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  2. 2. WHERE HAS THIS COME FROMFestival Design DNA is a project produced by Snook for festivalslab. It is both a set of practical tools and an exciting new conversation about what happens when cultural professionals and organisationsstart to think like designers and work to make the experiences they create better from a person-centred point of view. festivalslab or the Edinburgh Festivals Innovation Lab works with and for the twelve Edinburgh Festivals on how to use new thinkingand new tools to the experience of the world’s festival city even better for audiences, creative talent and festival organisations. Snook is a Glasgow-based service design and social innovation agency focusing on transforming the way services are delivered in Scotland, ensuring people come first.
  3. 3. STAGE TWO: DEFINEEstablishing opportunities/problems: Rapid Prototyping:This stage is about taking all the research you’ve This stage is about quickly mocking up some of thedone in the discovery stage and making sense of it. ideas you’ve been working on to bring them to lifeYou will be able to define problems or opportunities to help communicate the project and develop yourto take forward when generating ideas. thinking.Define Outcomes: Evaluate Prototype:This stage is about taking what you know and This stage is about quickly mocking up some of thedeciding where you are going to take the work. Is ideas you’ve been working on to bring them to lifethis about service improvement? A new service or to help communicate the project and develop yourproduct? thinking.Co-design Testing: Laying out your idea options:Co-design is an integral part of the design process. This stage is about looking at all the ideas you’veUse this stage to work with people to generate ideas got and making decisions on how to move forward.and test some of your definition work.
  4. 4. DEFINE “WE WORKED WITH CUSTOMERS TO MAPCUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP THEIR JOURNEYS FROM THEIR HOMES TO THE SHOW, IT SHOWED US NUMEROUS PAINCustomer journey mapping USE ME TO:(or sometimes referred toas user journey mapping, POINTS” • Gain user insightsor just journey mapping) is • Discover latent needsabout capturing a customer’s • Evaluate existing servicesexperience of a service on • Communicate new ideaspaper. It breaks down theexperience step by step byrecording interactions with YOU WILL NEED:touchpoints (ticket machines, • A long sheet of paper (or a websites, staff, waiting areas). journey map template) • Post its & pensMost importantly, it considers • Red & green for positive & how the customer feels at negative experienceseach stage of the journey. Thisallows you to analyse whatareas of the service might needimproved.Customer journey mapping canbe done using personas and‘walking’ the personas throughthe service. An even betterway to map a journey is withthe customer themselves. Byasking them what they did andhow they felt, you gain a richinsight into their experience.
  5. 5. CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPStart by thinking about all of the places that your customer visits, all of the elements of the service that they come into contact with. It’s sometimes easier to start in the middle of the story and work backwardsand forwards, drawing each stage. Think about the emotions that your customer experiences at each stage of their journey, pinpiont these on top of your drawings against the + and - signs e.g. “frustrated”“confused” “excited” Link these together to show the emotional journey undertaken. Take this completed tool on to help you with a P.O.P.I. excercise. FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  6. 6. DEFINEPERSONA “WE MADE CHARACTERS OF OUR FESTIVAL CUSTOMERS TO USE ME TO: HELP US UNDERSTAND THEIRPersonas are based on fictionalcharacters whose profilesummarises the features • Inspire and inform new of an existing social group.This means the personas ideas • Synthesise user NEEDS”assume the attributes of the personalities into categoriesgroups they represent: from • Maintain a customer their social and demographic centred processcharacteristics, to their own • Test new ideas against needs, desires, habits and realitycultural backgrounds. Theyare designed to help you see afestival experience from lots of YOU WILL NEED:different perspectives. • To observe users • Customer insight The tool will prompt you to give informationthe persona a name, a photo, • To get this information you age, occupation and tell their will to conduct interviews, background story. talk to customers/staff, use quantitative information to The persona should tell us create customer segmentswhat that person does day today, what does their life looklike, what are their personalitytraits? Use a key quote to sumup that person’s thinking, thismakes a persona quick andeasy to understand.
  7. 7. PERSONA Fill in the blanks:Image / portrait / sketch NAME AGE DRAW HERE OCCUPATION / BACKGROUNDS CHARACTERISTICS“ MOST LIKELY TO ” LEAST LIKELY TOWhy would they attend your festival?What would they say? FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  8. 8. DEFINEUSER VALUES - BREAKING DOWN FINDINGS AND NEEDS MORE “LISTING USER VALUES PUT OUR IDEAS INTO PERSPECTIVE”User values is as literal as it USE ME TO:sounds. At its most basic,it is designed to help you • Create meaningful service in understanding what your experiencescustomers values, generally or • Understand usersfrom your service as a whole.These insights can be gathered YOU WILL NEED:through interviews using • Pre-made templates of generative pre-made values. hypothetical values • Space to talk to userTest these with users, place • Capturing device (camera/them in order of importance post its)and include some blank • Media Portraittemplates so customers canhave their own say and feelinvolved in the process.
  9. 9. USER VALUESUser values is all about understanding what your customers value. These insights can begathered through interviews using generative pre-made values. Test these with users, place themin order of importance and include some blank templates so customers can have their own sayand feel involved in the process. Use the spaces below to write the values that you would like to test your users with, remembering to keep some blank for them to fill in themselves. Cut out! er emb raph Rem otog er h to p the ord cord puts d re ch user as an ea in, that values erson r thei as the p . well selves the m FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  10. 10. DEFINEMEDIA PORTRAITPictures speak louder than USE ME TO:words. • Converge research about A media portrait is a collection usersof images on a page that • Explain user needs to depicts a user’s life. Using stakeholdersmedia portraits communicatesvery quickly what a user’s lifelooks like. YOU WILL NEED: • Media collected from These ‘portraits’ can be used researchthroughout the development • Magazinesprocess to keep the project • Pen & Paperteam focused on designing for • Gluethe user.Media portraits can be builtup slowly over time as thediscovery period develops.Also, the project team can workon them as an exercise, pulling “HAVING VISUAL PORTRAITStogether media that has beencollected and using magazinesto create them. OF OUR CUSTOMERS REALLY BROUGHT THINGS TO LIFE”
  11. 11. MEDIA PORTRAITSPictures speak louder than words. A media portrait is a collection of images on a page thatdepicts a user’s life. Using media portraits communicates very quickly what a user’s life lookslike. These ‘portraits’ can be used throughout the development process to keep the projectteam focused on designing for people. Media portraits can be built up slowly over time as thediscovery period develops. Also, the project team can work on them as an exercise, pullingtogether media that has been collected and using magazines to create them. Build your media portrait on a board or piece of cardboard so that you can easily move it around and put it away at the end of a design session. Think ab friend out your u s and s ... family ers bbies ... nd ho life style a your users about Think acter eir char Think about th ... sonality Think about and per caree their w r... ork lif e and FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  12. 12. DEFINEP.O.P.I. (PROBLEMS/OPPORTUNITY/PRINCIPLES/IDEAS)POPI is a framework for driving USE ME TO:the development process. • Tell a story about how your POPI enables you to work work evolvedthrough insights and research • Drive forward a projectto create principle statements. • See the big picture • Create well crafted principle Ideally, this can be used as statements a framework to discover anddefine stages of a project andbe used as a point of reference. YOU WILL NEED:It is an activity to converge lots • A wallof research into a vision. • Some post its • People involved in your POPI can be used to lay project findings and ideas on a wallspace so coherent storiesand patterns can be easilyidentified. “WHERE DO WE FOCUS OUR EFFORTS ON DEVELOPING THE FESTIVAL EXPERIENCE?”
  13. 13. P.O.P.I.POPI enables you to work through insights and research to create principle statements.Ideally, this can be used as a framework to discover and define stages of a project and be used as a point of reference. It is an activity toconverge research into a vision. POPI can be used to lay findings and ideas on a wall space so coherent stories and patterns can be easilyidentified. PROBLEMS OPORTUNITIES PRINCIPLES IDEAS FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  14. 14. DEFINEPRINCIPLE STATEMENTS “GOOD SERVICE DESIGN PRINCIPLES ARE LIKE USE ME TO: MINIATURE, ROBUST, FLEXIBLECreating principle statementsis designing a criteria for thefunctions a design or project • Guide the development BRIEFS”needs to fulfil. processPrinciple statements can be • Synthesise findingscreated at different stages in the • Delve deeperdevelopment but are a good wayto move forward after synthesisingproblems and opportunities and YOU WILL NEED:conducting further reasoning intothe issues. Principles are usually • The project teamcommunicated in short sentences • Post its & pensor even one word which can befollowed by a longer description.Principles are created to provokemore discussion and should bekept creative.Think of them as what a usermight say after using your service.For example your principles maybe, ‘easy to use’, ‘bespoke’,‘flexible’, ‘personalising yourexperience’. You might wantsomeone to say, “The servicewas really easy to use, it gave meflexibility to build my own festivalitinerary and create a personalisedexperience.”
  15. 15. PRINCIPLE STATEMENTSCreating principle statements is designing a criteria for the functions a design needs to fulfil.Principle statements can be created at different stages in development but are a good way tomove forward after synthesising problems and opportunities and conducting further reasoninginto the issues. Create your principles as short phrases or one-word statements, these can be supported by explanatory sentences. them cut in, hem ese t Fi ll th d have he a n dt e out you an you ar p ne ar ne evelo whw o d team inuing t idea. t con service ant to he r t you ight w before m You it these e. s g revi ery sta de liv FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  16. 16. DEFINECLUSTERINGClustering is a very useful and USE ME TO:often essential tool to useafter a group ‘idea generation’ • Group ideassession. • Structure your project • Divide tasksThe outcome of these activities • Make sense of idea is often a vast amount of generationpossible ideas and directions.It is really useful to group YOU WILL NEED:together ideas by commonthemes, consistencies or • A large wallimportant relationships. • Post its for headings/titles • Camera to capture the This method can begin to processstructure the next steps of aproject, begin to divide tasksand can eliminate the roleof one person taking chargeof the group as everyone’sideas cluster together. Forexample, you may cluster yourresearch under themes such as “WE HAD SO MANY THOUGHTS THAT‘accessibility’ or ‘venue’. WRITING THEM ONTO POST ITS AND CLUSTERING HELPED US TO FIND PATTERNS”
  17. 17. CLUSTERINGClustering is a very useful and often essential tool to use after a group ‘idea generation’ sessionor to help you cluster themes, especially when this includes a lot of reserach. The outcome ofthese activities is often a vast amount of possible ideas and directions. It is really useful to grouptogether ideas by common themes, consistencies or important relationships. Think about grouping by actions to be taken, things still to find out, ideas to develop, principle ideas and statements. Find the biggest wall you can, and spread your ideas across it. that e sure raph Mak hotog e p r you rs befo ff t e clus as o y our the ide these ng d taki all. Ad ur w o the es to y g . ima ct blog e proj FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  18. 18. DEFINEBRAINSTORM “BRAINSTORMING ALL OUR IDEAS TO IMPROVE OUR USE ME TO: FESTIVAL WAS EXCITING”A brainstorm exercise iswhen everyone in the room isencouraged to add ideas onto • Come up with ideaseither a wall or paper. The best • Include everyone in the projectway to do this is to use post its toadd a small sketch or title of anidea. The purpose is to allow anallocated time to come up with YOU WILL NEED:as many ideas as possible. This • Pens & post itsrequires a few basic rules. • A large sheet of paper or a wall1. Set a timer and stick to it.Depending on the circumstancesyou might want to do short burstsof 1 to 5 minutes. You may wantto give an hour.2. Everyone must contribute.3. Draw in chunky pens (thismeans everyone can read it).4. Every idea counts (no matterhow eccentric).Even if an idea is about a flyingpig that takes your customersfrom one venue to another, it stillcounts. Returning to ideas likethis can uncover those nuggets ofbrilliance!
  19. 19. BRAINSTORM IDEASA brainstorm exercise is when everyone in the room is encouraged to add ideas onto either a wallor paper. The best way to do this is to use post its to add a small sketch or title of an idea. Thepurpose is to allow an allocated time to come up with as many ideas as possible. This requires afew basic rules. Set a timer and stick to it. Depending on the circumstances you might want to do short bursts of 1 to 5 minutes. You may want to give an hour. Everyone must contribute. Draw in chunky pens (this means everyone can read it) Every idea counts ( no matter how silly ) get y to our t wa y A grea ps and to u is ays r gro -up you wrmed ed 50 w ind call Give ow n m ercise emon. arge ex al ,al as d o an ueeze inutes quickly q to s ves 5 m and as ays rsel er 0w you t of pap alise 5 n - the e u she an, vis a lemo c e e you squeez nventiv to e i r. mor e bette th FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  20. 20. DEFINEIDEA VOTINGEver been caught in an USE ME TO:argument over which idea isthe best? • Choose a route forward • Overcome barriersFinding it hard to get the groupto move forward and choosean idea or principle to take on? YOU WILL NEED: • A pack of sticky dotsSticky dots is a way of quicklyand efficiently making a moveforward. It is a democratic wayof decision making.Take 3 dots each and chooseyour three favourite ideas. Atthe end, take forward the ideawith the most votes.The likelihood is that you willreturn to other ideas as theproject develops,REMEMBER! “TO REMOVE ARGUMENT WEDon’t be too precious! VOTED WITH DOTS. SIMPLE DECISION MAKING”
  21. 21. IDEA VOTINGEver been caught in an argument over which idea is the best? Finding it hard to get the group tomove forward and choose an idea or principle to take on? Sticky dots is a way of quickly andefficiently making a move forward. It is a democratic way of decision making. Take 3 dots eachand choose your three favourite ideas. At the end, take forward the idea with the most votes. Find the biggest wall you can, and spread your ideas across it, giving yourself room to move them around. that e sure raph Mak hotog e p r you rs befo ff t e clus as o y our the ide these ng d taki all. Ad ur w o the es to y g . ima ct blog e proj FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  22. 22. DEFINE EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOLNEWSLETTER “WE USED A SIMPLE NEWSLETTER TO COMMUNICATE USE ME TO: OUR PROJECT UPDATES”A newsletter is a great wayto communicate your projectto internal colleagues and • Tell the story of your work to external, interested parties! the rest of the world • Inspire and excite others Always remember, the to explore the design like purpose of a newsletter is to approach you are usingcommunicate, not to see howmany times you can sendreaders scrambling to find a YOU WILL NEED:dictionary. • Any publishing softwarePeople like stories. Tell thestory of what you are doing,why you are doing it and whatyou are learning and don’tover-complicate it. Keep yourwriting casual, nontechnicaland conversational.
  23. 23. DEFINE EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOL “IT WAS JUST AMAZING HAVINGCO-DESIGN SESSION CUSTOMERS, STAFF, ORGANISATIONSA co-design session is a USE ME TO: DESIGNING TOGETHER AROUND ONEfantastic opportunity toinvolve a range of different • Explore potential directions TABLE””stakeholders in the design for your ideaprocess itself. • Gain inspiration • Create a sense of shared Co-design is a core aspect of ownership around this the service design philosophy. processIt can involve anyone fromstaff, designers, customers andexecutives. YOU WILL NEED:Together, you’ll work • A spacecollaboratively to examine and • An invitationinnovate ideas. • A structured agenda • Paper & PensTry putting on a workshop • Post itsto bring people together and • Generative toolsgenerate ideas to some of your • Recording equipmentproblems or insights.
  24. 24. DEFINE EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOL “WE BOOKED A SIMPLE VENUE AND LET OUR SLIDES TO THESHOWCASE EVENT TALKING”Holding an event is a great way USE ME TO:to get people on board withyour project. • Gain feedback on your work so farInvite a range of speakers to • Focus the future direction of talk about the issue you’re your worksolving, or topic you’refocusing on and showcase thework you’ve done to date. YOU WILL NEED:You can also use this event to • An invitationraise funding, grow your critical • A venuefriends and network for the • A range of finished and project. incomplete aspects of your process to show offYou’ll also get good feedback • A short presentation of your on the work so far. Try to keep process (optional)a record of all the questionsyou are asked and visitthese when the project teamreconvenes.Use something simplelike Eventbrite to send outinvitations, and write acompelling description aboutthe event to entice people tocome along.
  25. 25. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXITWRITE A BRIEF (DEFINE)At this stage, after definingproblems in the festival USE ME TO:experience, or opportunities to be • Succinctly communicate your innovative, you may want to write projecta brief to bring other professionals • Reflect on your work and in to help you work up solutions. processA brief is used to outline the aims, • Extend the networks who are objectives and milestones of your interested in your workproject.Writing a brief can be a difficult YOU WILL NEED:challenge, it’s important you callon expertise when necessary. A • Any publishing softwaregood brief should outline whatyou have found out, a summary ofyour research and what steps youwould like to take forward. Keepthe brief fairly open at this stage. “WE PUT OUT A BRIEF FOR PEOPLE TOYou may want to include yourslide deck of findings to askcompanies to develop responsesto the brief before hiring a teamto go into the development RESPOND TO USING THEMES WE HADstage. This brief is more aboutthe early idea stage leading into PULLED TOGETHER DURING THEdevelopment than producing thefinal products for the deliverystage. DEFINITION STAGE”
  26. 26. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXITSLIDEDECK OF FINDINGSA Slidedeck of findings is ideal USE ME TO:to present back what you foundduring the discovery phase. • Share your findings. • Get buy in for the definition Try to not use Powerpoint, and stageavoid lots of words. What youwant to do is show a visually YOU WILL NEED:compelling story, bringingtogether what you found out • Slideshare if you want to and the faces behind this publish the findings onlineresearch. • A projector & suitable roomUse the visual material yougenerated, people will be ableto relate with it much morethan bullet points or a standardreport. “OUR SLIDE DECK WAS IDEAL TO COMMUNICATE THE RESEARCH WE HAD DONE WITH PARTNERS”
  27. 27. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXITEVALUATE AND MEASURE “GETTING AN EVALUATOR IN WAS CRUCIAL TO GET SOMEEvaluation can be done here in USE ME TO:several different ways. • Prove what you are doing is NUMBERS BEHIND OUR IDEAS”It might be useful at this stage rightto evaluate the approachyou’ve taken. YOU WILL NEED:Does the way you’ve doneresearch tell you more than • A survey to collect dataprevious ways of conducting • A professional evaluator market or customer research? (recommended)You could also evaluate andbring professionals in to lookat the potential impact of yourideas that you are thinking totaking forward.This may help you to choose ifthere are multiple ideas to goforward with.Contrasting and comparingimpact versus cost is a goodway to move forward whenfaced with many ideas.
  28. 28. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXIT “WE PUT ALL OUR IDEAS INTO ONEIDEAS OPTIONS BOOK BOOK AND SHARED WITH OTHERAn idea options book is a USE ME TO: ORGANISATIONS BEFORE MOVINGdocument that can be sharedin your organisation or betweenstakeholders involved in the • Showcase your ideas FORWARD” • Reflect on your work and project to get further buy in and processcommunicate work to date. • Extend the networks who are interested in your workIt is valuable to keep peopleinformed on what you are planningso there is no ‘re-invention’ of thewheel and relevant parties can get YOU WILL NEED:involved with your project from • A process and work to date to other organisations. fill the book with • An idea of the people you The book should be kept simple; want to share the content withgive it an introduction, includelist of who is involved in theproject and brief descriptions andvisuals of ideas you have beendiscussing.You can create a formal,professional version on onlinesoftware such as oryou can design and print one yourown using publishing softwaresuch as Microsoft word.Try to prototype and experimentideas for your book with paperand pens first.
  29. 29. A process to help you converge what you found during the discovery stage. This will help you highlight a direction to move forward in. Includes; Customer Journey Map Persona User Values Media Portrait P.O.P.I Principle Statements Clustering Brainstorm Idea Voting Newsletter Co-Design Session Showcase Event Brief Slidedeck Evaluate & Measure Idea Options Book find out more at FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA An initiative of Edinburgh’s Festivals