The Best Form of AthleticDevelopment for Children Emma Friend
Children’s Reasons for Participating in Sport• To have fun• To improve skills• To be with friends• To be part of a team• To experience excitement• To receive rewards• To win• To become physically fit (Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)
Côté - Developmental Model of Sports ParticipationEarly specialisation Early diversification1. The 1. The Sampling years specialising/investment years 2. The Specialising years 3. The investment years
6-12yrs Sampling Years • High levels of deliberate play • Low levels of deliberate practice • Participation in many sports • Often backyard sport • Relaxed rules
Côté - Developmental Model of Sports ParticipationEarly specialisation Early diversification1. The specialising years 1. The Sampling years 2a. The recreational years2. The investment years 2b. The Specialising years 3. The investment years
12+ yrs Recreational Years • Athlete decides not to pursue sport to an elite levels and instead participates at a recreational level • Still low levels of deliberate practice • But includes age-appropriate competition
13-15yrs Specialising Years • Fewer sports • Less deliberate play • More deliberate practice • High emphasis on skill development
16+ yrs Investment Years • Specialise on one distinct sport • High emphasis on performance • Sports and skill specific training
Balyi - Long Term Athlete DevelopmentEarly Specialisation Model Late Specialisation Model1. Training to train 1. Fundamentals2. Training to complete 2. Learning to train3. Training to win 3. Training to train 4. Training to complete4. Retirement/Retainment 5. Training to win 6. Retirement/Retainment
Boys: 6-9yrsGirls: 5-8yrs FUNdamentals • Participation in many sports • Fundamental skills and capabilities taught through fun games an activities
Boys: 9-12yrsGirls: 8-11yrs Learning to Train • Introduction of general sports skills • Develop knowledge of sports related areas such as warm-up and hydration. • Emphasis still largely on enjoyment
Boys: 12-16yrsGirls: 11-15yrs Training to Train • Overall development of athlete’s physical capabilities • Strong emphasis on sports specific skills • More competition specific training • Greater emphasis on competition
Boys: 16-18yrsGirls: 15-17yrs Training to Compete • Performance the key • Technical and tactical skills • Strong emphasis on competition • More attention played to other aspects of the sport
Boys: 18+ yrsGirls: 17+ yrs Training to Win • Performance major emphasis • Peaking for major competitions • Majority of training competition focused
Retirement/Retainment• Retaining athletes to be involved in sport through coaching, officiating or administration.
The Effects of Specialisation on Athletic Development
Physiological Perspective for Elite SuccessLate Specialisation• Increase in strength• Increase in speed and agility• Improved cardiovascular endurance• Improved gross motor coordination and balance
Physiological Perspective Cont.Early Specialisation• Increase risk of over training• Increase risk of over use injuries• Over training – may cause problems to growth, stunted growth, and problems with epithseal growth plates
Psychological PerspectiveLate Specialisation• Development of game sense• Development of automatic decision making• Fosters positive peer relationships• Development of life skills• Helps develop multiple coping strategies needed in different sports
Psychological PerspectiveEarly Specialisation• Decrease intrinsic motivation• Increase risk of dropout• Increase risk of athletic burnout
International AthletesPast research has found majority of elite athlete participated in a vary of sports through childhood
Summary• Reasons for participation• Côté - Developmental Model of Sports Participation• Balyi – Long Term Athlete Development Model• Physiological Perspective• Psychological Perspective
ConclusionAccording to the research we have viewed late specialisation appears to be more beneficial to athletic development from a physiological and psychological perceptive.
References• Bailey, R., Collins, D., Ford, P., Macnamara, Á., Toms, M. & Pearce G. (2010). Participant development in sport: An academic review. Pg101.• Baker, J. (2003). Early specialisation in youth sport: a requirement for adult expertise? High Ability Studies. 14(1)• Baker, J., Cobley, S. & Fraser-Thomas J. (2009). What do we know about early sport specialization? Not much. High Ability Studies. 20(1):77-90.• Baker, J., Cote, J. & Abernethy, B. (2003) Sport-specific practice and the development of expert decision-making in team ball sports. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology. 15(1):12-25.• Callender, S. (2010). The early specialisation of youths in sport. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care: The Journal for the Practicing Clinician. 2(6): 255-258.• Cote, J., Lidor, R. & Hackfort D. (2009). ISSP position stand: to sample or to specialise? Seven postulates about youth sport activities that lead to continued participation and elite performance. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology. 7(1):11-18.
References Continued• Fransen, J., Pion, J., Vandendriessche, J., Vandorpe, B., Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M. & Philippaerts, R. (2012). Differences in physical fitness and gross motor coordination in boys aged 6-12 years specializing in one verses sampling more than one sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. 30(4):379-387.• Stanlan, T. K., Babkes, M. I... & Scanlan, L. A, (2005), Participation in sport; A developmental glimpse at emotion. InJ. L. Mahoncy, R. W. Larson. &J.S, t*:cles (ííls.). Organized activities as contexts nf dn-elupmetit (pp. 275-.1Í0). Mahwah, NJ: Uiwc-rcnce Erlb.iums, Inc., Publishers.• Wankel, L. M. & Kreisel, P. S. J. (1985). Factors underlying enjoyment of youth sports: Sport and age group comparisons . Journal of Sports Psychology. 7:51-64.• Wiersma, L. (2000). Risks and benefits of youth sport specialisation: perspectives and recommendations. Pediatric Exercise Science. 12(1):13-22.• Yoo, |. (2001) CÀjping Protile of Korean Competitive Athletes. International Journal of Sport of Sport Psychology. 32 (2)0-03.
Picture ReferencesAll images were sourced via creative commonsPictures on title page• “Golf Thursdays” by chispita_666• “Sunny Saturday at the Park” by chispita_666• “Where Amazing Happens” by• “Silhouettes” by Tezza #