1.29.2010 - Lipids<br /><ul><li>Plasma membrane
Compartmentalize
Used by organelle membranes as well
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1.29.2010

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1.29.2010

  1. 1. 1.29.2010 - Lipids<br /><ul><li>Plasma membrane
  2. 2. Compartmentalize
  3. 3. Used by organelle membranes as well
  4. 4. Made of lipids, a major constituent
  5. 5. Not formed by linear polymerization of a smaller lipid monomer
  6. 6. Used for energy storage
  7. 7. Important for membrane structure
  8. 8. Can be used as signaling molecules
  9. 9. Provide ability for fluidity of the membrane
  10. 10. Allows for expansion
  11. 11. Not just fats and oils
  12. 12. Types of Lipids
  13. 13. Fatty acids
  14. 14. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic end
  15. 15. Hydrophilic is the COOH end
  16. 16. 16-18 carbons on average (12-20 range) is the average length of the carbon chain
  17. 17. saturated FA is CnH2nO2
  18. 18. Phospholipids
  19. 19. Membrane structure
  20. 20. 2 classes of PL
  21. 21. phosphoglycerides
  22. 22. glycerol + Pi + R group + hydrocarbon chains
  23. 23. sphingolipids
  24. 24. amino group + hydrocarbon chain + R + O
  25. 25. Serine, ethanolamine, choline, inositol can be broken down or be used for signaling or both
  26. 26. Triglycerides
  27. 27. Have fatty acids in them
  28. 28. A glycerol molecule through dehydration/condensation is linked to three fatty acids
  29. 29. Energy storage and insulation
  30. 30. Solid fats are saturated,
  31. 31. Margarine made from unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogenating it
  32. 32. Oils, unsaturated fatty acids
  33. 33. Glycolipids
  34. 34. Sugar group attacted to glycolipid molecule
  35. 35. Glycosphingolipid
  36. 36. Glycosphingosine
  37. 37. R groups with 1 to 6 monosaccharide units
  38. 38. Terpenes
  39. 39. Carotenoid
  40. 40. Plastoquinone
  41. 41. Vitamin a
  42. 42. Coenzyme Q
  43. 43. Steroids
  44. 44. Cholesterol
  45. 45. Most common in animal cells found in the PL bilayer
  46. 46. Amphipathic
  47. 47. Hydrophilic end is facing out or inside of cell, not in between
  48. 48. Important in regulating lipid fluidity
  49. 49. Terpenes
  50. 50. Bilayers form Spontaneously
  51. 51. Favorable for cell to have membrane form a spherical shape
  52. 52. Injury?
  53. 53. Phospholipids inserted to repair tear
  54. 54. If can’t be repaired by insertion, round in on itself instead
  55. 55. Lipid Bilayer
  56. 56. Import and export of molecules
  57. 57. Signaling/activation by extracellular ques
  58. 58. Motility
  59. 59. Made of phospholipids with embedded fatty acids/cholesterol/and proteins
  60. 60. Boundary for things
  61. 61. If cholesterol is embedded, space reduced between fatty acids and restricts what moves in and out, such as ions
  62. 62. Organization and localization of function of organelles
  63. 63. Allow for regulated transport processes
  64. 64. Membrane allows to bind to EXC factors because of proteins in the membrane
  65. 65. GFs
  66. 66. Cell-Cell communication
  67. 67. Signaling molecules interact by EXC contact, and activate signaling on either side
  68. 68. Gap junctions
  69. 69. Proteins that allow direct communication between cells so cytoplasm of two cells are like one
  70. 70. Fluid Mosaic Model
  71. 71. PL Bilayer is fluid and not rigid
  72. 72. Using FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching), how fluid is the membrane
  73. 73. Label the cell surface with fluorescent dyes
  74. 74. Took laser and bleached spot on membrane
  75. 75. Looked over time how quickly fluorescent molecules repopulated bleached area
  76. 76. There is PL motility
  77. 77. Mechanisms of movement
  78. 78. Rotation
  79. 79. Lateral movement
  80. 80. Move by diffusion, so no energy is needed
  81. 81. Flipases
  82. 82. Enzymes that drive the flipping of PLs
  83. 83. PL Bilayer
  84. 84. The EXC and cytosolic side are different
  85. 85. Immune system responds to certain things on the outside of the cell
  86. 86. When PL are exposed that are normally on the cytosolic side, immune cells phagocytose b/c it’s a signal of a dead or dying cell
  87. 87. Membrane Fluidity
  88. 88. Tm is the temp at which membrane transitions from gel to fluid
  89. 89. Lets say 28 degress C
  90. 90. If past, more fluid
  91. 91. If lower, more solid
  92. 92. What changes Tm is strength of van der wall interactions of fatty acids in PL bilayer
  93. 93. The more linear, the stronger the van der walls forces and the higher the Tm
  94. 94. More carbons increases Tm
  95. 95. Steroids/Sterols
  96. 96. In the PM affect fluidity
  97. 97. As place in PL bilayer, there is an equal amount in both layers of the bilayer
  98. 98. Cholesterol stabilizes membrane
  99. 99. Hydroxyl groups forms H bond with carboxyl group
  100. 100. Decrease fluidity
  101. 101. Holds structure better
  102. 102. Phytosterol is in plants instead of cholesterol
  103. 103. Different Lipids in the Membrane
  104. 104. Study them by using Thin Layer Chromatography
  105. 105. Separate lipids based on polarity
  106. 106. Lipid Distribution
  107. 107. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine and serine are in the cytosol
  108. 108. Negatively charged and point to cytosol
  109. 109. Choline and spingomyelin are on the EXC side
  110. 110. Have sugar moieties resulting in EXC love
  111. 111. Lipid Raft
  112. 112. Concentrated area of PL and cholestoerl and protein embedded in membrane brought together in rigid structure.
  113. 113. More cholesterol and more saturated fatty acid tails so interaction is very tight
  114. 114. With embedded proteins, forms solid structure that moves as a unit
  115. 115. Signaling molecules are all held together
  116. 116. Glycolipids attract signaling molecules in the cell, lectins
  117. 117. Often signaling receptors on EXC
  118. 118. Results in an intracellular change
  119. 119. Help localize the functional embedded proteis to signaling molecules in the cells.

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