Contextual inquiryv1-1221130776241015-9


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Contextual inquiryv1-1221130776241015-9

  1. 1. Welcometo a session onContextual InquiryRajesh
  2. 2. Contextual InquiryWhat is Contextual Inquiry ?Contextual Inquiry is a field data gathering technique for examining andunderstanding end users and their workplace, tasks, issues and preferences.Need for a Contextual InquiryThe best way to get to know users and their tasks is to spend time with them,in their own environments, watching them do the things that your Application/Website or a Product is going to support or enable.This knowledge could be used to make more informed decisions in the DesignProcess.
  3. 3. In the context of User Centered Design Process• Design• Test & Refine• Evaluate your current user• Learn about your user• Conduct Task Analysis• Develop personas• Plan• Analyze• Write Scenarios• Set Usability goals• Questionnaire• Contextual Inquiry• Online Surveys• Interviews• Focus GroupContextual Inquiry
  4. 4. In the context of User Centered Design ProcessContextual Inquiry
  5. 5. Analysis Early Design Late Design Implementation DeploymentGoalsMethodsArtifactsExplore designspacePaper prototypesTask scenariosRefine selecteddesignEmpirical studyUI guidelinesFunctional testFunctionalprototypeImplement andintegrateEmpirical studyUI guidelinesFunctional testFunctionalinterface & systemGatherrequirements fornext releaseField studyCritical incidentwalkthroughsInterviews andsurveysUsability reportContextual inquirySurveysObservationsInterviewsTask analysisUser descriptionsAffinity diagramsDesign briefTask descriptionsIdentify:Usability goalsContentUsers & tasksSketching &brainstormingCognitive walkthroughGOMSHeuristic evaluationAction analysisIn the context of User Centered Design ProcessContextual Inquiry
  6. 6. When is Contextual Inquiry appropriateIn the early stages of developmentWhen the environment in which users work really influences how they use theproductWhen you want to know about work practices in unfamiliar domains (i.e.lawyers looking for cases in a digital library)CI is appropriate whenever you need to develop or communicate an understandingof the users of an existing or proposed system.Contextual Inquiry
  7. 7. When is Contextual Inquiry appropriate - ExamplesOperation Theatre Call CenterStock Exchange Trading ATM MachineContextual Inquiry
  8. 8. Contextual Inquiry is NOT:An InterrogationA formal InterviewA forum to tell users they are doing it “all wrong” and how to do it rightA forum to tell users how to do their work or how technology could make it easierContextual Inquiry
  9. 9. What do you learn from Contextual Inquiry ?Seeing the users environment can be very useful. By going to the user, you seethe users environment and the actual technology the user works with.You can answer questions like these:• What is the social environment like?• Are there people around to help the user?• What is the physical environment like?• Is the user on broadband or on a modem?• How does the user conducts a task?• Does being online tie up a phone line so the user wants to be on and off theWeb quickly?• What are the values, issues and concerns of the users?Contextual Inquiry
  10. 10. Contextual Inquiry is difficult becauseUsers may be shy, or even suspiciousUsers may not want you to see them make errors or other mistakesUsers do things differently when people are observing them workYou are not sure what to look forYou collect an enormous amount of dataContextual Inquiry
  11. 11. Contextual Inquiry is useful becauseYou learn about the users and their tasksYou learn about the workflowYou learn about the constraints on the designYou gain design inspirationYou establish a trusting relationshipYou inform the design of the systemContextual Inquiry
  12. 12. Few differentiatorsContextual Inquiry is more of a discovery process than an evaluation processKey difference between Contextual Inquiry and Interview is that Contextual Inquiryfocuses more on observing the task and less on discussing how it is done.Contextual Inquiry
  13. 13. How many people are needed?Two people should be involved in any site visits, if possible. It is not possible tocapture all the available information, but using two people maximizes the datareturned.At least two people should be involved in analyzing the data.Contextual Inquiry
  14. 14. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• Planning• Conduct Contextual Inquiry• AnalysisContextual Inquiry
  15. 15. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• PlanningPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Identify appropriate users- Schedule your visits- Workplace & Legal issuesContextual Inquiry
  16. 16. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• Planning- Schedule your visits- Workplace & Legal issuesPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Identify appropriate users> To get the most out of contextual enquiry, you need to make sureyou visit the right people> Avoid non-representative users> Identify major user groups> Try to visit at least 3 or 4 individuals within each major user groupContextual Inquiry
  17. 17. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• Planning- Workplace & Legal issuesPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Identify appropriate users- Schedule your visits> Site visits require intensive concentration and can be very tiring> Having two people also makes data analysis easier> Re-confirm appointments the day before each visitContextual Inquiry
  18. 18. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• PlanningPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Identify appropriate users- Schedule your visits- Workplace & Legal issues> Get approval from the management> If youll be listening in on telephone calls (for example, in a call centre)you will probably be legally obliged to let callers know that their callsare being monitored> If you are visiting minors, you will need to get permission from parentsor guardiansContextual Inquiry
  19. 19. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• Conduct Contextual Inquiry- Learn about the users and their tasks- Observe how user accomplishes tasks- Observe the physical environment- Observe the social environmentPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Learn about the users values, issues and preferences- Note down your learning and observations- Send thank you letters to the users- Pay particular attention to interruptions to the flow of workContextual Inquiry
  20. 20. Stages of Contextual Inquiry• Analysis- Enter your notes in an electronic format with the lowest possible granularity- Identify the tasks that were carried out- Make a list of things users explicitly requested, or that you noticed wouldhave helped him- Consider using affinity diagramming to group all related activitiesPlanning | Conduct Contextual Inquiry | Analysis- Avoid unsupported conclusions- Be prepared to contact users by phone to verify any observations which are doubtful- Attach the raw data – notes, pictures or artifacts, summaries you made ofresponses, etc.Contextual Inquiry
  21. 21. Guidelines for Conducting Contextual Inquiry• Remember that the purpose of site visits is to learn from your users.• Try to minimize disruption. However, try not to accept a time-slot that will notenable you to see the work being done in a typical fashion.• Avoid preconceptions about the users and their tasks.• Ensure that you do not give negative signals to the users, either verbally or byyour body language.•If you don’t understand something, or if something happened too quickly,you may ask the person we are visiting to repeat or explain.Ask questions at appropriate times. For example, do not interrupt telephoneor other conversations, but keep questions until the end.Contextual Inquiry
  22. 22. • Do not prompt users to carry out tasks differently, or in an order other than theone they use normally.• Do not rely on users recollection of how they carry out tasks. Instead, askthem to carry out the actual tasks while you are on site.• Be respectful of your users, their employers and colleagues.• Be flexible. It is common to arrive on site to find that users expectations do notmatch your plan, no matter how much effort you may have put intocommunicating your requirements. Be prepared to make the most of availableresources.Guidelines for Conducting Contextual InquiryContextual Inquiry
  23. 23. Site visit materialsWhen carrying out site visits, you will need the following materials:•A list of representative users. Include both expert and novice users in yourvisits.•Logging sheets. Expect to make copious notes. You may consider audio- orvideo-recording; however the unpredictable nature of the activity often makesthis difficult.Contextual Inquiry
  24. 24. References Inquiry
  25. 25. Contextual InquiryThank You