road (like the Rufer house),
the koshin...
9 | P a g e
reflects on the smooth, semi glossy, concrete wall of the house. Tadao Ando uses these to
express the sequence...
10 | P a g e
1.5 Referencing
 Tadao Ando. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from BrainyQuote.com Web
site:...
11 | P a g e
Structure, Material and Construction
By
Muhammad Mubarak
(0319984)
12 | P a g e
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 DESIGN TRAITS AND DICTUM
There is little doubt that anyone in the world of architecture w...
13 | P a g e
Ando experimented with glass block and wood construction as his buildings became larger,
but he repeatedly re...
14 | P a g e
Tadao Ando’s design for the Koshino House features two parallel concrete rectangular confines.
The forms are ...
15 | P a g e
concrete is to mold them into light homogeneous surfaces. His intent is not to express the
nature of the mate...
16 | P a g e
2.3.2 Salk Institute and Koshino House comparisons
Progressing from the International Style, Louis Kahn belie...
17 | P a g e
of 29 different structures which are linked with a common corridor along different levels in
different blocks...
18 | P a g e
We see the use of metal railing in the Salk institute while we see the use of metal as window
frames in the K...
19 | P a g e
2.4. Conclusion
The materials used in this building ,The Koshino house are concrete, wood, glass which truly
...
20 | P a g e
2.5. References
 AD Classics: Salk Institute / Louis Kahn. (2010, May 28). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from
http...
21 | P a g e
 Tadao Ando: A Master of Mystical Places. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from
http://www.coldbacon.com/art/...
22 | P a g e
Components
By
Alisha Niazali Hirani
(0314325)
23 | P a g e
3.1 Introduction
Before Tadao Ando became a renowned modernist architect, he took the published works of Le
C...
24 | P a g e
of the Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut was formed from its relationship to the natural
surroundings. Le Corbusier...
25 | P a g e
3.4 Windows
One of the most fascinating aspects of the design is the placement of windows on a wall. This is
...
26 | P a g e
room. In contrast, the effect of light cast through the façade in the wall evoke emotional qualities
that ten...
27 | P a g e
28 | P a g e
29 | P a g e
3.7 Conclusion
In conclusion, though the Koshino House and chapelle Notre Dame du Haut are completely
differe...
30 | P a g e
References
ArchDaily. (2010). AD Classics: Ronchamp / Le Corbusier. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from
ArchDaily :...
31 | P a g e
Massing
By
Melissa Anne Mei Hong Li
(0320729)
32 | P a g e
4.0 Introduction
As stated in (Clarke & Pause, 2005), Massing consists of the prominent 3 dimensional
configu...
33 | P a g e
4.1 Site Context
Both Tadao Ando and Le Corbusier took two distinct approaches in relating their designs to t...
34 | P a g e
However, (Baker, 1996) argues saying that Villa Savoye seems to break away from tradition by
being elevated u...
35 | P a g e
Fig 4.2.1 The ground floor plan of Villa Savoye showing balance and symmetry
There is however a contradictive...
36 | P a g e
lightweight. Ando’s way of dealing with his walls differs from the Le Corbusian tradition of using
reinforced...
37 | P a g e
need to be private and secure. These 3 spaces are thus laid out in a very linear manner in
keeping with the t...
38 | P a g e
4.5 Conclusion
For Tadao Ando, it was his intimacy towards traditional Japanese Architecture and his
connecti...
39 | P a g e
References
 ArchDaily. (2015). Architecture Photography: Koshino House / Tadao Ando (1) (161879).
Retrieved ...
40 | P a g e
Façade
By
Saurabha Iyer
(0320569)
41 | P a g e
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISDESIGNTRAITSAND DICTUMS.
Ando'sarchitectural style isemphasizingnothingnessandemptyspa...
42 | P a g e
you,what existsonthe land,andthenuse that
knowledge alongwith contemporarythinkingto
interpretwhatyousee.” Yo...
43 | P a g e
Ando'suse of concrete draws onwork by Le
CorbusierandLouisKahn,withwhomhe isoften
compared.Andoaddsa masteryo...
44 | P a g e
The glasspuncturesalongthe façade show a pattern,the private placeshave lesspunctures
comparedto the publicsp...
45 | P a g e
For me the façade of the buildingstandsout,itissimple andwell blendingwiththe topography
aroundit. The buildi...
46 | P a g e
Constructionwise thefaçade of thebuildingincorporatesthe columnsandbeamsinthe structure,except
for one side o...
47 | P a g e
One buildingdesignedbythe architectAndoishighlyinspired,isthe CurutchetHouse.The
Curutchethouse isdesignedbyL...
48 | P a g e
Koshinohouse hasitsentryfromthe top, hence whenapersonentersthe premisestheyenterfromthe
top façade.Theycan’t...
49 | P a g e
5. Conclusion
The Koshinohouse andthe Curutchethouse have theirownspecialties.Eachhasa beautiful façade.
The ...
50 | P a g e
3. Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from
http://www.pritzkerprize.com/1995/bio
4. Goldberger, P. (1...
51 | P a g e
http://brandnudesign.com/new-blog/2013/9/26/hip-hop-architecture-unspoken-borders-2009-
ecologies-of-inequali...
52 | P a g e
manipulates the components in the Koshino house, from the location and size of the
windows and punctures, to ...
53 | P a g e
Group Referencing
• Ando, T. (2002). The Spirit of Modernism. (R. Ivy, Interviewer) 2015 Dodge Data &
Analyti...
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koshino house analysis essay

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koshino house
Architecture culture & history 2
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koshino house analysis essay

  1. 1. Architecture Culture and History 2 (ARC 60203) PROJECT: ANALYTICAL ESSAY ALISHA NIAZALI HIRANI 0314325 MELISSA ANNE MEI HONG LI 0320729 MUHAMMAD NABEEL ALI JOOMUN 0320583 MUHAMMAD MUBARAK 0319984 SAURABHA IYER 0320569
  2. 2. 1 | P a g e Topic Page Name Group introduction 1 Group 1.Spatial organization 1.1 Volume 1.2 Types of organizations 1.3 Circulation 1.4 Light and Shadow 1.5 Referencing 5 6 7 8 8 10 Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun 2.Structure, material and construction 2.1 Design Traits and dictum 2.2 Theme 2.3 Comparative analysis 2.4 Conclusion 2.5 Referencing 11 11 13 15 19 20 Muhammad Mubarak 3.Components 3.1 Structure 3.2 Structural Wall 3.3 Windows 3.4 Light 3.5 Roof 3.6 Conclusion 3.7 Reference 21 23 24 25 25 26 29 30 Alisha NIazali Hirani 4. Massing 4.1 Site context 4.2 Geometry 4.3 Form 4.4 Hierarchy 4.5 Conclusion 4.6 Reference 31 33 34 35 36 38 39 Melissa Anne Mei Hong Li 5. Façade 5.1 His design traits and dictums 5.2 His influences 5.3 Theme 5.4 Comparison 5.5 Conclusion 5.6 Reference 40 41 43 43 47 49 50 Saurabha Iyer 6. Group conclusion 53 Group
  3. 3. 2 | P a g e 1.0 Introduction to Master Architect Tadao Ando was born on September 13th 1941 in Osaka, Japan. Ando had many careers from being a professional boxer to working as a carpenter. However, he found his true calling as an architect. His dedication to this new career was evident in the fact that he was a self-taught architect and gained all of his experience through travel and reading. Fig 1.0 Portrait of Japanese Architect Tadao Ando Source: (Phaidon Atlas, 2015) During the 1970’s and 80’s he worked on designing a series of small scaled residential buildings in Japan such as the Azuma House and Koshino House. Here, he used beautifully hand detailed reinforced concrete walls which gave his structures a minimalistic appearance. This was to become one of his famous signatures and can be seen portrayed in all of his designs right along his career. Taking inspiration from architect Le Corbusier’s work with concrete, to many more masters like Frank Loyyd Wright and Louis Khan, Ando brings in his own style and connects deeply to Japanese architectural space and his culture as a native of Japan. With his increase in reputation, commissions outside of Japan came his way giving him word wide reputation. Some of his international works include, The Japanese Pavillion in Spain (1992), The UNESCO Meditation Space in Paris (1996), The Giorgio Armani Theatre in Millan (2001) and the Modern Art Museum in Texas (1997-2003).
  4. 4. 3 | P a g e Tadao Ando’s constant aesthetic has won him many international awards and is a highly reputed architect across the globe, which is why he remains as one of Japan’s most favourite leading contemporary architects of the modern era. (Ando, 2002) 1.1 Koshino House • Located at the foot of the Rokko Mountains, in Ashiya City, east of Kobe. • Client: Designer by the name of Koshin • Completed in two phases (1980-81 and 1983-84). • The Koshino House was originally made up of two parallel rectangular concrete boxes. Fig 1.1.1 Aerial view of Koshino House Source: (Dailyicon, 2012) • The nothern structure is two-storeys high containing a double height living room, a kitchen and a dining room on the first floor with the master bedroom and a study on the second floor.
  5. 5. 4 | P a g e • The southern structure consists of six linearly organized children’s bedrooms, a bathroom and a lobby. • A tunnel connects the two spaces and lies beneath the exterior stairs of the courtyard. • In the second phase, a fan shaped extension which now contains the Atelier was added in 1983. • One unusual feature of this house is that the visitor approaches it from above, and is fully aware of the plan of the house, if not its specific function from outside. (Metcalf, 2011)
  6. 6. 5 | P a g e Spatial Organization By Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun 0320583
  7. 7. 6 | P a g e 1.0 Introduction Tadao Ando says that, being a Japanese man, his works consists of Japanese architectural concepts but with Western methods and materials. The Koshino house uses the two main concepts of Japanese architecture which is blending with nature and minimalism. The blending with nature was created by merging the house with the slope of the site. The minimalism comes from the Zen influence which is greatly used in Japanese designs. Tadao represents this in the shape, material and spaces used. He used different types of volume for the interior. The circulation is quite different from usual houses and he changes the mood of the space simply by using light and shadows. 1.1 Volumes Three types of volumes are used; double volume, single volume and narrow volume. These are organised in terms of hierarchy where the place which is mostly used is bigger. The double volume is used in the living room, the reason for this place to be bigger is because that’s where the people will spend most of their time, when not sleeping. The next one is the bedrooms and kitchen which requires a smaller space as single volume. The corridors are used only for circulation and nothing else are narrower. The Rufer house by Adolf Loos, on the other hand, uses a constant type of volume for every room, which is the typical single volume. This is because Adolf didn’t use any specific hierarchy for the volume. The interior of the koshino house is rather plain without any ornamentation, just a few furniture and the concrete wall is left to its natural grey colour (no painting or plastering). The Rufer house on the opposite; its walls are painted and partially covered with varnished wood (having some structures exposed), it has more furniture than the koshino house and it has a more ‘warm’ feeling. The reason for the koshino house to be plain is to represent the minimalism concept, where the concrete is left to its natural colour and texture just like the Zen stones. The space itself inside is made to look
  8. 8. 7 | P a g e larger by decreasing the amount of furniture so as to give a feeling of freedom and essence of living. In the Rufer house, the architect wanted to create a balanced composition by reflecting the internal organization in the elevation. This gives a tight but comfortable feeling in the interior which is the same as the details of the elevation. Adolf Loos also reflects the square shape of the whole building in the spaces of the rooms so that in terms of proportion, it is looks more square. For the koshino house, the spaces has both square and rectangular which is related to the volume/hierarchy. “The room has to be comfortable; the house has to look habitable.”- Adolf Loos 1.2 Types of organizations The koshino house consists of three parts, two rectangular shape and a curved one. The overall space of these parts are organized in a linear way where the rooms, living room and study are proportioned. Then there is a repetition of rooms, with equal dimensions, organized in a grid in the rectangular block. Each of these rooms have a large window, letting light in, which gives an illusion that the space looks bigger. The tatami room, next to the series of small rooms, is larger, but appears lower due to the proportion. It can thus be said that there are three types of space organization; Square type like the small rooms, rectangular- large and low like the tatami room, narrow but high like the corridors and finally large and high like the living room. All of these are guessed proportion according to the human eye. The study is a contrast, having a curved shape, and the space there is large and appears low. Adolf Loos building designs are organized in grid and clusters. The units all appears to be square in terms of proportion to the whole building itself, like the Rufer house. The similarity between Adolf Loos and Tadao Ando’s theory of space is that the upper floor units doesn’t need to continue the shape of the lower floor units. 1.3 Circulation
  9. 9. 8 | P a g e For the circulation, unlike the typical front ground entrance from the road (like the Rufer house), the koshino house is accessed through the upper floors. This is because of the slope which covers the lower level of the house partially. Now, going inside, the living room is accessed by going down the stairs. The transition from the upper room to the living room is like going from a small space to a larger and open one. This makes the user experience and view the different scenes and rooms while moving. In the next part of the house there are a series of small room joined by a narrow corridor. As we walk through the corridor, there is like a repetition of the circulations to the rooms. At the end of the corridor, there is an open door that connects to the exterior.There is also a corridor when going to the study. The first circulation is made this way in relation to the site context where the road is at the top of the slope, thus the entrance should be at the top also. Adolf Loos placed the rooms that are private on higher level. Therefore when going up, the user goes from public spaces to more private. From his Raumplan theory, there is no need for all the rooms to be at the same level or having the same height. Therefore in his designs, he altered the position and height of the rooms according to hierarchy. From this, he placed stairs for almost every room in his designs and making the user circulate mostly upwards/downwards. Tadao’s buildings are mostly flat and levelled with a minimal amount of stairs, which is used only to move to the next storey. But both of the architects uses storeys for more possibilities of the spaces. 1.4 Light and shadow Tadao Ando makes use of another concept for changing the mood of the space; light and shadows. This is created through gaps in the wall and roof. The wall in the corridor and the living room has vertical slots. This enables the sunlight to penetrate the house and create a light/shadow pattern. This gives the space a natural feeling and at the same time an abstract pattern that varies with the movement of the sun. The roof of the living room and study has a gap near the edge that lets the sunlight illuminate inside. It gives an effect of serenity when it
  10. 10. 9 | P a g e reflects on the smooth, semi glossy, concrete wall of the house. Tadao Ando uses these to express the sequence of space as a drama of light. There are also large glass windows and doors that enable more light to come in and create the contrast of light and shadows in the spaces. Adolf Loos makes more use of artificial light to illuminate the interior. There are large windows placed in some areas in his designs, but these are more functional unlike Tadao’s representation of the essence of living. “Light is the origin of all being. Striking the surface of things, light grants them an outline; gathering shadows behind things, it gives them depth. Things are articulated around borders of light and darkness, and obtain their individual form, discovering interrelationships, and become infinitely linked." – Tadao Ando From all these concept, the main theme of the architect is achieved in the koshino house. The emptiness and cleanliness of the space supports perfectly the minimalist concept of the Zen tradition. The only ornamentation used is the light and shadows. The hierarchal spatial organization, through the volume, shows the importance of life according to the architect’s philosophy about minimalism and Japanese tradition. The overall space makes the user feel comfortable, free and light. The natural penetrating light, the unfinished concrete wall and the wooden flooring makes the user feel closer to the nature which is the Japanese architecture concept; blending with nature, together with the Zen tradition where the materials are left to their original and natural finish.
  11. 11. 10 | P a g e 1.5 Referencing  Tadao Ando. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from BrainyQuote.com Web site: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/tadao_ando.html  Rufer House (- Architecture of the World). Retrievd June 9, 2015 from en.wikiarquitectura Web site: http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Rufer_House  Metcalf, Taylor. (25 Sep 2011). AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. Retrieved June 9, 2015 ,from ArchDaily: http://www.archdaily.com/?p=161522  Alaa Al Khatib. (12 Mar 2014). Koshino House. Retrieved June 9,2015, from prezi.com: https://prezi.com/badjlfulknmy/koshino-house/  Phaidon. (19 Dec 2013). Tadao Ando by Francesco Dal Co. Retrieved June 9,2015, from arcspace.com: http://www.arcspace.com/bookcase/tadao-ando-complete-works/  Adolf Loos. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from BrainyQuote.com Web site: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/adolf_loos.html
  12. 12. 11 | P a g e Structure, Material and Construction By Muhammad Mubarak (0319984)
  13. 13. 12 | P a g e 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1 DESIGN TRAITS AND DICTUM There is little doubt that anyone in the world of architecture will not be aware of Tadao Ando's work. That work, primarily in reinforced concrete, defines spaces in unique new ways that allow constantly changing patterns of light and wind in all his structures, from homes and apartment complexes to places of worship, public museums and commercial shopping centers. (the Hyatt foundation,2015) “In all my works, light is an important controlling factor,” says Ando. “I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of thick concrete walls. The primary reason is to create a place for the individual, a zone for oneself within society. When the external factors of a city’s environment require the wall to be without openings, the interior must be especially full and satisfying.” And further on the subject of walls, Ando writes, “At times walls manifest a power that borders on the violent. They have the power to divide space, transfigure place, and create new domains. Walls are the most basic elements of architecture, but they can also be the most enriching.” No matter how traditional the function, Ando uses modern material and is influenced by the geometry of Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn and Frank Lloyd Wright. Inspired by Corbusier's Unites d'Habitation, concrete is his trademark, used in a rough dynamic way where with the quality of construction dependent on the wooden formwork (Source: Project Japan Architecture and Art Media Edo to Now, 2009). In his 40 year career, Tadao Ando has become associated with a single material (gray concrete) used in a singular way (with wooden framework that infuses the concrete with grain and imperfection). With this method, even the heaviest concrete walls bear permanent reminders of Japan's ancient woodworking traditions (Source: Architecture- Celebrating the Past, Designing the future, 1 May 2008).
  14. 14. 13 | P a g e Ando experimented with glass block and wood construction as his buildings became larger, but he repeatedly returned to concrete, finding new ways to dematerialize large volumes, such as placing them in shallow pools of water or burrowing underground. Despite his identification with a limited palette, Ando's work is as varied as that of any of his contemporaries (Source: Architecture- Celebrating the Past, Designing the future, 1 May 2008).. Characteristics of Ando's work include large expanses of unadorned walls combined with wooden or slate floors and large windows. Active natural elements, like sun, rain, and wind are a distinctive inclusion to his contemporary style. 2.2. THEME 2.2.1Structure, Material and Construction 2.2.2 Structure Fig 2.1: Koshino house (Kiernan May, 28 April 2013)
  15. 15. 14 | P a g e Tadao Ando’s design for the Koshino House features two parallel concrete rectangular confines. The forms are partially buried into the sloping ground of a national park and become a compositional addition to the landscape. The structure of the Koshino house consist of three parts , two rectangular and one semicircular. the first two rectangular structures were built in the year 1980 and the semi circular structure which serves as an atelier was added in the year 1984. 2.2.3 Materials Another factor worth noting is that there are no decorative elements. The view provided by the wide openings along with the shadows cast by the narrow openings and skylights, and the texture of the concrete both combined, operate as the only ornamentation. All the walls are made of smooth concrete and are free of ornamentation and in their natural form. Tadao Ando used this material because it is a way to admit light and wind within the walls and creating a sense of serenity and wide open spaces. Another reason why using this material is due to industrialization and technological resources to which access is the architect living in a developed country such as Japan. Other than concrete glass is widely used to make large windows throughout the house. The reason for using this material is giving way to large quantities of light and offer a view of the garden. 2.2.4 Construction Tadao Ando’s concrete walls are constructed on a block-like grid, each block having six exposed holes made from the board screws used during the construction of the building. The texture of the walls are unexpectedly smooth because of the added luminous coating, contradicting the concrete’s toughness. The reflection of the concrete surface produces the illusion of a textile surface rather than presenting it as a heavy mass. The way Tadao Ando uses
  16. 16. 15 | P a g e concrete is to mold them into light homogeneous surfaces. His intent is not to express the nature of the material itself, but to use it to establish space. 2.3 Comparative Analysis 2.3.1 Salk Institute The building I chose to compare with Tadao Ando's Koshino House is Salk Institute, designed by Louis I. Kahn. The reason of choosing architect Louis I Kahn is because he was one of the inspiration of Tadao Ando and Ando's use of concrete draws on work by Louis Kahn and Le Corbusier, with whom he is often compared. Fig 2.3.1: Salk Institute (www.newswise.com, 22 January 2013)
  17. 17. 16 | P a g e 2.3.2 Salk Institute and Koshino House comparisons Progressing from the International Style, Louis Kahn believed buildings should be monumental and spiritually inspiring. In his design for the Salk Institute, he was successful in creating the formal perfection and emotional expressions that he so vigorously tried to achieve. Kahn was commissioned to design the Salk Institute in 1959 by Dr. Jonas Salk, inventor of the polio vaccine. Salk’s vision included a facility with an inspiring environment for scientific research, and Kahn’s design decisions created a functional institutional building that also became an architectural masterpiece. 2.3.2.1 Structure the Koshino house consists of 3 different blocks, two rectangular prisms and one semicircular structure which are all connected through a common passage. similarly the Salk institute consist Fig 2.3: Koshino House (lichtecht GmbH, 16 April 2015) Fig 2.4: SalkInstitute (LiaoYusheng, 13 August 2014)
  18. 18. 17 | P a g e of 29 different structures which are linked with a common corridor along different levels in different blocks. we see the use of punctures in the Koshino house for the play of light while we see the use of water as a mean of guiding the light in the Salk institute. 2.3.2.2 material Tadao Ando and Louis I. Kahn are both know to use concrete in many of their deigned structures. we see this similarity of materials in these two buildings. we see the common use of concrete, glass, steel and wood in both these structures. Though the materials are the same in both the structures there is a different design usage of these materials. the Koshino house uses wood for its flooring while we see the use of wood as window frames and for window ornamentation in the Salk institutes. SalkInstitute (rudygodinez.tumblr.com, 24 September) Koshino House (http://architectboy.com/koshino-house- tadao-ando/, date: NA)
  19. 19. 18 | P a g e We see the use of metal railing in the Salk institute while we see the use of metal as window frames in the Koshino house. The common factor in the materiality of both the buildings is the raw use of concrete as pre cast concrete for its structure and both the structure so non ornamentation on these concrete walls. The open plaza of the Salk institute is made of travertine marble, and a single narrow strip of water runs down the center, linking the buildings to the vast Pacific Ocean. this narrow strip of water was used for the guiding of light in this structure. in the koshino house this luminous coating on the concrete wall was added to the construction for it to reflect light during the day. 2.3.2.3 construction Construction wise the method of construction for both these structures is the same. the materials that make up the Salk Institute and the Koshino house consist of concrete, teak, glass, and steel. The concrete was poured using a technique studied in Roman architecture. they both used pre cast concrete for their structure with the metal bars that constitute of the columns and beams imbedded within the structure. we see the 6 tie rod holes in every precast slab. in both the structure these holes were later filled in with a mixture for it would have leaked once the building was in function. Once the concrete was set, Louis I Kahn did not allow further finishing touches to the building in order to attain a warm glow in the concrete. In its contradiction to this Tadao Ando added luminous coating to the walls of the Koshino house to give it a smooth texture and make it blend in more with its surrounding.
  20. 20. 19 | P a g e 2.4. Conclusion The materials used in this building ,The Koshino house are concrete, wood, glass which truly showcase the design principle of Tadao Ando. that is material simplicity non-ornamentation. We see the similar approach to building materials by the modern master Louis I Kahn in the building Salk institute, in which we see a different design approach with the same materials. Hence I feel that Koshino house truly portrays Tadao Ando's design traits and materials used to build it plays a very major role.
  21. 21. 20 | P a g e 2.5. References  AD Classics: Salk Institute / Louis Kahn. (2010, May 28). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/61288/ad-classics-salk-institute-louis-kahn/  Tadao Ando. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://foundationsakc.com/people/legends/tadao-ando  Arch. Design. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://gc.springbranchisd.com/ad/arch1/sketches-of-the-week-arch-design-level- 1/sketches-of-the-week-11-04-13-thru-11-08-13/  Projectfabrica. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://www.projectfabrica.com/#!salk- institute-louis-kahn/c1vq2  Tadao Ando Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://biography.yourdictionary.com/tadao-ando  Solomon, N. (2008). Architecture: Celebrating the past, designing the future. New York: Visual Reference Publications ;.  An Interview With Louis Kahn Biographer Carter Wiseman. (2013). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://calitreview.com/224/an-interview-with-louis-kahn-biographer-carter- wiseman/  Cooper, G. (2009). Project Japan: Architecture and art media Edo to now. Mulgrave, Vic.: Images.  AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. (2011, September 25). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando/  Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://www.pritzkerprize.com/1995/bio  Furuyama, M. (1995). Tadao Ando (2nd ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag.
  22. 22. 21 | P a g e  Tadao Ando: A Master of Mystical Places. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://www.coldbacon.com/art/tadaoando-carolyndavis.html  http://www.cgarchitect.com/content/portfolioitems/2013/04/76988/8682276691_5f9dd3c8 5f_h_large.jpg  http://www.newswise.com/images/uploads/2013/01/22/salk1.13.jpg  http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp- content/uploads/2014/08/53fb5b19c07a8009620007a3_getty-conservation-institute-to- help-conserve-louis-kahn-s-salk-institute-_salk1-530x357.jpg  http://lichtecht.de/typo3temp/_processed_/csm_lichtecht_3d_Ando_Koshino_20_a9b35a eae2.jpg  http://www.californiahomedesign.com/sites/default/files/tadaohead.jpg  http://architectboy.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Floor-Plan-of-Koshino-House.jpg  http://40.media.tumblr.com/96426bbc62195083524afe1fff8bc020/tumblr_mtn0osQF8q1r 9xcmto5_1280.jpg
  23. 23. 22 | P a g e Components By Alisha Niazali Hirani (0314325)
  24. 24. 23 | P a g e 3.1 Introduction Before Tadao Ando became a renowned modernist architect, he took the published works of Le Corbusier as inspiration and said, “I traced the drawings of his early period so many times, that all pages turned black” (Manchala, 2015). Corbusier had a lasting impact on Ando as an adolescent. Tadao Ando is today an architect known for his unparalleled work with concrete and his strong commitment with nature. This section of the report aims to compare the components of the Koshino House, designed by Tadao Ando to that of Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, a Catholic church designed by Le Corbusier. 3.2 Structure The Koshino house consists of two parallel rectangular confines and a fan shape extension which contains the Atelier. The Koshino building consists of both two story height and single story height. The Koshino house’s forms are partially buried into the sloping ground of the national park (Metcalf, 2011). Tadao Ando uses concrete to compose a simplistic and minimalistic approach. Tadao Ando believes that architecture is more interesting when it has a double character to it, which means being as simple as possible and at the same time being complex. On the other hand, while Corbusier’s works were normally clean and sterile boxy volumes that were very functional, the Notre Dame du Haut was more conceptual and contextual in response to the site. Yet it still maintained some of the modern principles. This was why Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut was one of the most exceptional buildings of Corbusier’s career (ArchDaily, 2010). Additionally, the same way that Koshino house’s form responds to topography, the shape
  25. 25. 24 | P a g e of the Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut was formed from its relationship to the natural surroundings. Le Corbusier used the malleability of concrete to compose organic volumes that came together to create a dramatic structure. 3.3 Structural wall “I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of thick concrete walls. The primary reason is to create a place for the individual, a zone for oneself within society. When the external factors of a city's environment require the wall to be without openings, the interior must be especially full and satisfying.” (Kroll, 2011) Tadao Ando used smooth concrete for the walls in the Koshino House. He also moved the door openings from the centre to the side walls. The aim was to move away the doors from the massiveness and static solidity which one relates to masonry construction towards a more immaterial and weightless architectural enclosure (Metcalf, 2011). Whereas the Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut had a thick stark white gentle curving wall, that acted as a structural and sculptural elements calculated to provide stability through rough masonry. This adds to the feeling of purity and the ethereal atmosphere. Additionally the walls acted as acoustic amplifiers, that reflects sound to the outdoor alter (ArchDaily, 2010). "The shell has been put on walls which are absurdly but practically thick. Inside them however are reinforced concrete columns. The shell will rest on these columns but it will not touch the wall. A horizontal crack of light 10cm wide will amaze" (Glynn, 2011).
  26. 26. 25 | P a g e 3.4 Windows One of the most fascinating aspects of the design is the placement of windows on a wall. This is the means to affect the whole ambiance within the room. In the Koshino House the living room is lit by two large rectangular windows with steel frames of different sizes. Though, the bedrooms have equal sized windows that allow the residents to see a view of nature. Additionally, in the fan extension, skylights are pierced on the ceiling along the perimeter walls as well as on the corridor where eight narrow slits illuminate the walkway. In a similar manner Corbusier applied punctures on façade that allows light to illuminate the Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut from within. Each wall becomes illuminated through different window sizes and frames (Glynn, 2011). This gives the chapel an empowering and pure ambiance. Figure 3.4.1 Notre Dame Du Haut Figure 3.4.2 Koshino House (Catania, 2011) (Kozlowski,2015) 3.5 Light In the Koshino House narrow openings have been punched to the exterior to the staircase to manipulate how natural light casts itself onto the interior of the corridor. Additionally, slots were cut from other modules within the perimeter of other spaces to manipulate intricate casting of natural light and shadow in the interior of the spaces (Co, 1995). The contrast between the shadows and the light provide a complexity to the room and perhaps the ornament into the
  27. 27. 26 | P a g e room. In contrast, the effect of light cast through the façade in the wall evoke emotional qualities that tend to heighten emotions and sensations felt with religious activity. On the wall behind the alter, the lighting creates a speckled pattern almost like a starry night that leaves the feeling of awe. (ArchDaily, 2010) Figure 3.5.1 The Koshino house Figure 3.5.2 Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut (Perez, 2011) (Kozlowski, 2015) 3.6 Roof The Koshino House has a flat top roof that goes back to Tadao’s concept of minimalism. It is not intricate in nature so as not to steal the attention from the nature surrounding. The koshino house aims to blend with the topography of the surrounding. Nonetheless, One of the most striking parts of the Chapelle Notre Dame du haut is the roof. The curving roof appears to float above the building. There is a 10 centimeter gap between the roof and the wall. This casts a silvery light that creates a feeling as though the heaven is raining down of earth. The roof is both insulating and water tight covered with gunnite. The concrete shell is left rough just as it comes from formwork.
  28. 28. 27 | P a g e
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  30. 30. 29 | P a g e 3.7 Conclusion In conclusion, though the Koshino House and chapelle Notre Dame du Haut are completely different in appearance, they share the same principles of purity openness. Context plays a big role for the design of the building. Both Le Corbusier and Tadao Ando use openings to manipulate light in order to cast light and shadow and therefore create the feeling of enlightenment to the users.
  31. 31. 30 | P a g e References ArchDaily. (2010). AD Classics: Ronchamp / Le Corbusier. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from ArchDaily : http://www.archdaily.com/84988/ad-classics-ronchamp-le-corbusier/ Co, F. D. (1995). Tadao Ando Complete works . London: Phaidon Press Limited . Glynn, S. (2011). Chapel of Nôtre Dame du Haut France. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from Galinsky : http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/ronchamp/ Kozlowski, P. Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp. ADAGP, Ronchamp. Kroll, A. (2011). AD Classics: Church of the Light / Tadao Ando. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from Archdaily: http://www.archdaily.com/101260/ad-classics-church-of-the-light-tadao-ando/ Manchala, V. (2015). History and Theory of Architecture. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from academia.edu: http://www.academia.edu/9328101/History_and_Theory_of_Architecture Metcalf, T. (2011). AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. Retrieved June 09, 2015, from ArchDaily : http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando/
  32. 32. 31 | P a g e Massing By Melissa Anne Mei Hong Li (0320729)
  33. 33. 32 | P a g e 4.0 Introduction As stated in (Clarke & Pause, 2005), Massing consists of the prominent 3 dimensional configuration of a building. It is the interpretation of the image of a building as a whole. It can relate to concepts of context, patterns of single or multiple units, primary and secondary elements etc. of a design. In terms of analysis, massing can accentuate factors such as geometry, unit to whole and hierarchy which all in turn help highlight the importance in architecture. The two buildings discussed in relation to massing are Koshino House and Villa Savoye by modern master architects Tadao Ando and Le Corbusier respectively. Fig 4.1 Koshino House – Tadao Ando Fig 4.2 Villa Savoye – Le Corbusier Source: (Dailyicon, 2012) Source: (Kroll, 2010)
  34. 34. 33 | P a g e 4.1 Site Context Both Tadao Ando and Le Corbusier took two distinct approaches in relating their designs to the surrounding contexts. Koshino House as stated previously is set in the wooded mountains just outside Ashiya City. Ando believes that the inside and outside are not separate but form a continuous place. Architecture must look as if it is closed off or stand out but at the same time it must more importantly have a unique relationship with its surroundings (Dal Co, 1995). “The site is a sloping rectangular piece of property…” (Dal Co 1995, p. 509) Here, minimum impact is made on the environment around the house. The house is built in to the hillside as opposed to on top of it. This shows the level of attention given to the site by Ando which is why Koshino House stands out for its wonderful adaptation to its site. For Le Corbusier, his approach to respecting the site was rather different. Villa Savoye boasted of Le Corbusier’s 5 points of new architecture one being that, “Buildings should be raised above the ground on pilotis to free the space under the building.” (Baker 1996, p. 286) Here too the site is noy disturbed but instead of being sunk into the earth, the house is lifted up from it by the usage of the pilotis. This gives the house a ‘floating effect’, enables it to be free of the dampness the earth provides and increases its exposure to light and wind (Tanner, 2011). Fig 4.1.1 Comparison between Le Corbusier’s and Tadao Ando’s approach to context
  35. 35. 34 | P a g e However, (Baker, 1996) argues saying that Villa Savoye seems to break away from tradition by being elevated up from the ground. Though sculpturally compelling, it was not the norm in a typical Poissy context. In terms of massing, the orientation of the building is also important. The entire mass of the building as a whole must be orientated so that it responds best to the site context. Koshino House is orientated in such a way that its views of nature are maximized. Privacy is created by closing the street side façade and opening the house to its natural setting. Here fenestration has been effectively used with large glass windows placed in order to capture these views. All four sides of Villa Savoye were designed with careful response to the view and orientation of the sun. For example, the terrace was placed to the east in order to receive maximum morning sunlight. 4.2 Geometry Koshino House and Villa Savoye both show simple geometry. With regard to the former, Ando states that “In order to bring out and make apparent the invisible logic of nature, one must oppose it with the logic of architecture. It is at this point that geometry comes in.” (Dal Co 1995, p. 457) Koshino House was originally split into two main rectangular shapes. A circular structure intended to be the Atelier was added later on. This circular shape would seem a sharp contrast to the rest of the existing linear forms, but despite this, it blends in perfectly bringing a different rhythm to the atmosphere. In terms of the latter, Le Corbusier paid more attention to proportion and balance in terms of his geometry. Whilst Koshino house is slightly asymmetrical, Villa Savoye depicts symmetry and balance. As stated in (Tanner, 2011), the ground floor is a perfect example of this where everything except the stair shaft is in perfect balance about a north-south axis line.
  36. 36. 35 | P a g e Fig 4.2.1 The ground floor plan of Villa Savoye showing balance and symmetry There is however a contradictive notion to Le Corbusier’s balance in symmetry. If you consider the whole mass of the building like Ando, he too made use of curved structures but they seem to be in contrast and create a sense of tension with the linear elements of Villa Savoye. 4.3 Form The form of the building takes shape from its basic geometry and thus is important in massing. Ando’s earlier work can be thought of as very confined and rigid forms, but he gradually made slight changes to the way he approached his designs. This is evident in the way he made use of the walls. With time, Ando began to dismantle these confined forms. He would open up the walls and treat them as planes allowing him to connect architecture with nature (Dal Co, 1995). The gaps created allowed light and wind to enter into the spaces thereby justifying his statement of architecture and its surroundings being one continuous entity. Not only does this change echo around Koshino House but it also means that the walls no longer impose a solid and rigid presence. His attention to materiality in the use of smooth poured concrete also contributes to this. In doing so, Ando’s idea of rejecting the massiveness of form and moving towards a weightless, calming and homogeneous architectural enclosure is understood (Dal Co, 1995). It is intriguing how a simple act of refining concrete to make it look smooth can create an entirely different quality for Ando in terms of form and space. He took a material that is considered to showcase massiveness and strength in form and transformed it to look simple, linear, free and
  37. 37. 36 | P a g e lightweight. Ando’s way of dealing with his walls differs from the Le Corbusian tradition of using reinforced concrete to showcase strength. Using reinforced concrete as an expression of a material allowed a sense of massiveness to shine through for Le Corbusier (Dal Co, 1995). In Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier made use of his walls to create an enclosed form that contains programing and space. While Ando brought in light and wind though the openings of his walls, Le Corbusier did so by removing part of the form to create the courtyard. Fig 4,3,1 Gaps allow natural light to fall through Fig 4.3.2 Courtyard of Villa Savoye Source: (ArchDaily, 2015) Source: (Baghchesaraei, 2015) 4.4 Hierarchy From the principle of hierarchy, it is understood that all architectural compositions have various levels of importance. A form can be interpreted as being important to an organization and is uniquely visible (Ching, 2007). Both houses show levels of hierarchy but quite distinctively. In Koshino house, the 3 main structures show hierarchy by size. The main house is of double volume and can be seen as the dominant from in the whole composition. This is because the most frequented areas are located here. It includes public areas like the living room and kitchen hence there is a larger space required for human interaction. The atelier is the second largest as there is need for ample space for a designer’s work area. However, this is more private than the main house. The bed rooms and tatami rooms comprise of the smallest structure as they
  38. 38. 37 | P a g e need to be private and secure. These 3 spaces are thus laid out in a very linear manner in keeping with the traditional eastern architectural style with an underground passage connecting each section. Ando’s work has always been an integration of both eastern and western styles of architecture. The horizontality of Koshino House brings out the eastern style while the verticality and pure geometric forms speak of western influence. Here, verticality is brought out by the stairway that connects the two floors together. Villa Savoye differs from horizontality to being a more vertical structure. Fig 4.4.1 Hierarchy by size and connection Fig 4.4.2 Hierarchy by position and connection of elements horizontally of elements vertically With the pilotis, the elevated main house becomes the primary hierarchal element of the whole composition and is the main focus of the design. Second are the service functions and the solarium is the third (Tanner, 2011). Furthermore, these three levels are connected internally by a ramp and staircase which can be viewed from different parts of the house. Le Corbusier was quite clever in strategically placing the main house by elevating it so that it draws attention to itself by indicating to the viewer that it is the most important element in the composition.
  39. 39. 38 | P a g e 4.5 Conclusion For Tadao Ando, it was his intimacy towards traditional Japanese Architecture and his connection to the emotional and spiritual contents of form and massing that echo throughout Koshino House. But for Le Corbusier, it was his breakaway from tradition that stands out. His approach towards Villa Savoye was unlike any other building of that time. His strict modernist approach did not impress the locals as he had steered away from conventional emotions of what a home ought to be. The massing was more of a sculptural statement that lacked sentiment. Yet his 5 points of new architecture were magnificently highlighted in Villa Savoye and had many influences on architects including Ando. These two masterpieces indicate how Ando and Le Corbusier interpreted architecture and influenced it thereby creating their own unique philosophies that have made them world famous architects of the modern era.
  40. 40. 39 | P a g e References  ArchDaily. (2015). Architecture Photography: Koshino House / Tadao Ando (1) (161879). Retrieved 27 May 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino- house-tadao-ando/koshino13_gonzalo/  Baghchesaraei, A. (2015). Space definition in Villa Savoye. Retrieved 27 May 2015, from http://baghchesaraei.com/?p=156  Baker, G. H. (1996). Le Corbusier The Creative Search. UK: Taylor and Francis  Ching, F. D. K. (2007) Form Space and Order. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Jonn Wiley & Sons Inc.  Dailyicon (2012). Icon: Koshino House by Tadao Ando. Retrieved 24 May 2015, from http://www.dailyicon.net/2012/07/icon-koshino-house-by-tadao-ando/  Dal Co, F. (1995). Tadao Ando Complete Works. London: Phaidon Press Limited  Kroll, A. (2010). AD Classics: Villa Savoye / Le Corbusier. Retrieved 3 June 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/84524/ad-classics-villa-savoye-le-corbusier/  Tanner, N. (2011). The Floating Modern: Pilotis and the Free Plan. Retrieved 1 June 2015, from http://issuu.com/nickmtnman/docs/floating-modern
  41. 41. 40 | P a g e Façade By Saurabha Iyer (0320569)
  42. 42. 41 | P a g e 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISDESIGNTRAITSAND DICTUMS. Ando'sarchitectural style isemphasizingnothingnessandemptyspace torepresentthe beautyof simplicity.He favorsdesigningcomplex spatialcirculationwhile maintainingthe appearance of simplicity.Asanarchitect,he believesthatarchitecture canchange society,that"tochange the dwelling isto change the cityand to reformsociety”. Andobuildingsstandforpurity,serenityandstrength.Theyare noteasyto live in,butneitherare theyarrogantlyindifferenttohumancomfort;theyare notlessonsinarchitectural theorybutexamples of architectural fact.Theypossessthe bluntnessandthe directnessof ancientZengardens,translated intothe vocabularyof modernarchitecture.(Goldberger,1995). He quotes“inthe Westthere has alwaysbeenthe attempttotry make the religiousbuilding,whetherit’saMedieval or Renaissance church,aneternal objectforthe celebrationof God. The material chosen,suchas stone,brickor concrete ismeantto eternallypreserve whatisinside”we see thisthoughtreflectedin hisChurch Of Light. Fig1.1 the church oflight (Source-Klijs,2011) He isa firmbelieverinblendinghisdesignsanddifferentaspectsof itto the surrounding.He quotes“Youcannot simplyputsomethingnew intoaplace.Youhave to absorbwhat yousee around
  43. 43. 42 | P a g e you,what existsonthe land,andthenuse that knowledge alongwith contemporarythinkingto interpretwhatyousee.” You(the blendingof his buildingswiththe surroundingstopographyisseenis hisdesign) see thisblendinginmanyof hisbuildings like the ModernArt Museumof Fort Worth,Koshino house,Japanandthe Artsite Noshima,Japan. Fig 1.2 The Honpuku-ji(theWater Temple) (Source-www.worldarchitecture.org, 23rd setp,2010) Hisdesignshasminimalisminthem.He keepshisdesignedspaces minimum with the different spaces of building designed for the specific activity only. He believes “If you give people nothingness, they can ponder what can be achieved from that nothingness.” Fig 1.3 Conference pavilion (Source –www.visualthinking.studiojunglecat.com, 23rd july 2011) 2. HIS INFLUENCES
  44. 44. 43 | P a g e Ando'suse of concrete draws onwork by Le CorbusierandLouisKahn,withwhomhe isoften compared.Andoaddsa masteryof nature,light,and space whichbecomesasimportantand tangible asthe walls.Inan interview withPhilipJodidio,forthe book, Tadao Ando, Andosays,"Iam interestedinadialogue withthe architecture of the past butit mustbe filtered throughmy ownvisionandmyown experience.Iam indebtedtoLe Corbusierorto Miesvan derRohe,but in the same way,I take whattheydidand interpretitinmy ownfashion.(LoveToKnow.Corp,1996-2015) Fig 2.1 Le Corbusier Source –BRANDNU DESIGN, 26TH NOV 2013 AsmentionedearlierTadao Andowasa self-taught architect.He travelledaroundthe worldandgathered hisinspirationfromthe buildingsaroundthe world.His firstinterestinarchitecture wasnourishedinAndoby buyinga bookof Le Corbusiersketches“Itracedthe drawingof hisearlyperiodsomany times,thatall pages turnedblack”.SaysTadao Ando.“In my mindIquite oftenwonderhowLe Corbusierwouldhave thoughtaboutthisprojectorthat”.(archidialog.com, 19th Feb,2011) 3. THEME 3.1 FAÇADE Designedforthe designerKoshinoandhisfamily,TadaoAndohasusedmanydesignprincipleslike hierarchy,asymmetrical balance,repetition,etc.inthe Koshinohouse. Thisbuildingisaclassicexample of TadaoAndotype of architecture.Withhisuse of concrete and glassinits raw formand non-ornamentedconcrete facade init’sraw fromto preserve the buildingand internal spaces,isseeninthe Koshinohouse. The façade of the buildingisaplainconcrete surface withmanyglasspuncturesonthe building.He hasn’tsimplyplacedthe structure inthe site.The façade of the buildingwiththe smartuse of concrete and glassjustblendsinwiththe surroundingtopography.The feelingof oneness,whichisthe oneness of the structure and surroundingisbroughtaboutbythe helpof the façade.
  45. 45. 44 | P a g e The glasspuncturesalongthe façade show a pattern,the private placeshave lesspunctures comparedto the publicspaces.These puncture are usedforentryintothe buildingorusedasan inlet for light.There are puncturesalongthe façade thatruns alongthe staircase,the same puncturesare seenalongthe longcorridorin the longerrectangle.We see the playof lightandshadow withthe help of these puncturesalongthisfaçade. Fig 3.3 Puncture onthe outer façade fig 3.4 The effect ofthe punctures inside the space (Source-guestbook.blog.naver.com/,10thoct 2010) (Source-shadowvue.wordpress.com, N.A) Fig 3.1 the Koshinohouse Source-Kiernan May28 April2013
  46. 46. 45 | P a g e For me the façade of the buildingstandsout,itissimple andwell blendingwiththe topography aroundit. The buildinggivesthe viewerinside anunrestrictedviewof the nature andtopography around.The private,semi privateandpublicplaces givenpuncturesalongthe facadestoplaywithlight and shadowsseemstostandoutin the design.
  47. 47. 46 | P a g e Constructionwise thefaçade of thebuildingincorporatesthe columnsandbeamsinthe structure,except for one side of the structure where we see a row of columnsrunningparallel tothe windows.Thisbeing an uncommon feature standing out as it the only part of the façade with such a pattern. Fig 3.5 The façadewith columns Source-Kiernan May28 April2013
  48. 48. 47 | P a g e One buildingdesignedbythe architectAndoishighlyinspired,isthe CurutchetHouse.The Curutchethouse isdesignedbyLe CorbusierandissituatedinLaPlataArgentina.Builtin1948 and commissionedbyDr.PedreoDomingoCurutchetasurgeon. The house isplacedbetweentwoexisting structures.(Source- PermanentDelegationof Argentina,1st June ,2007 ) Like the Koshinohouse,the CurutchetHouse housetoowasplannedwith2blocksconnectedwitha courtyard.The architect,Le Corbusierlike TadaoAndohasalsousedsimple materialslikeconcrete and glassfor the outerfaçade. Yet the buildinggivesthe essence of differentkindof space.Itgivesalot of exposure tolight,butwe alsosee a playof lightandshowdownalongthe buildingfaçade.Like the facade of the Koshinohouse was builttoblendinwiththe topographyaroundthe façade of the Curutchethouse alsowasbuiltto blendinwiththe adjacenthouses. Unlike the Koshinohouse the columnsandbeamsof the Curutchethouse are exposedinitsfaçade whichwe onlysee onone side of the façade of the Koshinohouse.The use of windowsinformof puncturesisalsoseenagaininthisbuildingwhichisone of the commontraitsof boththese buildings these buildings. 4. COMPARISION Fig 4.1 The CurutchetHouse Source-http://en.urbarama.com/, 15th dec, 2009
  49. 49. 48 | P a g e Koshinohouse hasitsentryfromthe top, hence whenapersonentersthe premisestheyenterfromthe top façade.Theycan’tsee the functional spacesinsidethe house fromthe outerfaçade.Butinthe Curutchethouse one can see the functional spacesinside the housefromthe outerfaçade since ithasa lotof wide openingsonitsouterfaçade. In appearance the Koshinohouse seemsmore massythanthe Curutchethouse.Fromthe exterior the Koshinohouse,itseemsrigidandclosed,whilethe Curutchethouse isseemsmore openagaindue to itswide windowsanduse of glass. Both the structure have twoseparate bodieswhichare connectedthroughacommoncourtyardor passage yetthe façade of boththe blocksof boththe buildingsblendinwitheachother,thatisin both the housesthe twoblockswhichare physicallyseparate give adesignfeelingof beingone withthe help of theirfacades. Hence whencomparedondesignprinciple of individual architectsthe Koshinohousestandsgoodon the designconceptof Tadao Andoi.e.simplicityandmateriality,while the CurutchetHouse standsgood on the designconceptof free façade,whichisa classicLe Corbusierdesignconceptandone of hismain 5 designconceptswithsimplicityandmateriality. Fig 4.2 few punctures on the outer façadecolumns and beams arenotexposed Source-Kiernan May 28 April 2013 Fig 4.3 many puncture ontheouter façadewith the columns andbeams exposed Source-JosephineWaayers, 2013
  50. 50. 49 | P a g e 5. Conclusion The Koshinohouse andthe Curutchethouse have theirownspecialties.Eachhasa beautiful façade. The Koshinohouse portraysthe designprinciplesof TadaoAndothat issimplicity,materialityand hierarchy.We see the commonuse of lightandshadow inall hisbuildingsandwe see the same in the Koshinohouse.Hence Ifeel the facade of the Koshinohouse trulyportraysTadaoAndoandhis ideas. On the otherhand Curutchethouse designedbyLe Corbusierhasafaçade made withthe same principlesof minimalism, materialityandhierarchyyetissodifferentfromthe façade of the Koshino house.Thisshows thatthe same functionsof a façade can broughtaboutby differentwaysusingthe same materialsanddesignprinciples.Andeachbuildingstandstrue totheirrespective architects designprinciples. 6. APA Referencing 6.1 Koshino house 1. Metcalf, T. (2011, September 25). AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics- koshino-house-tadaoando/ 2. ARCHITECTS DICTUM. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from https://quizlet.com/44091784/architects-dictum-flash-cards/
  51. 51. 50 | P a g e 3. Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://www.pritzkerprize.com/1995/bio 4. Goldberger, P. (1995, April 22). 'Laureate' in a Land of Zen and Microchips. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/23/arts/architecture-viewlaureate-in-a-land-of-zen- and-microchips.html 5. Koshino House. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Koshino_House 6. Tadao Ando Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://biography.yourdictionary.com/tadao-ando 7. Tadao Ando Quotes. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/tadao_ando.html 8. Le Corbusier&Tadao Ando"ConsciousInspiration"(2011,February18). RetrievedJune 2, 2015, fromhttp://archidialog.com/2011/02/19/le-corbusier-tadao-ando-conscious- inspiration/ 6.2 Curutchet House 1. Casa Curutchet. (2007, June 1). Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://whc.unesco.org/fr/listesindicatives/5140/ 2. Casa Curutchet. (2007, June 1). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from http://whc.unesco.org/fr/listesindicatives/5140/ 3. MY ARCHITECTURAL MOLESKINE®: LE CORBUSIER: CURUTCHET HOUSE. (2011, July 22). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com/2011/07/le-corbusier- curutchethouse.html 6.3 Links for the pictures. https://ajklijs.wordpress.com/tag/church/ http://www.worldarchitecturemap.org/buildings/water-temple-honpuku-ji http://visualthinking.studiojunglecat.com/2011/07/25/vitra-design-campus/
  52. 52. 51 | P a g e http://brandnudesign.com/new-blog/2013/9/26/hip-hop-architecture-unspoken-borders-2009- ecologies-of-inequality http://www.cgarchitect.com/2013/04/tadao-andos-koshino-house http://guestbook.blog.naver.com/PostThumbnailView.nhn?blogId=jinsub0707&logNo=14011610898 5&categoryNo=5&parentCategoryNo= http://www.cgarchitect.com/2013/04/koshino-house7 https://shadowvue.wordpress.com/2014/04/11/tadao-ando/ http://en.urbarama.com/ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/516717757217062885/ Group conclusion Throughout this report Tadao Ando was compared to different master architects for the reason that Tadao Ando has both similarities and differences to not just one architect or one building, but several. The main theme achieved in the Koshino House, is the concept of Zen tradition. . The hierarchal spatial organization, through the volume, shows the importance of life according to the architect’s philosophy about minimalism and Japanese tradition. The natural penetrating light through the use of glass, the unfinished concrete wall and the wooden flooring makes the user feel closer to the nature which is the Japanese architectural concept; blending with nature, together with the Zen tradition where the materials are left to their original and natural finish. Tadao Ando achieves his philosophy in the way he
  53. 53. 52 | P a g e manipulates the components in the Koshino house, from the location and size of the windows and punctures, to the stairways that make the user interact more with the external environment. The emotional and spiritual contents of form and massing echo throughout the façades of the Koshino House and the interior as well. The only ornamentation used is the manipulation of light and the effect it has on the space.
  54. 54. 53 | P a g e Group Referencing • Ando, T. (2002). The Spirit of Modernism. (R. Ivy, Interviewer) 2015 Dodge Data & Analytics. Retrieved 24 May, 2015, from http://architect.architecture.sk/tadao-ando- architect/tadao-ando-architect.php  Dailyicon (2012). Icon: Koshino House by Tadao Ando. Retrieved 24 May 2015, from http://www.dailyicon.net/2012/07/icon-koshino-house-by-tadao-ando/  Metcalf, T. (2011). AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. ArchDaily. Retrieved 28 May 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house- tadao-ando/  Phaidon Atlas. (2015). Tadao Ando Architects & Associates. Retrieved 2 June 2015, from http://phaidonatlas.com/architect/tadao-ando-architects-associates/1084  Belinda-g. (May 2012). Inpiration for existing drawing. Image retreived 10 June 2015, from http://belinda-g.blogspot.com/

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