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Multistakeholder Consultation on MCRB’s Child
Rights and Business Briefing Paper
6 December 2016
Rose Garden Hotel, Yangon
Current core funders:
• UK DFID
• DANIDA
• Norway
• Switzerland
• Netherlands
• Ireland
www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.or...
Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
focusses on these elements:
Compliance
i.e. obeying
the law
ဥပေဒကိုေလးစား
လိုက္နာျ...
MCRB publications
and translations
www.mcrb.org.mm
myanmar.responsible.business
Agenda
• Introductions – your role and interest in child rights and business
• Presentation on the Principles and the Brie...
The Children’s Rights and Business Principles
 The CRBP were developed in 2012 by UNICEF, SAVE, and the UN Global Compact...
1. Meet their responsibility to respect children’s rights
and commit to supporting the human rights of
children
2. Contrib...
Principle 1
‘All businesses should meet their responsibility to respect children’s rights and commit to
supporting the hum...
1993 Child Law (under revision) vs. CRC
 Child Law defines children as under 16; CRC as under 18.
 Minimum age of crimin...
Principle 1 – Recommendations to business
 Low birth registration, especially in remote areas, means that it may be diffi...
Principle 2
‘All businesses should contribute to the elimination of child labour, including in all business activities and...
Child Labour cont’d (Pr. 2) – ILO Myanmar reports
 As is the norm, household poverty the main driver of child labour; chi...
Myanmar initiatives to combat child labour
 Child labour recognized as problem by government; local and international NGO...
Myanmar initiatives to combat child labour continued
 UNICEF working to develop child protection services (Department of ...
Recommendations to companies on child labour
 Ensure due diligence on child labour within operations and also in supply c...
Principle 3
‘Provide decent work for young workers, parents, and caregivers.’
 ‘Young workers’ – children above legal min...
Principle 3 continued – young workers
 Children aged 14 and over are legally permitted to work in shops, establishments, ...
Principle 3 continued – working parents and caregivers
 The current social protection system is very limited, so working ...
Principle 3 – recommendations for companies
 Ensure young workers have adequate health and safety protection.
 Ensure th...
Principle 4 – Protection and safety of children in
business activities
‘All business should ensure the protection and safe...
Principle 4 cont’d – orphanage tourism/ ‘voluntourism’
 Businesses could negatively impact children through its relations...
Principle 4 – Recommendations to companies
 Establish a child protection policy which stipulates zero tolerance for viole...
Principle 5 – Safe products and Services
‘All business should ensure that products and services are safe, and seek to supp...
Principle 5 cont’d
 There is a risk of social media such as Facebook being used as a tool to lure underage Myanmar girls
...
Principle 5 – Recommendations to companies
 Conduct adequate research and testing to ensure that products and services ar...
Principle 6 – Marketing and Advertising
‘All business should use marketing and advertising that respect and support childr...
Principle 6 – Recommendations to companies
• Abide by the WHO Recommendations on the marketing of food and non-alcoholic p...
Principle 7 – children, environment, and land
‘All business should respect and support children’s rights in relation to th...
Principle 7 continued
 Land loss disrupts family livelihoods, as 70% of population is rural, mostly dependent on land for...
Principle 7 continued
 Myanmar is vulnerable to climate change and has a low capacity to manage climate risks.
 Potentia...
Principle 7 – recommendations to companies
 Avoid, or if avoidance is not possible, minimize land acquisition and use.
 ...
Principle 8 - Security
‘All business should respect and support children’s rights in security arrangements.’
 Both the na...
Security concerns around private sector operations
 Aside from internal armed conflict, the security of children can be a...
Principle 8 – Recommendations to companies
 Ensure that no children are recruited or used in security arrangements.
 Ens...
Principle 9 – children affected by emergencies
‘All business should help protect children affected by emergencies.’
 Myan...
Principle 9 continued
 Governments and development partners have the primary responsibility to provide humanitarian
assis...
Principle 9 – Recommendations to companies
 Do not discriminate against any ethnic or religious group when donating goods...
Principle 10 – Reinforcing community and government
efforts
‘Reinforce community and government efforts to protect and ful...
Principle 10 – Recommendations to Business
 Pay all taxes, royalties, duties and other payments; consider disclosing the ...
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Multistakeholder Consultation on MCRB’s Child Rights and Business Briefing Paper

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On 6 December 2016, MCRB held a consultation in Yangon to receive feedback and engage in discussion on the draft Children’s Rights and Business Briefing paper which will be published next year.

Read more: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/consultation-childrens-rights-and-business-briefing-paper.html

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Multistakeholder Consultation on MCRB’s Child Rights and Business Briefing Paper

  1. 1. Multistakeholder Consultation on MCRB’s Child Rights and Business Briefing Paper 6 December 2016 Rose Garden Hotel, Yangon
  2. 2. Current core funders: • UK DFID • DANIDA • Norway • Switzerland • Netherlands • Ireland www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org 15 Shan Yeiktha Street, Sanchaung, Yangon Tel/Fax: 01 510069 Founders: MCRB Objective To provide an effective and legitimate platform for the creation of knowledge, capacity and dialogue concerning responsible business in Myanmar, based on local needs and international standards, that results in more responsible business practices. ပို၍တာဝန္ယူမႈရွိေသာ စီပြားေရးအေလ့အက်င့္မ်ား ျဖစ္ထြန္းလာေစရန္၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာအဆင့္အတန္းမ်ား၊ ေဒသလိုအပ္ခ်က္မ်ားအေပၚမူတည္၍ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၌ တာဝန္ယူမႈရွိေသာ အသိပညာ၊ စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ႏွင့္ စကားဝိုင္းမ်ား ျဖစ္ေပၚလာေစရန္အတြက္ ထိေရာက္ေသာ တရားဝင္ အခင္းအက်ဥ္းတစ္ခု ပံ့ပိုးေပးရန္။ MCRB defines ‘responsible business’ as ‘business activities that work for the long-term interests of Myanmar and all its people’. MCRB ၏အဓိပၸါယ္ဖြင့္ဆိုခ်က္ “ျမန္မာျပည္သူျပည္သားမ်ား၏ ေရရွည္အက်ိဳးစီးပြားမ်ား အတြက္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေသာစီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား”
  3. 3. Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business focusses on these elements: Compliance i.e. obeying the law ဥပေဒကိုေလးစား လိုက္နာျခင္း Social Performance လူမႈ႔ေရးဆိုင္ရာေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ား Creating Shared Value အက်ိဳးအျမတ္ခြဲေဝအသံုုးခ်ျခင္း Sustainability ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခုိင္ၿမဲျခင္း Philanthropy ပရဟိတမ်ားလုပ္ေဆာင္ျခင္း Sponsorship ေငြေၾကးမ်ားေထာက္ပံ့ေပးျခင္း Disaster relief သဘာဝေဘးအႏၱရာယ္ဆိုင္ရာ လုပ္ ေဆာင္ခ်က္မ်ား Which part is ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ (CSR)? Where are potential human rights impacts? Responsible Business Conduct တာဝန္ယူမႈရိွေသာစီးပြားေရးလုပ္ ငန္း၏လုပ္ေဆာင္ရမည္႔လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား Social or community investment or contribution လူမႈေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအတြက္ ရင္းႏွီးျမဳပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ားလုပ္ျခင္း
  4. 4. MCRB publications and translations www.mcrb.org.mm myanmar.responsible.business
  5. 5. Agenda • Introductions – your role and interest in child rights and business • Presentation on the Principles and the Briefing Paper • Your input sought - principle by principle -Facts correct? Updates? -Recommendations correct? additional? -‘Linked Initiatives’ paper • Deadline for comments 31 January 2017
  6. 6. The Children’s Rights and Business Principles  The CRBP were developed in 2012 by UNICEF, SAVE, and the UN Global Compact.  The CRBP are comprehensive and address all aspects of the intersection of children and business, not just child labour.  They are based on international law and standards, including the CRC, ILO Conventions, and WHO standards.  We took the Principles as our organizing structure for this paper because they are a relevant guide for all businesses in their interactions with children.  The CRBP provide recommendations to companies on both respecting children’s rights and supporting them.  With the exception of Principle 10, we only focus on how companies can respect children’s rights.
  7. 7. 1. Meet their responsibility to respect children’s rights and commit to supporting the human rights of children 2. Contribute to the elimination of child labour, including in all business activities and business relationships 3. Provide decent work for young workers, parents and caregivers 4. Ensure the protection and safety of children in all business activities and facilities 5. Ensure that products and services are safe, and seek to support children’s rights through them 6. Use marketing and advertising that respect and support children’s rights 7. Respect and support children’s rights in relation to the environment and to land acquisition and use 8. Respect and support children’s rights in security arrangements 9. Help protect children affected by emergencies 10. Reinforce community and government efforts to protect and fulfil children’s rights The Children’s Rights and Business Principles
  8. 8. Principle 1 ‘All businesses should meet their responsibility to respect children’s rights and commit to supporting the human rights of children’.  For decades children in Myanmar (34% of the population) have been denied many CRC rights due to longstanding poverty, lack of education, ongoing armed conflict, and inadequate health care. Four General Principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)  The right to non-discrimination.  The best interests of the child.  The right to life, survival, and development.  The right of the child to be heard.
  9. 9. 1993 Child Law (under revision) vs. CRC  Child Law defines children as under 16; CRC as under 18.  Minimum age of criminal responsibility is 7 years; CRC is minimum 12 years.  No specific age for marriage.  No specific prohibition of corporal punishment.  These deficiencies reflected in Myanmar society, including business.
  10. 10. Principle 1 – Recommendations to business  Low birth registration, especially in remote areas, means that it may be difficult for employers to verify ages of potential workers.  In interactions with, and impacts on children, businesses should consider a rights-based approach, rather than just a charitable or needs-based one.  Guard against discrimination against children belonging to ethnic or religious minorities.  Consider that impacts of poverty, poor health and education, make children more vulnerable to exploitation.
  11. 11. Principle 2 ‘All businesses should contribute to the elimination of child labour, including in all business activities and relationships.’  Working children (permissible areas of work) vs. child labour.  CL – under the legal minimum working age; over legal age but under 18, working in conditions in contravention of international treaties, especially slavery-like practices; hazardous work; other worst forms of child labour ( for example forced labour, trafficking etc - ILO C 182).  In Myanmar 10.5% of children between 5 – 17 are working; 9.3% of children in child labour (Labour Force Survey).  60.5% in agriculture, fishing, forestry; 12% manufacturing; 11% trade; 6% other services. 80% working children live in rural areas.  MCRB SWIA findings – child labour in ICT (tower and trench construction); tourism (guides, hotels, selling items); mining (small scale mining, exposure to dangerous chemicals, cyanide etc.); mining sites dangerous to children.
  12. 12. Child Labour cont’d (Pr. 2) – ILO Myanmar reports  As is the norm, household poverty the main driver of child labour; children working to support their families.  Societal attitudes - child labour seen as an antidote to household poverty.  Children often have a strong sense of obligation to work; the vast majority stop education to do so.  Myanmar employers often believe they are helping poor families by employing their children.  Many children working in informal sector, not regulated by Labour Inspectorate.
  13. 13. Myanmar initiatives to combat child labour  Child labour recognized as problem by government; local and international NGOs; the ILO, UNICEF and other IGOs.  Businesses can work through and with:  ILO MyPEC (Myanmar Program on the Elimination of Child Labour) aims to expand knowledge base (field research, pilot projects); improve legal and institutional environment; improve stakeholders’ capacity to coordinate, network and advocate for elimination of child labour.  MyPEC training labour inspectors and police on how to conduct CL inspections in workplace.  ILO recommendation - employer organizations to advocate for CL elimination through tripartite mechanism of government, employers; and trade unions.  ILO recommendation - trade unions to monitor CL in the workplace.
  14. 14. Myanmar initiatives to combat child labour continued  UNICEF working to develop child protection services (Department of Social Welfare) – case workers being trained to detect and refer children found in abusive situations including CL.  UNICEF and ILO working to reform labour laws on the eradication of CL.  ILO – Child Labour Platform – to work on child labour in supply chains; develop practical ways to overcome obstacles; collective action.  Members – multinationals and others who meet to address issues, for example CL in teashops and urban areas.  CL Technical Working Group – Minister of Labour chairs, involvement of other ministries, workers and employers organizations; civil society.  Aims of Working Group – establish a list of hazardous work prohibited to all under-18s; develop a National Plan of Action on Child Labour.
  15. 15. Recommendations to companies on child labour  Ensure due diligence on child labour within operations and also in supply chains and business relationships.  Where possible, take part in collaborative efforts mentioned above.  Given the gaps in Myanmar legal framework, use international law and standards (ILO Conventions, CRC) to establish appropriate age limits.  Don’t rely only on authorities to identify and address child labour; reach out to child rights NGOs.
  16. 16. Principle 3 ‘Provide decent work for young workers, parents, and caregivers.’  ‘Young workers’ – children above legal minimum working age but under 18, not involved in the worst forms of child labour including hazardous work.  Young workers between 15 – 17 constitute 75% of all working children.  Almost 75% of those in hazardous child labour are between 15 – 17.  An Occupational Health and Safety Law is drafted but not yet submitted to Parliament – it should recognize the special H+S protections for young workers in some occupations.
  17. 17. Principle 3 continued – young workers  Children aged 14 and over are legally permitted to work in shops, establishments, and factories.  However children between 14 and 15 shouldn’t work more than four hours/day or engage in night work.  But many children work in the informal sector.  The government is now drafting the Technical and Vocational Education Law.  The 2013 Employment and Skills Development Law does not include a minimum age (which should be 14 years) or conditions for training.
  18. 18. Principle 3 continued – working parents and caregivers  The current social protection system is very limited, so working parents engage in different coping strategies –  These can include parents working in informal sector or pushing their children into child labour situations.  In 2016 Myanmar adopted a National Social Protection Strategic Plan, which will include cash allowances for pregnant women, children under 2 years and between 3-15 years; school feeding programs etc. (UNICEF).  How this will be implemented and how it will be funded remains to be seen.  Women have the right to 14 weeks’ maternity leave and the right to free medical care for pregnancy and birth.  However as of January 2015 only 1.5% of the population was covered by the social security scheme.  And many women work in the informal sector, so not covered under 2012 Social Security Law or the Leave and Holiday Act.
  19. 19. Principle 3 – recommendations for companies  Ensure young workers have adequate health and safety protection.  Ensure they are not subjected to harassment, bullying or exploitation because of their age.  Remove young workers from hazardous work, and provide them with other employment.  Encourage participation of young workers in workers organizations and social dialogue.  Establish family-friendly workplaces by paying a living wage, providing childcare facilities for working parents and adequate protection for pregnant and breastfeeding workers.
  20. 20. Principle 4 – Protection and safety of children in business activities ‘All business should ensure the protection and safety of children in all business activities and facilities.’  Company premises in high-risk sectors such as construction sites or mines are unsafe for children, and may be unsafe for surrounding communities.  MCRB research found that children play in and around mines. Families expressed concerns about their children’s safety due to heavy traffic, rocks falling from trucks, exposure to dust.  Company personnel can employ domestic workers who could be underage girls and may be subjected to abuse and exploitation. Risks include long working hours, substandard accommodation, inadequate food, beatings and mental abuse.  Domestic workers are not protected by a specific law and prosecutions of abusive employers are rare.
  21. 21. Principle 4 cont’d – orphanage tourism/ ‘voluntourism’  Businesses could negatively impact children through its relationships with so-called orphanage tourism, where tourists visit an orphanage for a few hours or pay money to volunteer at an orphanage.  In Myanmar there has been an increase in children living in orphanages.  Anecdotal evidence indicates that there is a growing demand by foreign tourists to visit orphanages or monastic schools, or volunteer there for a few months.  MCRB’s research on the tourism sector showed that these foreign tourists do not undergo background checks.  While most tourists’ intentions are good, there is a risk of children being exposed to paedophiles.  Also, children may suffer psychological damage when they bond with volunteers who then leave after a few months.  UNICEF is raising awareness about orphanage tourism with the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism and the tourism sector associations.
  22. 22. Principle 4 – Recommendations to companies  Establish a child protection policy which stipulates zero tolerance for violence, exploitation or abuse of children both inside and outside company premises.  Explain the policy to company staff – for example, office computers can’t be used for downloading illegal images, including child pornography. Even outside working hours employees are expected to abide by the policy.  In the tourism industry refrain from offering tourists visits and volunteering opportunities to orphanages and monastic schools.  If tourism businesses nevertheless offer such services, follow the International Voluntourism Guidelines for Commercial Tour Operators and ensure proper screening and background checks.
  23. 23. Principle 5 – Safe products and Services ‘All business should ensure that products and services are safe, and seek to support children’s rights through them.’  In Myanmar with a growing economy and a young population, there are significant opportunities for multinationals to invest in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG).  At the same time there is a lack of awareness among Myanmar consumers about food and drug safety and potential health impacts, although the Consumer Protection Association has begun educational programs.  The 2014 Consumer Protection Law guarantees safe products and services, including food, drugs and other commodities. But the law is considered weak and was drafted without public consultation.  Bans are planned for food products that do not have descriptions, instructions, and ingredients in Myanmar or English.  The Food and Drugs Authority conducts food safety education for the restaurant and food processing sectors.  With the health sector seriously underfunded, there is a lack of access to safe vaccinations and medicines for infants and children.
  24. 24. Principle 5 cont’d  There is a risk of social media such as Facebook being used as a tool to lure underage Myanmar girls for illegal trafficking, by establishing contacts with girls from poor regions who are then taken to China for forced marriages.  Research by various organizations shows that social media is being used for the dissemination of hate speech or cyber bullying, with children at particular risk.  Reports indicate that foreign tourists in Myanmar are using sex workers who are as young as 15, although hard data is not available.  Myanmar does not have explicit provisions requiring Internet Service Providers to report suspected child abuse images to law enforcement although child pornography is criminalized.
  25. 25. Principle 5 – Recommendations to companies  Conduct adequate research and testing to ensure that products and services are safe, in particular for children.  Multinational companies should offer expertise and systems to their Myanmar suppliers, contractors, and industry peers.  Tourism companies should sign and implement the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism.  For companies in the ICT sector, use and adopt UNICEF and ITU’s Guidance for Industry on Child Online Protection.
  26. 26. Principle 6 – Marketing and Advertising ‘All business should use marketing and advertising that respect and support children’s rights.’ • UNICEF reports that almost all Myanmar mothers breastfeed, but only 24% of babies are breastfed exclusively for six months as recommended by the WHO and UNICEF. • Cheaper Chinese infant formula products, which are often smuggled in and lack quality control, are increasingly popular. • In 2014 the Myanmar government incorporated the Order of Marketing of Formulated Food for Infant and and Young Child to support and protect breastfeeding and to ensure appropriate use of breast milk substitutes and monitor its marketing. • But according to SAVE, many formula companies and distributors continue to market their products in violations of the Order. • To promote breastfeeding, advertising of milk powder substitutes is banned at Myanmar government maternal health facilities, which are also prohibited from accepting samples of such. • There are also non-governmental initiatives to address unlawful marketing of infant formula.
  27. 27. Principle 6 – Recommendations to companies • Abide by the WHO Recommendations on the marketing of food and non-alcoholic products to children. • For companies producing, marketing or distributing breast milk substitutes, comply with the Myanmar Order. Ensure that their distributors are aware of the order and how to comply with it when marketing and selling breast milk substitutes.
  28. 28. Principle 7 – children, environment, and land ‘All business should respect and support children’s rights in relation to the environment and to land acquisition and use.’  Since the reform process began, widespread protest demonstrations against past land expropriations by the government, often for private sector development.  Legal regime covering land is archaic and complicated – the government is in the process of reform of land laws, but this will take time.  In the meantime, many land owners/users do not have proper documentation of their land rights, and many are landless.  Expropriation of land means that whole families and communities have been negatively affected by loss of their land.
  29. 29. Principle 7 continued  Land loss disrupts family livelihoods, as 70% of population is rural, mostly dependent on land for income.  If land or housing is sold or expropriated and families are resettled or have to move, schooling and access to health care is often disrupted.  Myanmar does not have a comprehensive resettlement law or regulations.  In practice families are often moved to new locations before public services are in place there.  If schooling is disrupted, children may start working to support their families.  If families lose their land with no compensation, children may be deprived of inheriting the only asset passed on from generation to generation.
  30. 30. Principle 7 continued  Myanmar is vulnerable to climate change and has a low capacity to manage climate risks.  Potential climate change impacts include sea level rise, loss of mangroves, higher incidence of droughts, loss of biodiversity and ecosystems such as wetlands, and loss of land resources.  According to UNICEF, heavily populated Ayeyarwaddy and Bago Regions pose highest level of risk to children in terms of hazard risk and impacts of climate change.  Natural disasters affect child safety and education by contributing to displacement, which may lead to trafficking of children, and their increased exposure to hazardous environments.  Myanmar environmental law and regulations do not have particular requirements to consider children’s vulnerabilities to pollution and toxicity.
  31. 31. Principle 7 – recommendations to companies  Avoid, or if avoidance is not possible, minimize land acquisition and use.  Use the mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimize, compensate/offset) and try to minimize impact on land.  Ensure land due diligence covers customary land and property inheritance laws for children, especially girls.  When displacements are unavoidable, apply international standards, including IFC Performance Standard 5 on Involuntary Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement. Relocated families and children should have adequate housing and access to basic services, including education.  For businesses with a significant environmental impact requiring an Initial Environmental Examination or Environmental Impact Assessment, consider direct and indirect impacts on on children.  Reduce contributions to emissions and climate change.
  32. 32. Principle 8 - Security ‘All business should respect and support children’s rights in security arrangements.’  Both the national army and ethnic minority armed opposition groups recruit and use child soldiers (one of the worst forms of child labour under ILO C 182).  Children are otherwise affected by internal armed conflict and resulting internal displacement of tens of thousands of families in northern Myanmar and Rakhine State.  Protracted internal displacement has placed children at risk of violence, abuse, and neglect, including sexual exploitation, trafficking and early marriage.
  33. 33. Security concerns around private sector operations  Aside from internal armed conflict, the security of children can be affected in the context of protests by local communities against company operations.  There have been some high profile cases of excessive use of force by the public security forces during such protests, which can affect the whole community including children.  The use of private security personnel by both Myanmar and foreign companies has increased as the economy has opened up economically.  There is no law in Myanmar covering private security, nor is there any government requirement for official licenses. However private security personnel are not permitted to be armed and can only carry batons.  Impacts that private security companies can have on children include recruiting under-18s as private security guards or through the actions of security guards with respect to children.
  34. 34. Principle 8 – Recommendations to companies  Ensure that no children are recruited or used in security arrangements.  Ensure that child abuse, including physical punishment or sexual abuse, is prohibited in any situation where security personnel come into contact with children.  For companies with larger security operations, consider requiring private security providers to become members of the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers. The Code commits them to respect the rights of children to be protected against the worst forms of child labour, and not to hire individuals under 18 years of age to carry out security services.
  35. 35. Principle 9 – children affected by emergencies ‘All business should help protect children affected by emergencies.’  Myanmar is prone to humanitarian emergencies due to longstanding internal armed conflict.  It is also prone to natural disasters, including cyclones, floods, and earthquakes.  Children under five are the most vulnerable, at risk of disease, malnutrition and violence.  In Kachin and northern Shan States an estimated 49% of internally displaced people are children.  IDP children may not have access to education, and proper health care and nutrition, and are at risk of being trafficked.
  36. 36. Principle 9 continued  Governments and development partners have the primary responsibility to provide humanitarian assistance.  However governments are increasingly calling on the private sector for support.  In Myanmar companies often make philanthropic donations of emergency supplies, clothes, food, water, and financial assistance.  After the 2015 floods, the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) produced advice to companies, including how to ‘do no harm’ and ‘build back better’.  In 2016 the UN worked with UMFCCI to encourage companies to create a Private Sector network for Disaster Risk Reduction, Preparedness, Response and Recovery.
  37. 37. Principle 9 – Recommendations to companies  Do not discriminate against any ethnic or religious group when donating goods and services.  Recognize that certain groups of children can be more vulnerable during emergencies, including those belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, children separated from their parents, unaccompanied children, and disabled children, and girls.  Follow MIMU advice, including building back better.  Aim to maintain affordable prices for food and other essential goods in short supply during emergencies.  Consider engaging in public-private partnerships with respected humanitarian agencies.
  38. 38. Principle 10 – Reinforcing community and government efforts ‘Reinforce community and government efforts to protect and fulfil children’s rights’  Over the last decades successive governments have spent very little on health, education, and social welfare, all key services for children.  While there have been budget increases in the areas over the last five years, Myanmar spends the least on education and health compared to the other nine ASEAN countries.  Myanmar is rich in non-renewable natural resources, which means that there is an intergenerational equity issue in depleting such resources.  In an innovative 2013 report, UNICEF linked revenues from natural resources to improving children’s well-being in Myanmar. For example only 0.87% of new natural gas revenues would cover the cost of all vaccines needed annually.  Beyond natural resources revenues, expanding the tax base would provide a more reliable and predictable source of revenue.
  39. 39. Principle 10 – Recommendations to Business  Pay all taxes, royalties, duties and other payments; consider disclosing the amount of tax paid and on any lobbying positions.  When undertaking social investment programs for children, partner with local government if possible rather than setting up parallel services. Approaches to community development which bypass local authorities may lead to duplication and confusion.  Consult with children when developing a community initiative.  Community investments should never be a payment for damage caused by a company; nor should they be used for marketing company products and services.
  40. 40. Thank you!

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