SAMINAR REPORT ON DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>SUBMMITED BY </li></ul>Shiwani saini M.Sc I Year Zoology   GUIDED BY   Dr....
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>INTRODUCTION:- </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid  ( DNA ) is a nucleic acid that conta...
<ul><li>dimensional & nucleotides were arrange by the distance  3.4Å  . </li></ul><ul><li>He suggest along with his  co. w...
<ul><li>Watson, Crick & Wilkinson  got noble prize  for double helical structure of DNA molecule . </li></ul>STRUCTURE OF ...
Double helical structure of  DNA
CHEMICAL NATURE OF DNA  :- <ul><li>An organic molecule or polymorphic chemical compounds made up of  three elements :- </l...
CHEMICAL NATURE OF DNA
<ul><li>DNA with these 3 elements called deoxyribose nucleotide (sugar+phosphate+nitrogen base = nucleotide) . </li></ul><...
TYPES OF DNA ( Alternative form of DNA double helix):- <ul><li>There are  three  main alternative forms of DNA double heli...
<ul><li>Z-DNA:-   Left  handed DNA, 18 Å  helical diameter with  12  base pair per turn having very  high  salt concentrat...
DNA AS A GENETIC MATERIAL:-   <ul><li>DNA act as genetic material  was a matter of discussions for a long time in the past...
<ul><li>{‘s’strain=capsulated} </li></ul><ul><li>{’R’strain  noncapsulated} </li></ul>Transformation in Diplococcus phenom...
2.BUT GRIFFITH FURTHER EXPERIMENTED SAME EXPERIMENT ON THE MICE AS FOLLOWS:-   <ul><li>Live ’S’ + Mice-> Infected -> Mice ...
<ul><li>Heat killed ‘S’ + Live ’R’+ Mice-> Infected->  Mice dead </li></ul><ul><li>Heat killed ‘S’ + Mice-> Infected->  Mi...
<ul><li>It prove that blood of dead mice showed the present of  </li></ul><ul><li>live‘s’ bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>-> L...
3. HERSHEY & CHAES EXPARIMENT ON BACTERIO PHASE TO PROVE DNA AS A GENETIC MATERIAL:- <ul><li>-> Hershey & chaes (1952)  ex...
<ul><li>Both experiment Show on the transformed of DNA causing recombination has confirmed that  DNA is the genetic materi...
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DNA

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DNA

  1. 1. SAMINAR REPORT ON DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>SUBMMITED BY </li></ul>Shiwani saini M.Sc I Year Zoology GUIDED BY Dr.B.L.Aggarwal Principal & HOD of Zoology Dr.ANUPMA GOUTAM
  2. 2. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>INTRODUCTION:- </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organism and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecule is the long-term storage of information. </li></ul>HISTORY OF DNA RESEARCH:- First man who gave an idea about 3 dimensional structure of DNA was W.T Astbury . He studied with the help of X-ray crystallography & found that DNA is a steak of flat nucleotide. Maurice Wilkins continues Astbury's work and true x-ray diffraction he got the photography & found that DNA is 3
  3. 3. <ul><li>dimensional & nucleotides were arrange by the distance 3.4Å . </li></ul><ul><li>He suggest along with his co. worker’s is R.Franklin . </li></ul><ul><li>Later Watson & Crick studied photograph obtained by Wilkins & contracted a modal for DNA & they published structure of DNA in 1953 in the general nature. </li></ul>Rosalind Franklin Francis Crick James Watson
  4. 4. <ul><li>Watson, Crick & Wilkinson got noble prize for double helical structure of DNA molecule . </li></ul>STRUCTURE OF DNA:- <ul><li>The DNA polynucleotide chain has the form of a regular helix. </li></ul><ul><li>Helix has a diameter of about 20 Å helix marks one completes </li></ul><ul><li>turn every 34 Å along its length. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter nucleotide distance in 3.4 Å . </li></ul><ul><li>The number of nucleotide in a turn is 10 Å . </li></ul><ul><li>Chains of two polynucleotide are antiperllal of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Polynucleotide chain connected by hydrogen bonding . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Double helical structure of DNA
  6. 6. CHEMICAL NATURE OF DNA :- <ul><li>An organic molecule or polymorphic chemical compounds made up of three elements :- </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoric acid molecule called phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar called deoxyribose . </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen base called pyrimidines & purine . </li></ul><ul><li>These are 4 base found DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Purine- , guanine (G),adenine(A) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine- thymine (T), cytosine(C). </li></ul><ul><li>Purine are heterocyclic compounds & 2 rigid pyrimidines are one ring. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CHEMICAL NATURE OF DNA
  8. 8. <ul><li>DNA with these 3 elements called deoxyribose nucleotide (sugar+phosphate+nitrogen base = nucleotide) . </li></ul><ul><li>Many nucleotide joined together forming polynucleotide. </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose sugar+Nitrogen base =Nucleoside. </li></ul>Nucleotide Nucleoside
  9. 9. TYPES OF DNA ( Alternative form of DNA double helix):- <ul><li>There are three main alternative forms of DNA double helix found in the living system :- </li></ul><ul><li>A-DNA </li></ul><ul><li>B-DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Z-DNA </li></ul><ul><li>A-DNA:- A-DNA is right handed DNA with 23Å helical diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>It relative humidity a 75% with Na, K, Cs ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Base pair per turn 11 </li></ul><ul><li>B-DNA:- Most commonly found DNA in the living plants </li></ul><ul><li>& animal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is right handed DNA with 20Å helical diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Base pair per turn 10. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.-Mostly plants & animal have right handed DNA of B-form . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Z-DNA:- Left handed DNA, 18 Å helical diameter with 12 base pair per turn having very high salt concentration. </li></ul>A-DNA,B-DNA,& Z-DNA
  11. 11. DNA AS A GENETIC MATERIAL:- <ul><li>DNA act as genetic material was a matter of discussions for a long time in the past because chromosomes are made up of DNA ,RNA & Protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the DNA responsible for heredity in chromosome had to be proved hence a number of experiments made by genetics & proved that only DNA is responsible for genetic information in the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment given to prove DNA as genetic material:- </li></ul>1.GRIFFITH’SEXPERIMENT ON BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION:- <ul><li>Frederick Griffith in London in 1928 conducted the experiment in the lab on Diplococcus pneumonia & found that two strain of Diplococcus i.e. ‘S’ strain (virulent) & ‘R’ strain (nonvirulent) shown the transformation effect of DNA ‘S’ strain & ‘R’ strain. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>{‘s’strain=capsulated} </li></ul><ul><li>{’R’strain noncapsulated} </li></ul>Transformation in Diplococcus phenomenon
  13. 13. 2.BUT GRIFFITH FURTHER EXPERIMENTED SAME EXPERIMENT ON THE MICE AS FOLLOWS:- <ul><li>Live ’S’ + Mice-> Infected -> Mice dead </li></ul><ul><li>Live ’R’ + Mice-> Infected-> Mice survived </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Heat killed ‘S’ + Live ’R’+ Mice-> Infected-> Mice dead </li></ul><ul><li>Heat killed ‘S’ + Mice-> Infected-> Mice survived </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>It prove that blood of dead mice showed the present of </li></ul><ul><li>live‘s’ bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Later Avery, Maccarty, Maclobed studied on the Griffith’s experiment by isolating heat killed ‘s’ cell in detailed & performed following information:- </li></ul>1. Removed plysaconide capsule from heat killed ‘S’ cells + ‘R’ cells -> Mice dead . 2.Remove protein frection from heat killed ‘S’ cells + ‘R’ cells -> Mice dead . 3. Added DNAase in to heat killed ‘S’ cells + ‘R’ cells -> Mice survived. -> Because third experiment disintegrated DNA & ‘R’ cells could not transform hence mice survived.
  16. 16. 3. HERSHEY & CHAES EXPARIMENT ON BACTERIO PHASE TO PROVE DNA AS A GENETIC MATERIAL:- <ul><li>-> Hershey & chaes (1952) experimented on bacterial virus i.e. bacteriophase & found recombination between virus DNA & bacterial DNA as follows:- </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Both experiment Show on the transformed of DNA causing recombination has confirmed that DNA is the genetic material </li></ul>CONCLUSION:-

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