2.12.2010<br /><ul><li>Slide 14
Other reaction pathways
Fructose can enter and be converted to F6P to generate 2-glyc-aldeh.
Glycerol is a storage sugar
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2.12.2010

  1. 1. 2.12.2010<br /><ul><li>Slide 14
  2. 2. Other reaction pathways
  3. 3. Fructose can enter and be converted to F6P to generate 2-glyc-aldeh.
  4. 4. Glycerol is a storage sugar
  5. 5. Can be converted to gly-3-phosp
  6. 6. Mannose Mannose-6-phosphate
  7. 7. Just be aware of other molecules
  8. 8. Slide 15
  9. 9. Polysaccharides have to undergo
  10. 10. Glycogen undergoes phosphorolytic cleavage, a breakage of alpha 1,4 bond to release glucose unit.
  11. 11. Slide 16
  12. 12. Glycolysis can be reversed
  13. 13. It requires ATP to generate glucose
  14. 14. Gluconeogenesis
  15. 15. Used when muscles undergo stress
  16. 16. If cells are deprived of nutrients or food
  17. 17. Slide 17 – The Krebs Cycle
  18. 18. Pyruvate enters and mito. Matrix, it moves through facilitated diffusion due to charge.
  19. 19. Conversion reaction
  20. 20. Convert pyruvate to acetyl coa
  21. 21. Acetyl coa is oxidized in krebs cycle and used to make CO2
  22. 22. NADH contributes to ETC
  23. 23. Coenzyme a is acetylated to generate acetyl CoA
  24. 24. Pyruvate to acetyl CoA enzyme
  25. 25. Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  26. 26. Acetyl CoA generates krebs cyele
  27. 27. For each pyruvate you get 3 NADH and FADH2 and 2CO2
  28. 28. We also generate a GTP for each pyruvate
  29. 29. Total: 6NADH 2FADH2 4CO2 2GTP
  30. 30. GTP
  31. 31. Sister molecule to ATP, it can transfer a Pi group to ADP as well
  32. 32. E- transport carriers tranport e- to ETC
  33. 33. Slide 18
  34. 34. When pyruvate moves into mito, converted to acetyl CoA, krebs cycle, generates CO2 NADH, FADH2, and the e- carriers will donate e- to specific and concentrated protein in inner mito matrix
  35. 35. Inner mit. Matr. Has a high ratio of proteins to lipids in membrane. 90% protein
  36. 36. Citric Acid Cycle
  37. 37. Generate CO2
  38. 38. Tranfers protons to NAD+
  39. 39. Protons come from H20, which is used to provide extra protons
  40. 40. ETC, molecular O2 is used to make H20 at end of chain.
  41. 41. Slide 19
  42. 42. Inner membrane has cristae which increase surface are for ETC. more cristae = more ETCs/more energy made
  43. 43. Matrix: enzymes to power krebs cycle, DNA, ribosomes for mito proteins
  44. 44. ETC
  45. 45. Involve movement of H from inner matrix to intermembrane space.
  46. 46. Pyruvate dehydrogenase drives reaction of reaction and it is a complex of 3 enyzmes that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA
  47. 47. Transfers Acetyl group from pyruvate to CoA and bind the two to make acetyl CoA
  48. 48. Acetyl CoA can now enter Krebs cycle!
  49. 49. Slide 21
  50. 50. Step 1 of Krebs cycle
  51. 51. Association of 3 carbon acetyl coa sugar with 4 carbon oxaloacetate
  52. 52. The reaction that bring these two together generates citric acid (citrate), using H from water.
  53. 53. Step 2
  54. 54. Citrate converted to isocitrate
  55. 55. Step 3
  56. 56. Iso is alpha-keto
  57. 57. Generated one NADH
  58. 58. Step 4
  59. 59. Another NADH is produced
  60. 60. Step 5
  61. 61. Succinyl CoA to succinate
  62. 62. GDP becomes GTP
  63. 63. Coenzyme A is produced
  64. 64. Used again at conversion reaction to make acetyl CoA
  65. 65. Succinate will continue to produce oxaloacetate
  66. 66. 2 turns of the citric acid cycle produces 6NADH 2FADH2 2GTP
  67. 67. NADH is a reduced b-vitamin
  68. 68. FADH2 is a riboflavin, reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide, which arises from b vitamin riboflavin
  69. 69. Slide 22
  70. 70. 1 glucose yield 6CO2 2ATP 2GTP 10NADH 2FADH2
  71. 71. 12 high energy e- carrie molecules to inner matrix of mito
  72. 72. Slide 23
  73. 73. Niacin reduced to make NADH
  74. 74. FADH2 also made from riboflavin
  75. 75. Hot-potatoe protons
  76. 76. Loses H readily in inner mitochondrial matrix
  77. 77. Powers ETC
  78. 78. GTP
  79. 79. Guanine instead of adenine (ATP)
  80. 80. Regulatory Steps of Krebs Cycle
  81. 81. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is activated by low levels of ATP and vice versa
  82. 82. Hexokinase converts glucose to G6P
  83. 83. In citric acids cycle - 3 steps
  84. 84. Conversion of isocitrate to alpha-ketogluterate is regulated by the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase which produces the first NADH
  85. 85. INHIBITED BY HIGH LEVELS OF NADH AND ACTIVATED BY HIGH LEVELS OF ADP
  86. 86. Converstion of alpha-keto to succinyl coa
  87. 87. Alphaketo dehydrogenase puts H of NAD+ and regulated by high levels of NADH or high levels of succinyl CoA, if high, will shut don enzyme
  88. 88. Malate to oxaloacetate
  89. 89. When NADH is high, maltate dehydrogenase is inhibited, which converts maltate to oxaloacetate.
  90. 90. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  91. 91. ETC generates a proton motive force used to power ATp synthase to make ATP
  92. 92. High energy e- transfer from FADH2 to O2
  93. 93. At the end of the ET water will be produced and ~34 ATP are produced due to ETC
  94. 94. For a singe NADH, 1/2 O2 and H removes H from NADH to make water
  95. 95. The last structure of ETC can hold O2 until the O2 obtains both e- to make H20, same for FADH2, instead of releasing a reactive ion.
  96. 96. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  97. 97. Electron Chemical Gradient
  98. 98. Makes Chemiosmotic Coupled system
  99. 99. The unequal distribution of Hydrogen ions and charge across the membrane in which ATP synthase sits
  100. 100. NADH and FADH2 are in the inner mitochondrial membrane and they’re donating the electron hot potatoe hydrogens and the e-s that go along with them.
  101. 101. As e-s are donated, the proteins and complexes pump out H into the intermembrane space from membrane space across inner membrane
  102. 102. More positive charge is out of matrix and moved to inter membrane space
  103. 103. E-s transported provide mechanism of energy to move H and create a chemisomotic gradient w/ negative charge on inside.
  104. 104. The driving force that goes through the ATP synthase is so large that it doesn’t require energy to make ATP.
  105. 105. Uses protons to rotate and that rotation sucks in ADP
  106. 106. Concentration gradient is less
  107. 107. pH differential across membrane
  108. 108. more acidic in intermembrane space than in matrix space
  109. 109. ETC Proteins
  110. 110. There are 4 protein complexes that accept high energy e-s
  111. 111. They are complexes, not individual proteins
  112. 112. Complex I and II refer to the NADH dehydrogenase complex
  113. 113. Ubiquinone is an intermediate e- transfer protein is aka coenzyme Q
  114. 114. Tranfers 2 hydrogens from intermembrane space
  115. 115. For transfer of 2 e- from NADH 4 protons across the membrane
  116. 116. Cytochrome b-c1 is the complex III
  117. 117. Cytochrome c is another intermediate
  118. 118. Does not transport H
  119. 119. 2 H move
  120. 120. Cytochrome oxidase complex IV
  121. 121. Makes water and holds oxygen until all H and e-s are transferred
  122. 122. 2 H move
  123. 123. 10 total H moved across membrane
  124. 124. we have dehydrogenated NADH
  125. 125. as we remove from NADH, you convert into a H+ proton, 2 e- and the 2- are transported along the complexes, and at each stage H are pumped, and eventually allow the transfer of molecular H2 to make water.
  126. 126. Reduction Potentials (slide 29)
  127. 127. NADH dehydrogenase has the largest reduction
  128. 128. The energy left is used by cytochrome oxidase complex to make H20
  129. 129. Coenzyme Q and cytochrome c
  130. 130. Cytochrome c is embedded in the membrane
  131. 131. Does not transport H across, simply accepts e-s
  132. 132. Has an iron heme that hold e-s that is linked to a copper ion that allows that O2 to be held until enough H has moved through complex 4 to make water stable
  133. 133. Complex 4 is important to make sure cell isn’t damaged by the oxidative phosphorylation

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