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  1. 1. Population pyramid
  2. 2. Pop Distribution <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the population distribution in ‘your continent’ </li></ul><ul><li>How is the world pop distributed on Earth? </li></ul>Hint: Text pg10-11 Keywords DENSELY populated , SPARSELY populated, MODERATELY populated
  3. 3. Important! Pop Density = Total Pop (No of people) Area (km ) 2 Class activity B 1. Calculate the pop density in your continents using the area as ‘1 chair = 1 sq km’ 2. Determine if your pop density is (a) Densely populated (b) Moderately populated (c) Sparsely populated And justify (explain) why Text page 11
  4. 4. Factors affecting Pop Density Text page 12 & 13 *Factors Industry, Agriculture, Commerce, Transport, Politics, Religion Relief, Climate, Soil, Mineral resources, vegetation Human & Economic factors Physical factors Decisions made by people (System of trade to bring in $) Natural features of the Earth Definition Stable government, Good railway system, Banking sector (jobs), farming Flat land, High temperate and rainfall *Factors that leads to high density Singapore, Hong Kong (High) Africa (Low), Antarctica (Low) Countries
  5. 5. Important! World Pop Growth Text pg 9 Qn: So what is natural decrease? Ans: BR is less than DR Average no of yrs person can expect to live Life expectancy No. of deaths per 1000 people in 1 year Death Rate (DR) No. of live births per 1000 people in 1 year Birth Rate (BR) BR - DR Natural Increase BR = DR Zero Pop Growth Total no of deaths in 1 yr for infant under 1 yrs old for every 1000 live birth Infant mortality rate
  6. 6. World population growth <ul><li>1. High Rate of Increase </li></ul><ul><li>High BR + High DR </li></ul><ul><li>Although DR is high, there is still a high increase because no. of BIRTHS > DEATHS </li></ul><ul><li>2. Low Rate of Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Low BR + Low DR </li></ul><ul><li>No of births are insufficient </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>High BR </li></ul>High DR Low BR Low DR
  8. 9. Case study
  9. 10. CAUSES - 208 Imagine that you are the character above. Suggest reasons that you have caused your country to have a high or low pop growth. Hint (Text book 17 & 23) Zhiyu and Si kai, Sock Hwee and Claudia, Jeszmin and Regina Zikri and Yun qiao, Dexuan and Gjorn, Shaoqi and Wenwei Students
  10. 11. A. Causes of HIGH rate of pop growth <ul><li>High BR </li></ul><ul><li>Early marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Children as wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Lack knowledge on birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for male children </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>High DR </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking health care services (Results in high infant mortality rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul>e.g. China, India, South America Newspaper – needle in girl brain
  11. 12. B. Causes of LOW rate of pop growth <ul><li>Low BR </li></ul><ul><li>Successful family planning programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Late marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer smaller families </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of living </li></ul><ul><li>Low DR </li></ul><ul><li>Medical advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy living </li></ul>e.g. Singapore, Japan, Canada, Sweden Newspaper : Singapore pop pyramid
  12. 13. CONSEQUENCES - 208 Imagine that you are the reporter above. Describe the situation that your country is in right now. Hint (Text book 17 & 23) Shuhui and James, Wendy and Ghim Boon, Bryan and Joshua Meici and Chee Yong, Jonathon and Yiwei, Jordon and Ming Hwee Students
  13. 14. Consequences <ul><li>C. High pop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of food </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on social services </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment & social problems </li></ul><ul><li>D. Low pop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Ageing pop </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing workforce (has to support more elderly) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Needs more medical and social services </li></ul>
  14. 15. RESPONSE/SOLUTION - 208 Imagine that you are the government minister above. Explain the policy that you have planned in response to the problem in your country. Hint (Text book 19 & 23) Geraldine and Weiting, Nina and Bella, Sally and Denise, Amerlyn and Priscillia Youngji and Iris, Kelvin and Weiming, Jun Hong and Jocelyn, Nabihah and Blessance, Gim Long and June Students
  15. 16. Response / Solution <ul><li>E. High pop growth </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Birth control & family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>$ incentives </li></ul><ul><li>F. Low pop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Tax rebate </li></ul><ul><li>Infant care subsidy eg baby bonus </li></ul><ul><li>Text pg 27 </li></ul>
  16. 17. Population Pyramid Old Young Working pop Important!
  17. 18. <ul><li>Contracting, Beehive shape </li></ul><ul><li>Contracting base, Large apex </li></ul><ul><li>Low BR & DR </li></ul><ul><li>Long life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding, Triangle Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Broad base, Narrow apex(top) </li></ul><ul><li>High BR & DR </li></ul><ul><li>Short life expectancy </li></ul>
  18. 20. Population Pyramid
  19. 22. All types of pyramid
  20. 23. Changing pyramid shape
  21. 24. Changes in 10 years
  22. 25. Changes for male and females in 1975 & 2005
  23. 26. Population Pyramid LDC DC Important!
  24. 27. Population pyramid MCQ 1. The population pyramid of country A suggests that the country should spend much of its income on A Conservation B Military Defense C School Education D Road Transport E Flats for retired people <ul><li>Ans = C </li></ul><ul><li>LDC has high % of young children , so should focus on the education development </li></ul><ul><li>The other needs are more prioritized in a DC </li></ul>
  25. 28. 2. Which of the following statement is true of Country A ? A There is a rapid rate of population growth B There is high male immigration C There is higher life expectancy for females D Most of the population are over 50 years of age <ul><li>Ans = A </li></ul><ul><li>LDC = high pop growth, DC = low pop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female pop are almost balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy = expected no of yrs of life (at a given age) </li></ul><ul><li>LDC has high DR, so low % of pop are over 50 yrs </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Which of the following best describes Country B ? </li></ul><ul><li>A Low birth rate, low death rate, decreasing population </li></ul><ul><li>B Low birth rate, high death rate, increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>C High birth rate, high death rate, decreasing population </li></ul><ul><li>D High birth rate, low death rate, no change in population </li></ul><ul><li>Ans = A </li></ul><ul><li>DC = Low BR & DR </li></ul><ul><li>LDC = High BR & DR </li></ul><ul><li>Natural increase = BR - DR </li></ul>
  27. 30. 4. For Country A and B , the ‘ dependent ’ population is represented by A Males & females aged 0-14 B Males & females aged 65 and above C Males & females aged 0-14 and above 65 D Males & females aged 15-64 <ul><li>Ans = C </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent population = people who are not working and relies on working pop </li></ul><ul><li>Young dependents = 0-14 </li></ul><ul><li>Old dependents = 65 and above </li></ul><ul><li>Include both males and females </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>  </li></ul>5. How does the population of Country A differ from the population of Country B? A It has a higher birth rate B It has a higher life expectancy C It has a smaller dependent population D It has more males than females <ul><li>Ans = A </li></ul><ul><li>LDC has high BR and DR </li></ul><ul><li>LDC has lower life expectancy because people do not live as long </li></ul><ul><li>LDC has higher dependent population (more young & old) </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females are almost balanced from diagram </li></ul>
  29. 32. Additional questions <ul><li>What is the total number of people on Earth today? </li></ul><ul><li>List the top 5 countries with the most number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Are there more girls or boys on earth ? </li></ul>
  30. 33. Additional questions <ul><li>What is the total number of people on Earth today? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: 6.8 million </li></ul><ul><li>List the top 5 countries with the most number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: China (1.3b), India (1.17b), US (0.3b), Indonesia (0.25b), Brazil (0.2b) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are there more girls or boys on earth ? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: More girls (live longer) </li></ul>